Mechanism and Significance of Memory B Cells

Anusha Karthik
Updated on 29-Mar-2023 17:46:19
Introduction The human immune system is a complex network of cells and molecules that work together to defend the body against harmful pathogens. One of the key components of the immune system is memory B cells, which are responsible for the long-term immune response to infectious agents. Memory B cells are the vital components of the adaptive immune system, allowing the body to mount a faster and more effective immune response upon exposure to the same pathogen in the future. Mechanism of Memory B cells B cells are a type of white blood cell that are part ... Read More

What does built-in class attribute __bases__ do in Python?

Rajendra Dharmkar
Updated on 29-Mar-2023 17:45:16
In Python, the built-in class attribute __bases__ is used to get the tuple of base classes of a class. When you define a new class in Python, you can specify one or more base classes from which the new class will inherit. The base classes are specified in parentheses after the class name, like this: class ChildClass(BaseClass1, BaseClass2): # class definition goes here In this example, the ChildClass inherits from BaseClass1 and BaseClass2, which are called the base classes of ChildClass. The __bases__ attribute is a tuple that contains the base classes of a class. ... Read More

Major Histocompatibility Complex and MHC Molecules

Anusha Karthik
Updated on 29-Mar-2023 17:38:42
Introduction The Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) is a group of genes located on chromosome 6 in humans that encode for MHC molecules. These molecules are essential for the immune system to identify and respond to foreign invaders such as viruses, bacteria, and other pathogens. The MHC plays a crucial role in determining the compatibility of transplants and is also implicated in a wide range of diseases, including autoimmune disorders and cancer. Below we shall explore the MHC in detail, discussing its structure, function, and importance in immunology. Structure of MHC Molecules The MHC is divided into two classes: ... Read More

What are base overloading methods in Python?

Rajendra Dharmkar
Updated on 29-Mar-2023 17:36:50
In Python, base overloading methods are the methods that we can override in the derived class to change the behavior of the object. The base overloading methods are pre-defined special methods in Python that can be used to define how operators and built-in functions should work on user-defined classes. By overloading these methods, we can customize the behavior of our objects and make them work as per our requirements. Example: Overloading the __add__() method The __add__() method is used to overload the addition operator (+) in Python. By overloading this method, we can add two objects of our class ... Read More

Life Cycle of Dendritic Cells: Types and Disease

Anusha Karthik
Updated on 29-Mar-2023 17:30:27
Introduction Dendritic cells (DCs) are a type of immune cell that play a critical role in the immune system. They are responsible for identifying, capturing, processing, and presenting antigens to T cells. DCs are found in most tissues of the body, including lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues, and are critical for the initiation and regulation of immune responses. This tutorial will explore the life cycle of dendritic cells, their different types, and their role in various diseases. Dendritic Cell Presenting Antigen to T-Cell Life Cycle of Dendritic Cells Dendritic cells are derived from hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow. ... Read More

Follicular B Helper T Cells and Their Function

Anusha Karthik
Updated on 29-Mar-2023 17:11:32
Introduction Within the T cell population, a specific subset known as follicular B helper T cells (Tfh cells) play a crucial role in the formation and function of germinal centers, which are critical for the development of high-affinity antibodies. The immune system plays a critical role in protecting the body from infectious agents and other harmful pathogens. T cells are an essential component of the immune system and are involved in a wide range of functions, including recognizing, and responding to foreign antigens. Overview of Tfh cells Follicular B helper T cells (Tfh cells) are a specialized subset of ... Read More

Clonal Deletion: Complete vs Incomplete Deletion

Anusha Karthik
Updated on 29-Mar-2023 17:05:40
Introduction Clonal deletion is a critical process in the development and regulation of the immune system. It is the process by which the body's immune system eliminates self-reactive lymphocytes, which can potentially cause autoimmune diseases. Clonal deletion is a complex process, and there are two types of clonal deletion: complete and incomplete deletion. In this tutorial, we will discuss the differences between complete and incomplete deletion, their mechanisms, and their importance in the immune system. Complete Clonal Deletion Complete clonal deletion, also known as negative selection, is the process by which self-reactive lymphocytes are eliminated from the immune system. ... Read More

Bursa of Fabricius: Site of Hematopoiesis in Birds

Anusha Karthik
Updated on 29-Mar-2023 16:56:50
Introduction The Bursa of Fabricius, also known as the Bursa cloacae or simply the Bursa, is a unique organ found only in birds. It is located in the cloaca, which is the common opening for the digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems in birds. The Bursa is an important site of hematopoiesis in birds, meaning that it is responsible for the production of blood cells. The Bursa was first described by the Italian anatomist Hieronymus Fabricius ab Aquapendente in the late 16th century. Fabricius was studying the anatomy of chickens when he discovered this small, pear-shaped organ in the wall of ... Read More

Antigen Presentation: A Vital Immune Process

Anusha Karthik
Updated on 29-Mar-2023 16:45:31
Introduction The human immune system is an incredibly complex and powerful mechanism, capable of detecting and defending against a vast array of potential threats. At the heart of this system are specialized cells called T cells and B cells, which are capable of recognizing specific foreign molecules known as antigens. Antigen presentation is a crucial process that allows these immune cells to recognize and respond to antigens. This article will explore the mechanisms of antigen presentation and its importance in the immune system's function. What is Antigen Presentation? Antigen presentation is the process by which specialized immune cells present ... Read More

Accessory Cell or Antigen Presenting Cell (APC)

Anusha Karthik
Updated on 29-Mar-2023 16:35:45
Introduction Antigen presenting cells (APCs) are a crucial part of the immune system. They play a crucial role in initiating and regulating immune responses by presenting foreign antigens to immune cells. Accessory cells, also known as antigen-presenting cells, are a subset of immune cells that play an essential role in the immune response. Below we shall discuss in detail the accessory cell or antigen-presenting cell (APC). Dendritic Cell Presenting Antigen to T-helper Cell Overview of Accessory Cells Accessory cells or antigen-presenting cells (APCs) are a group of immune cells that are responsible for presenting antigens to T-cells. They play ... Read More
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