System logging is provided by a version of syslogd(8) derived from the stock BSD sources. Support for kernel logging is provided by the klogd(8) utility which allows kernel logging to be conducted in either a standalone fashion or as a client of syslogd.
Syslogd provides a kind of logging that many modern programs use. Every logged message contains at least a time and a hostname field, normally a program name field, too, but that depends on how trusty the logging program is.
While the syslogd sources have been heavily modified a couple of notes are in order. First of all there has been a systematic attempt to insure that syslogd follows its default, standard BSD behavior. The second important concept to note is that this version of syslogd interacts transparently with the version of syslog found in the standard libraries. If a binary linked to the standard shared libraries fails to function correctly we would like an example of the anomalous behavior.
The main configuration file /etc/syslog.conf or an alternative file, given with the -f option, is read at startup. Any lines that begin with the hash mark (#) and empty lines are ignored. If an error occurs during parsing the whole line is ignored.
|Using this argument you can specify additional sockets from that syslogd has to listen to. This is needed if youre going to let some daemon run within a chroot() environment. You can use up to 19 additional sockets. If your environment needs even more, you have to increase the symbol MAXFUNIX within the syslogd.c source file. An example for a chroot() daemon is described by the people from OpenBSD at http://www.psionic.com/papers/dns.html.|
|-d||Turns on debug mode. Using this the daemon will not proceed a fork(2) to set itself in the background, but opposite to that stay in the foreground and write much debug information on the current tty. See the DEBUGGING section for more information.|
|-f config file|
|Specify an alternative configuration file instead of /etc/syslog.conf, which is the default.|
|-h||By default syslogd will not forward messages it receives from remote hosts. Specifying this switch on the command line will cause the log daemon to forward any remote messages it receives to forwarding hosts which have been defined.|
|Specify a hostname that should be logged only with its simple hostname and not the fqdn. Multiple hosts may be specified using the colon (:) separator.|
|The syslogd logs a mark timestamp regularly. The default interval between two -- MARK -- lines is 20 minutes. This can be changed with this option. Setting the interval to zero turns it off entirely.|
|-n||Avoid auto-backgrounding. This is needed especially if the syslogd is started and controlled by init(8).|
|You can specify an alternative unix domain socket instead of /dev/log.|
This option will enable the facility to receive message from the
network using an internet domain socket with the syslog service (see
The default is to not receive any messages from the network.
This option is introduced in version 1.3 of the sysklogd package. Please note that the default behavior is the opposite of how older versions behave, so you might have to turn this on.
|Specify a domainname that should be stripped off before logging. Multiple domains may be specified using the colon (:) separator. Please be advised that no sub-domains may be specified but only entire domains. For example if -s north.de is specified and the host logging resolves to satu.infodrom.north.de no domain would be cut, you will have to specify two domains like: -s north.de:infodrom.north.de.|
|-S||Verbose logging. If specified once, the numeric facility and priority are logged with each locally-written message. If specified more than once, the names of the facility and priority are logged with each locally-written message.|
|-v||Print version and exit.|
|-x||Disable name lookups when receiving remote messages. This avoids deadlocks when the nameserver is running on the same machine that runs the syslog daemon.|
|SIGHUP||This lets syslogd perform a re-initialization. All open files are closed, the configuration file (default is /etc/syslog.conf) will be reread and the syslog(3) facility is started again.|
|The syslogd will die.|
|If debugging is enabled these are ignored, otherwise syslogd will die.|
|Switch debugging on/off. This option can only be used if syslogd is started with the -d debug option.|
|Wait for childs if some were born, because of walling messages.|
|For example the following line caused ALL output from daemons using the daemon facilities (debug is the lowest priority, so every higher will also match) to go into /usr/adm/daemons:|
Under the new scheme this behavior remains the same. The difference
is the addition of four new specifiers, the asterisk (*)
wildcard, the equation sign (=), the exclamation mark
(!), and the minus sign (-).
The * specifies that all messages for the specified facility are to be directed to the destination. Note that this behavior is degenerate with specifying a priority level of debug. Users have indicated that the asterisk notation is more intuitive.
The = wildcard is used to restrict logging to the specified priority class. This allows, for example, routing only debug messages to a particular logging source.
|For example the following line in syslog.conf would direct debug messages from all sources to the /usr/adm/debug file.|
|The ! is used to exclude logging of the specified priorities. This affects all (!) possibilities of specifying priorities.|
|For example the following lines would log all messages of the facility mail except those with the priority info to the /usr/adm/mail file. And all messages from news.info (including) to news.crit (excluding) would be logged to the /usr/adm/news file.|
to skip every message that comes with a mail facility. There is much room to play with it. :-)
The - may only be used to prefix a filename if you want to omit syncing the file after every write to it.
This may take some acclimatization for those individuals used to the pure BSD behavior but testers have indicated that this syntax is somewhat more flexible than the BSD behavior. Note that these changes should not affect standard syslog.conf(5) files. You must specifically modify the configuration files to obtain the enhanced behavior.
To enable this you have to specify the -r option on the command line. The default behavior is that syslogd wont listen to the network.
The strategy is to have syslogd listen on a unix domain socket for locally generated log messages. This behavior will allow syslogd to inter-operate with the syslog found in the standard C library. At the same time syslogd listens on the standard syslog port for messages forwarded from other hosts. To have this work correctly the services(5) files (typically found in /etc) must have the following entry:
If this entry is missing
syslogd neither can receive remote messages nor send them, because the UDP
port cant be opened. Instead
syslogd will die immediately, blowing out an error message.
To cause messages to be forwarded to another host replace the normal file line in the syslog.conf file with the name of the host to which the messages is to be sent prepended with an @.
|For example, to forward ALL messages to a remote host use the following syslog.conf entry:|
To forward all kernel messages to a remote host the configuration file would be as follows:
If the remote hostname cannot be resolved at startup, because the name-server might not be accessible (it may be started after syslogd) you dont have to worry. Syslogd will retry to resolve the name ten times and then complain. Another possibility to avoid this is to place the hostname in /etc/hosts.
With normal syslogds you would get syslog-loops if you send out messages that were received from a remote host to the same host (or more complicated to a third host that sends it back to the first one, and so on). In my domain (Infodrom Oldenburg) we accidently got one and our disks filled up with the same single message. :-(
To avoid this in further times no messages that were received from a remote host are sent out to another (or the same) remote host anymore. If there are scenarios where this doesnt make sense, please drop me (Joey) a line.
If the remote host is located in the same domain as the host, syslogd is running on, only the simple hostname will be logged instead of the whole fqdn.
In a local network you may provide a central log server to have all the important information kept on one machine. If the network consists of different domains you dont have to complain about logging fully qualified names instead of simple hostnames. You may want to use the strip-domain feature -s of this server. You can tell the syslogd to strip off several domains other than the one the server is located in and only log simple hostnames.
Using the -l option theres also a possibility to define single hosts as local machines. This, too, results in logging only their simple hostnames and not the fqdns.
The UDP socket used to forward messages to remote hosts or to receive messages from them is only opened when it is needed. In releases prior to 1.3-23 it was opened every time but not opened for reading or forwarding respectively.
|The following configuration file routes debug messages from the kernel to a fifo:|
This problem will typically manifest itself if old statically linked binaries are being used on the system. Binaries using old versions of the syslog function will cause empty lines to be logged followed by the message with the first character in the message removed. Relinking these binaries to newer versions of the shared libraries will correct this problem.
Both the syslogd(8) and the klogd(8) can either be run from init(8) or started as part of the rc.* sequence. If it is started from init the option -n must be set, otherwise youll get tons of syslog daemons started. This is because init(8) depends on the process ID.
There are a number of methods of protecting a machine:
|1.||Implement kernel firewalling to limit which hosts or networks have access to the 514/UDP socket.|
|2.||Logging can be directed to an isolated or non-root filesystem which, if filled, will not impair the machine.|
|3.||The ext2 filesystem can be used which can be configured to limit a certain percentage of a filesystem to usage by root only. NOTE that this will require syslogd to be run as a non-root process. ALSO NOTE that this will prevent usage of remote logging since syslogd will be unable to bind to the 514/UDP socket.|
|4.||Disabling inet domain sockets will limit risk to the local machine.|
Use step 4 and if the problem persists and is not secondary to a rogue
program/daemon get a 3.5 ft (approx. 1 meter) length of sucker rod*
and have a chat with the user in question.
Sucker rod def. 3/4, 7/8 or 1in. hardened steel rod, male threaded on each end. Primary use in the oil industry in Western North Dakota and other locations to pump suck oil from oil wells. Secondary uses are for the construction of cattle feed lots and for dealing with the occasional recalcitrant or belligerent individual.
|number||This field contains a serial number starting by zero. This number represents the position in the internal data structure (i.e. the array). If one number is left out then there might be an error in the corresponding line in /etc/syslog.conf.|
|This field is tricky and represents the internal structure exactly. Every column stands for a facility (refer to syslog(3)). As you can see, there are still some facilities left free for former use, only the left most are used. Every field in a column represents the priorities (refer to syslog(3)).|
|action||This field describes the particular action that takes place whenever a message is received that matches the pattern. Refer to the syslog.conf(5) manpage for all possible actions.|
|This field shows additional arguments to the actions in the last field. For file-logging this is the filename for the logfile; for user-logging this is a list of users; for remote logging this is the hostname of the machine to log to; for console-logging this is the used console; for tty-logging this is the specified tty; wall has no additional arguments.|
|Configuration file for syslogd. See syslog.conf(5) for exact information.|
|The Unix domain socket to from where local syslog messages are read.|
|The file containing the process id of syslogd.|
Syslogd doesnt change the filemode of opened logfiles at any stage of process. If a file is created it is world readable. If you want to avoid this, you have to create it and change permissions on your own. This could be done in combination with rotating logfiles using the savelog(8) program that is shipped in the smail 3.x distribution. Remember that it might be a security hole if everybody is able to read auth.* messages as these might contain passwords.
Dr. Greg Wettstein
Enjellic Systems Development
Oncology Research Division Computing Facility
Roger Maris Cancer Center
Department of Computer Science
Edinburgh University, Scotland