Reasoning - Statement and Conclusions


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Statement and conclusion is basically a logical reasoning section. In this section, a statement will be given followed by a set of conclusions. You need to choose the conclusion that logically follows the statement the most. Sometimes the conclusions can be directly understood by reading the statement and sometimes the reader needs to analyse it to get the indirect conclusion. Sometimes any one of the conclusion may follow and sometimes all may follow. It may also happen that either one of them follow or none of them follow. It depends upon the reader’s perception power to analyse the statements to arrive at the right conclusion.

For Example

Statement − An apple a day, keeps the doctor away.

Conclusions

I. Apple is good for health.

II. Orange is better than apple.

A - Only conclusion I is valid.

B - Only conclusion II is valid.

C - Either conclusion I or II is valid.

D - Neither conclusion I nor II is valid.

E - Both the conclusions are valid.

Explanation − Here the statement is saying about the positive effect of eating an apple on our health. So definitely eating apple is good for our health. But nothing in the statement has been told about the benefits of the orange. Also we do not know about the comparison of benefits between orange and apple. Hence here only first conclusion is valid one. So our answer is option A.

Note

  • While solving this type of problems, we have to assume whatever has been told in the statement is true. For instance, in the above example if it would have been told that “A cup of tea keeps the doctor away”, for us this would be the true statement.

  • Do not assume anything outside the given statement. That means while solving the above example, we encountered a statement “Orange is better than apple”. May be it is true but for us it is not. This is because nothing has been told about orange in the given statement. So we cannot assume it as true sentence.

Direct Conclusion

Some conclusions can be directly referred from the given statement. You need only to read them with a little bit of attention. These types of statements are generally termed as direct conclusion statements. Let’s take an example to understand it in a much better way.

Statement − Ram is the only son of Suresh and Mina.

Conclusions

I. Suresh and Mina have one son.

II. Ram has one sister.

A - Only conclusion I is valid.

B - Only conclusion II is valid.

C - Either conclusion I or II is valid.

D - Neither conclusion I nor II is valid.

E - Both the conclusions are valid.

Explanation − Now just look at the statement which tells that the Ram is the only son of their parents. This means that he has obviously no brothers. So the direct conclusion is I. On the other hand, we do not have any idea about the sister of the Ram. Hence II conclusion may or may not be true. So the answer is option A.

Indirect Conclusion

Here the reader is expected to understand the given statement and to judge the conclusion according to their closeness with the given statement. A careful reading and correct logical approach is what needed to solve this type of problems. Let’s take an example to understand it in a much better way.

Statement − Panel has decided to shortlist those candidates having min first division (60%) throughout their career. Meena has secured 65% in 10th and 59% in 12th. She graduated with 85% percentage.

Conclusions

I. Meena will be shortlisted.

II. Meena will not be shortlisted.

Explanation − Here we have to carefully arrive at the conclusion. Meena has secured more than 60% in both graduation and 10th. However; her 12th percentage is not above 60%. So, she will not be shortlisted. In this we derived the conclusion indirectly but you can see it is not that much difficult.

Let’s see various cases in which different types of the above options will be our answers. For easy understanding, we will try to analyse with a common example.

Case-1 (Only conclusion I is valid)

Statement − If you work hard and consistently, you will pass the exam.

Conclusions

I. Hard work and consistency is required to pass an exam.

II. Without hard work there is a possibility of passing an exam.

Explanation − Here we can clearly see that the conclusion I can be directly derived from the given statement but nothing can be particularly said about the II conclusion. Hence in this case only conclusion I is valid.

Case-2 (Only Conclusion II is valid)

Statement − If you work hard and consistently, you will pass the exam.

Conclusions

I. Deep concentration power is also required to pass the exam.

II. Ravi is working hard and consistently, this time he will pass.

Explanation − Nothing has been told about the deep concentration in the given statement. Hence that is out of our discussion and this conclusion is not valid as per given statement. However, conclusion II is an indirect conclusion that can be referred from the statement. Hence only conclusion II is valid.

Case-3 (Either conclusion I or II is valid)

Statement − You work hard and consistently, you will pass the exam.

Conclusions

I. Ravi is working hard and he is consistent too. He will pass the exam.

II. Ravi is not working hard and neither he is consistent; he is going to fail in the exam.

Explanation − Here with a careful reading one can understand that either of the two conclusions can happen but not both. Either Ravi will work hard and will be consistent, or else he will be not. So clearly our answer will be either conclusion I or II is valid.

Case-4 (Neither conclusion I nor II is valid)

Statement − You work hard and consistently, you will pass the exam.

Conclusions

I. Concentration power is required to pass the exam.

II. Minimum 10 min yoga is necessary to increase the concentration power.

Explanation − Here both the conclusions are irrelevant with respect to the given statement. Hence neither of the conclusions are valid.

Case-5 (Both the conclusions will follow)

Statement − You work hard and consistently, you will pass the exam.

Conclusions

I. Working hard is necessary to pass the exam.

II. Consistency is required to pass the exam.

Explanation − Both the conclusions are already derived from the given statement. Hence here both the conclusions are valid.



reasoning_statement_and_conclusions.htm
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