Why and how are Python functions hashable?

Rajendra Dharmkar
Updated on 29-Mar-2023 19:35:14
An object is said to be hashable if it has a hash value that remains the same during its lifetime. It has a __hash__() method and it can be compared to other objects. For this, it needs the __eq__() or __cmp__()method. If hashable objects are equal when compared, then they have same hash value.Being hashable renders an object usable as a dictionary key and a set member as these data structures use hash values internally.All immutable built-in objects in python are hashable. Mutable containers like lists and dictionaries are not hashable while immutable container tuple is hashableObjects which are instances ... Read More

How to access Python objects within objects in Python?

Rajendra Dharmkar
Updated on 29-Mar-2023 19:32:21
In Python, it's common to have objects within objects. To access objects within objects, you can use the dot notation. Let's take a look at an example. Example 1 class Person: def __init__(self, name, age): self.name = name self.age = age self.address = Address("123 Main St", "Anytown", "USA") class Address: def __init__(self, street, city, country): self.street ... Read More

Myelocyte - A Cell of Granulocytic Series

Anusha Karthik
Updated on 29-Mar-2023 18:08:20
Introduction Blood is a vital component of the human body, transporting oxygen and nutrients throughout the body and removing waste products. It is a complex mixture of different types of cells and plasma, which work together to maintain homeostasis. White blood cells, also known as leukocytes, play a crucial role in the body’s immune system. They help defend the body against infections and other foreign invaders. One of the types of leukocytes is the myelocyte. It is a cell of the granulocytic series and is one of the stages of the maturation of neutrophils. Myelocytes are a critical part ... Read More

MHC class II - Structure, Synthesis and Significance

Anusha Karthik
Updated on 29-Mar-2023 18:00:59
Introduction The Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) is a group of genes that encode for cell-surface proteins involved in antigen presentation to the immune system. These proteins are classified into two groups: MHC class I and MHC class II. MHC class II molecules are found primarily on antigen-presenting cells (APCs), such as dendritic cells, macrophages, and B cells. They play a critical role in initiating and regulating adaptive immune responses by presenting exogenous antigens to CD4+ T cells. Structure of MHC class II Molecules MHC class II molecules are heterodimers consisting of two chains: alpha and beta. The alpha ... Read More

Megakaryocytes - Development, Function, and Clinical Significance

Anusha Karthik
Updated on 29-Mar-2023 17:56:03
Introduction Megakaryocytes are large cells found in the bone marrow that are responsible for producing platelets, which are essential for blood clotting. They are named for their large size, with a diameter ranging from 30 to 100 micrometers, and are classified as a type of hematopoietic cell, meaning they originate from stem cells in the bone marrow. Megakaryocytes are large, multinucleated cells that are responsible for producing platelets, which are essential for coagulation of blood. They are unique among bone marrow cells due to their enormous size, and their ability to undergo endomitosis, where they replicate their DNA without cell ... Read More

Mechanism and Significance of Memory B Cells

Anusha Karthik
Updated on 29-Mar-2023 17:46:19
Introduction The human immune system is a complex network of cells and molecules that work together to defend the body against harmful pathogens. One of the key components of the immune system is memory B cells, which are responsible for the long-term immune response to infectious agents. Memory B cells are the vital components of the adaptive immune system, allowing the body to mount a faster and more effective immune response upon exposure to the same pathogen in the future. Mechanism of Memory B cells B cells are a type of white blood cell that are part ... Read More

What does built-in class attribute __bases__ do in Python?

Rajendra Dharmkar
Updated on 29-Mar-2023 17:45:16
In Python, the built-in class attribute __bases__ is used to get the tuple of base classes of a class. When you define a new class in Python, you can specify one or more base classes from which the new class will inherit. The base classes are specified in parentheses after the class name, like this: class ChildClass(BaseClass1, BaseClass2): # class definition goes here In this example, the ChildClass inherits from BaseClass1 and BaseClass2, which are called the base classes of ChildClass. The __bases__ attribute is a tuple that contains the base classes of a class. ... Read More

Major Histocompatibility Complex and MHC Molecules

Anusha Karthik
Updated on 29-Mar-2023 17:38:42
Introduction The Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) is a group of genes located on chromosome 6 in humans that encode for MHC molecules. These molecules are essential for the immune system to identify and respond to foreign invaders such as viruses, bacteria, and other pathogens. The MHC plays a crucial role in determining the compatibility of transplants and is also implicated in a wide range of diseases, including autoimmune disorders and cancer. Below we shall explore the MHC in detail, discussing its structure, function, and importance in immunology. Structure of MHC Molecules The MHC is divided into two classes: ... Read More

What are base overloading methods in Python?

Rajendra Dharmkar
Updated on 29-Mar-2023 17:36:50
In Python, base overloading methods are the methods that we can override in the derived class to change the behavior of the object. The base overloading methods are pre-defined special methods in Python that can be used to define how operators and built-in functions should work on user-defined classes. By overloading these methods, we can customize the behavior of our objects and make them work as per our requirements. Example: Overloading the __add__() method The __add__() method is used to overload the addition operator (+) in Python. By overloading this method, we can add two objects of our class ... Read More

Life Cycle of Dendritic Cells: Types and Disease

Anusha Karthik
Updated on 29-Mar-2023 17:30:27
Introduction Dendritic cells (DCs) are a type of immune cell that play a critical role in the immune system. They are responsible for identifying, capturing, processing, and presenting antigens to T cells. DCs are found in most tissues of the body, including lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues, and are critical for the initiation and regulation of immune responses. This tutorial will explore the life cycle of dendritic cells, their different types, and their role in various diseases. Dendritic Cell Presenting Antigen to T-Cell Life Cycle of Dendritic Cells Dendritic cells are derived from hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow. ... Read More
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