JavaFX - 3D Shapes


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In the earlier chapters, we have seen how to draw 2D shapes on an XY plane. In addition to these 2D shapes, we can draw several other 3D shapes as well using JavaFX.

3D Shape

In general, a 3D shape is a geometrical figure that can be drawn on the XYZ plane. These include a Cylinder, Sphere and a Box.

Each of the above mentioned 3D shape is represented by a class and all these classes belong to the package javafx.scene.shape. The class named Shape3D is the base class of all the 3-Dimensional shapes in JavaFX.

Creating a 3D Shape

To create a 3-Dimensional shape, you need to −

  • Instantiate the respective class of the required 3D shape.

  • Set the properties of the 3D shape.

  • Add the 3D shape object to the group.

Instantiating the Respective Class

To create a 3-Dimensional shape, first of all you need to instantiate its respective class. For example, if you want to create a 3D box, you need to instantiate the class named Box as follows −

Box box = new Box();

Setting the Properties of the Shape

After instantiating the class, you need to set the properties for the shape using the setter methods.

For example, to draw a 3D box you need to pass its Width, Height, Depth. You can specify these values using their respective setter methods as follows −

//Setting the properties of the Box 
box.setWidth(200.0); 
box.setHeight(400.0);   
box.setDepth(200.0);

Adding the Shape Object to the Group

Finally, you need to add the object of the shape to the group by passing it as a parameter of the constructor as shown below.

//Creating a Group object  
Group root = new Group(box);

The following table gives you the list of various 3D shapes provided by JavaFX.

S.No Shape & Description
1 Box

A cuboid is a three-dimensional shape with a length (depth), width, and a height.

In JavaFX a three-dimensional box is represented by a class named Box. This class belongs to the package javafx.scene.shape.

By instantiating this class, you can create a Box node in JavaFX.

This class has 3 properties of the double datatype namely −

  • width − The width of the box.

  • height − The height of the box.

  • depth − The depth of the box.

2 Cylinder

A cylinder is a closed solid that has two parallel (mostly circular) bases connected by a curved surface.

It is described by two parameters, namely, the radius of its circular base and the height of the cylinder.

In JavaFX, a cylinder is represented by a class named Cylinder. This class belongs to the package javafx.scene.shape.

By instantiating this class, you can create a cylinder node in JavaFX. This class has 2 properties of the double datatype namely −

  • height − The height of the Cylinder.

  • radius − The radius of the Cylinder.

3 Sphere

A sphere is defined as the set of points that are all at the same distance r from a given point in a 3D space. This distance r is the radius of the sphere and the given point is the centre of the sphere.

In JavaFX, a sphere is represented by a class named Sphere. This class belongs to the package javafx.scene.shape.

By instantiating this class, you can create a sphere node in JavaFX.

This class has a property named radius of double datatype. It represents the radius of a Sphere.

Properties of 3D Objects

For all the 3 Dimensional objects, you can set various properties like Cull Face, Drawing Mode, Material.

The following section discusses the properties of 3D objects.

Cull Face

In general, culling is the removal of improperly oriented parts of a shape (which are not visible in the view area).

The Cull Face property is of the type CullFace and it represents the Cull Face of a 3D shape. You can set the Cull Face of a shape using the method setCullFace() as shown below −

box.setCullFace(CullFace.NONE);

The stroke type of a shape can be −

  • None − No culling is performed (CullFace.NONE).

  • Front − All the front facing polygons are culled. (CullFace.FRONT).

  • Back − All the back facing polygons are culled. (StrokeType.BACK).

By default, the cull face of a 3-Dimensional shape is Back.

Example

The following program is an example which demonstrates various cull faces of the sphere. Save this code in a file with the name SphereCullFace.java.

import javafx.application.Application; 
import javafx.scene.Group; 
import javafx.scene.Scene; 
import javafx.scene.shape.CullFace; 
import javafx.stage.Stage; 
import javafx.scene.shape.Sphere; 
         
public class SphereCullFace extends Application { 
   @Override 
   public void start(Stage stage) { 
      //Drawing Sphere1 
      Sphere sphere1 = new Sphere();
      
      //Setting the radius of the Sphere 
      sphere1.setRadius(50.0);   
      
      //Setting the position of the sphere 
      sphere1.setTranslateX(100); 
      sphere1.setTranslateY(150); 
      
      //setting the cull face of the sphere to front 
      sphere1.setCullFace(CullFace.FRONT); 
       
      //Drawing Sphere2 
      Sphere sphere2 = new Sphere(); 
      
      //Setting the radius of the Sphere 
      sphere2.setRadius(50.0);   
      
      //Setting the position of the sphere 
      sphere2.setTranslateX(300);  
      sphere2.setTranslateY(150); 
      
      //Setting the cull face of the sphere to back 
      sphere2.setCullFace(CullFace.BACK); 
             
      //Drawing Sphere3 
      Sphere sphere3 = new Sphere(); 
      
      //Setting the radius of the Sphere 
      sphere3.setRadius(50.0);   
      
      //Setting the position of the sphere 
      sphere3.setTranslateX(500); 
      sphere3.setTranslateY(150); 
      
      //Setting the cull face of the sphere to none 
      sphere2.setCullFace(CullFace.NONE);          
       
      //Creating a Group object  
      Group root = new Group(sphere1, sphere2, sphere3); 
         
      //Creating a scene object 
      Scene scene = new Scene(root, 600, 300);  
      
      //Setting title to the Stage
      stage.setTitle("Drawing a Sphere"); 
         
      //Adding scene to the stage 
      stage.setScene(scene); 
         
      //Displaying the contents of the stage 
      stage.show(); 
   } 
   public static void main(String args[]){ 
      launch(args); 
   } 
}

Compile and execute the saved Java file from the command prompt using the following commands.

javac SphereCullFace.java 
java SphereCullFace 

On executing, the above program generates a JavaFX window displaying three spheres with cull face values FRONT, BACK and NONE respectively as follows −

Cull Faces

Drawing Modes

It is the property is of the type DrawMode and it represents the drawing mode used to draw the current 3D shape. You can choose the draw mode to draw a 3D shape using the method setDrawMode () as follows −

box.setDrawMode(DrawMode.FILL); 

In JavaFX, you can choose two draw modes to draw a 3D shape, which are −

  • Fill − This mode draws and fills a 2D shape (DrawMode.FILL).

  • Line − This mode draws a 3D shape using lines (DrawMode.LINE).

By default, the drawing mode of a 3Dimensional shape is fill.

Example

The following program is an example which demonstrates various draw modes of a 3D box. Save this code in a file with the name BoxDrawMode.java.

import javafx.application.Application; 
import javafx.scene.Group; 
import javafx.scene.PerspectiveCamera; 
import javafx.scene.Scene;  
import javafx.scene.shape.Box; 
import javafx.scene.shape.DrawMode; 
import javafx.stage.Stage; 
         
public class BoxDrawMode extends Application { 
   @Override 
   public void start(Stage stage) { 
      //Drawing a Box 
      Box box1 = new Box(); 
      
      //Setting the properties of the Box 
      box1.setWidth(100.0); 
      box1.setHeight(100.0);   
      box1.setDepth(100.0); 
      
      //Setting the position of the box 
      box1.setTranslateX(200); 
      box1.setTranslateY(150); 
      box1.setTranslateZ(0);
      
      //Setting the drawing mode of the box 
      box1.setDrawMode(DrawMode.LINE); 
       
      //Drawing a Box 
      Box box2 = new Box(); 
      
      //Setting the properties of the Box 
      box2.setWidth(100.0); 
      box2.setHeight(100.0);   
      box2.setDepth(100.0); 
      
      //Setting the position of the box 
      box2.setTranslateX(450); //450 
      box2.setTranslateY(150);//150 
      box2.setTranslateZ(300); 
  
      //Setting the drawing mode of the box 
      box2.setDrawMode(DrawMode.FILL);     
         
      //Creating a Group object   
      Group root = new Group(box1, box2); 
         
      //Creating a scene object 
      Scene scene = new Scene(root, 600, 300); 
       
      //Setting camera 
      PerspectiveCamera camera = new PerspectiveCamera(false); 
      camera.setTranslateX(0); 
      camera.setTranslateY(0); 
      camera.setTranslateZ(0); 
      scene.setCamera(camera);  
      
      //Setting title to the Stage 
      stage.setTitle("Drawing a Box"); 
         
      //Adding scene to the stage 
      stage.setScene(scene);
      
      //Displaying the contents of the stage 
      stage.show(); 
   }      
   public static void main(String args[]){ 
      launch(args); 
   } 
}

Compile and execute the saved java file from the command prompt using the following commands.

javac BoxDrawMode.java 
java BoxDrawMode 

On executing, the above program generates a JavaFX window displaying two boxes with draw mode values LINE and FILL respectively, as follows −

Drawing Modes

Material

The cull Face property is of the type Material and it is used to choose the surface of the material of a 3D shape. You can set the material of a 3D shape using the method setCullFace() as follows −

cylinder.setMaterial(material);

As mentioned above for this method, you need to pass an object of the type Material. The PhongMaterial class of the package javafx.scene.paint is a sub class of this class and provides 7 properties that represent a Phong shaded material. You can apply all these type of materials to the surface of a 3D shape using the setter methods of these properties.

Following are the type of materials that are available in JavaFX −

  • bumpMap − This represents a normal map stored as a RGB Image.

  • diffuseMap − This represents a diffuse map.

  • selfIlluminationMap − This represents a self-illumination map of this PhongMaterial.

  • specularMap − This represents a specular map of this PhongMaterial.

  • diffuseColor − This represents a diffuse color of this PhongMaterial.

  • specularColor − This represents a specular color of this PhongMaterial.

  • specularPower − This represents a specular power of this PhongMaterial.

By default, the material of a 3-Dimensional shape is a PhongMaterial with a diffuse color of light gray.

Example

Following is an example which displays various materials on the cylinder. Save this code in a file with the name CylinderMaterials.java.

import javafx.application.Application; 
import javafx.scene.Group; 
import javafx.scene.PerspectiveCamera; 
import javafx.scene.Scene; 
import javafx.scene.image.Image; 
import javafx.scene.paint.Color; 
import javafx.scene.paint.PhongMaterial; 
import javafx.scene.shape.Cylinder; 
import javafx.stage.Stage;

public class CylinderMaterials extends Application {  
   @Override 
   public void start(Stage stage) { 
      //Drawing Cylinder1 
      Cylinder cylinder1 = new Cylinder();         
   
      //Setting the properties of the Cylinder 
      cylinder1.setHeight(130.0f); 
      cylinder1.setRadius(30.0f);   
     
      //Setting the position of the Cylinder 
      cylinder1.setTranslateX(100); 
      cylinder1.setTranslateY(75); 
        
      //Preparing the phong material of type bump map  
      PhongMaterial material1 = new PhongMaterial();  
      material1.setBumpMap(new Image
         ("http://www.tutorialspoint.com/images/tplogo.gif"));   
      
      //Setting the bump map material to Cylinder1 
      cylinder1.setMaterial(material1);    
       
      //Drawing Cylinder2 
      Cylinder cylinder2 = new Cylinder();         
      
      //Setting the properties of the Cylinder 
      cylinder2.setHeight(130.0f); 
      cylinder2.setRadius(30.0f);   
      
      //Setting the position of the Cylinder 
      cylinder2.setTranslateX(200); 
      cylinder2.setTranslateY(75); 
       
      //Preparing the phong material of type diffuse map 
      PhongMaterial material2 = new PhongMaterial();
      material2.setDiffuseMap(new Image
         ("http://www.tutorialspoint.com/images/tp-logo.gif")); 
      
      //Setting the diffuse map material to Cylinder2 
      cylinder2.setMaterial(material2);         
       
      //Drawing Cylinder3 
      Cylinder cylinder3 = new Cylinder();         
      
      //Setting the properties of the Cylinder 
      cylinder3.setHeight(130.0f); 
      cylinder3.setRadius(30.0f);   
  
      //Setting the position of the Cylinder 
      cylinder3.setTranslateX(300); 
      cylinder3.setTranslateY(75); 
       
      //Preparing the phong material of type Self Illumination Map 
      PhongMaterial material3 = new PhongMaterial();  
      material3.setSelfIlluminationMap(new Image
         ("http://www.tutorialspoint.com/images/tp-logo.gif"));  
      
      //Setting the Self Illumination Map material to Cylinder3 
      cylinder3.setMaterial(material3);  
       
      //Drawing Cylinder4 
      Cylinder cylinder4 = new Cylinder();         
      
      //Setting the properties of the Cylinder 
      cylinder4.setHeight(130.0f); 
      cylinder4.setRadius(30.0f);   
      
      //Setting the position of the Cylinder 
      cylinder4.setTranslateX(400); 
      cylinder4.setTranslateY(75); 
       
      //Preparing the phong material of type Specular Map  
      PhongMaterial material4 = new PhongMaterial();  
      material4.setSpecularMap(new Image
         ("http://www.tutorialspoint.com/images/tp-logo.gif")); 
      
      //Setting the Specular Map material to Cylinder4 
      cylinder4.setMaterial(material4);  
       
      //Drawing Cylinder5 
      Cylinder cylinder5 = new Cylinder();         
      
      //Setting the properties of the Cylinder 
      cylinder5.setHeight(130.0f); 
      cylinder5.setRadius(30.0f);   
      
      //Setting the position of the Cylinder 
      cylinder5.setTranslateX(100); 
      cylinder5.setTranslateY(300); 
       
      //Preparing the phong material of type diffuse color 
      PhongMaterial material5 = new PhongMaterial();  
      material5.setDiffuseColor(Color.BLANCHEDALMOND); 
      
      //Setting the diffuse color material to Cylinder5 
      cylinder5.setMaterial(material5);   
       
      //Drawing Cylinder6  
      Cylinder cylinder6 = new Cylinder();         
      
      //Setting the properties of the Cylinder 
      cylinder6.setHeight(130.0f); 
      cylinder6.setRadius(30.0f);   
      
      //Setting the position of the Cylinder 
      cylinder6.setTranslateX(200); 
      cylinder6.setTranslateY(300); 
       
      //Preparing the phong material of type specular color 
      PhongMaterial material6 = new PhongMaterial();  
      
      //setting the specular color map to the material 
      material6.setSpecularColor(Color.BLANCHEDALMOND); 
      
      //Setting the specular color material to Cylinder6 
      cylinder6.setMaterial(material6);    
       
      //Drawing Cylinder7 
      Cylinder cylinder7 = new Cylinder();
      
      //Setting the properties of the Cylinder 
      cylinder7.setHeight(130.0f); 
      cylinder7.setRadius(30.0f);   
      
      //Setting the position of the Cylinder 
      cylinder7.setTranslateX(300); 
      cylinder7.setTranslateY(300); 
       
      //Preparing the phong material of type Specular Power 
      PhongMaterial material7 = new PhongMaterial();  
      material7.setSpecularPower(0.1); 
      
      //Setting the Specular Power material to the Cylinder 
      cylinder7.setMaterial(material7);         
      
      //Creating a Group object  
      Group root = new Group(cylinder1 ,cylinder2, cylinder3, 
      cylinder4, cylinder5, cylinder6, cylinder7); 
          
      //Creating a scene object 
      Scene scene = new Scene(root, 600, 400); 
       
      //Setting camera 
      PerspectiveCamera camera = new PerspectiveCamera(false); 
      camera.setTranslateX(0); 
      camera.setTranslateY(0); 
      camera.setTranslateZ(-10); 
      scene.setCamera(camera); 
       
      //Setting title to the Stage 
      stage.setTitle("Drawing a cylinder"); 
         
      //Adding scene to the stage 
      stage.setScene(scene); 
         
      //Displaying the contents of the stage 
      stage.show(); 
   }      
   public static void main(String args[]){ 
      launch(args); 
   } 
}

Compile and execute the saved java file from the command prompt using the following commands.

Javac CylinderMaterials.java 
java CylinderMaterials 

On executing, the above program generates a JavaFX window displaying 7 cylinders with Materials, Bump Map, Diffuse Map, Self-Illumination Map, Specular Map, Diffuse Color, Specular Color, (BLANCHEDALMOND) Specular Power, respectively, as shown in the following screenshot −

Cylinder Material

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