- Trending Categories
- Data Structure
- Networking
- RDBMS
- Operating System
- Java
- iOS
- HTML
- CSS
- Android
- Python
- C Programming
- C++
- C#
- MongoDB
- MySQL
- Javascript
- PHP

- Selected Reading
- UPSC IAS Exams Notes
- Developer's Best Practices
- Questions and Answers
- Effective Resume Writing
- HR Interview Questions
- Computer Glossary
- Who is Who

# Explain non-deterministic push down automata in TOC?

The Non-deterministic Push down Automata (NPDAs) are like finite automata (FA), except they also have a stack memory where they can store an arbitrary amount of information.

Read/write stack memory works as LIFO: Last In, First Out

**What can we do with a stack?**

The pop operation reads the top symbol and removes it from the stack, the push operation writes a designated symbol onto the top of the stack, e.g. push(X) means put X on top of the stack, the nop operation does nothing to the stack.

The stack symbols are different from the “language” alphabet used on the input tape.

We start with the following −

With only the initial stack symbol on the stack, (nothing else on the stack!) in the start state of the control automaton.

At each step, the state, input element and top symbol in the stack determine the next step (transition).

**One transition step includes the following −**

Change the state, (as FA).

Reading of a symbol from the input tape and moving to the next right symbol,(as FA).

Change the stack (pushing a symbol onto the stack/popping a symbol of the stack/no changes to the stack).

Transition steps are formally defined by transition functions (often in the form of the transition instructions).

**NPDA can be described as the following −**

A finite set Q of states (& the start state & the set of accepting/final states).

A finite set ∑ which is called the input alphabet.

A finite set Γ which is called the stack alphabet (& the initial stack symbol $).

A finite set of transition instructions (or a transition function T).

T : Q × ∑ ∪ {∧} × Γ → Γ* × Q

Or it is represented by ‘transition’ diagram as given below −

- Related Questions & Answers
- Explain Non-Deterministic Finite Automata in TOC.
- Explain if the CFG is recognized by Non-deterministic push down automata
- Explain Deterministic Finite Automata in TOC.
- What is Push down automata in TOC?
- Compare Push down automata and Linear bounded automata
- What is Non deterministic finite automata?
- Can we convert a non-deterministic finite automata into a deterministic finite Automata?
- What is Non-Deterministic Finite Automata (NFA)?
- Explain about a non-deterministic Turing Machine?
- Explain the various applications of automata in TOC
- How to convert context free grammar to push down automata?
- What is Deterministic Finite Automata (DFA)?
- Difference between Deterministic and Non-deterministic Algorithms
- Distinguish between non-deterministic, deterministic and Turing Machine computational models?
- What is Linear bounded automata in TOC?