During Test design stage, test cases are written such that each case has an expected or predicted outcome against which the actual outcomes are compared. The deviation, if any, is known as defect.
In short after getting the predicted outcome, should be documented before executing the tests and also known as Expected Results.
While developing the test cases, we usually have the following fields:
Let us say that we need to check an input field that can accept maximum of 10 characters.
While developing the test cases for the above scenario, the test cases are documented the following way. In the below example the first case is a pass scenario while the second case is a FAIL.
|Scenario||Test Step||Predicted Outcome||Actual Outcome|
|Verify that the input field that can accept maximum of 10 characters||Login to application and key in 10 characters||Application should be able to accept all 10 characters.||Application accepts all 10 characters.|
|Verify that the input field that can accept maximum of 11 characters||Login to application and key in 11 characters||Application should NOT accept all 11 characters.||Application accepts all 10 characters.|
If the expected/predicted result doesn't match with the actual result, then we log a defect. The defect goes through the defect life cycle and the testers address the same after fix.
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