JavaFX - UI Controls


Advertisements


Every user interface considers the following three main aspects −

  • UI elements − These are the core visual elements which the user eventually sees and interacts with. JavaFX provides a huge list of widely used and common elements varying from basic to complex, which we will cover in this tutorial.

  • Layouts − They define how UI elements should be organized on the screen and provide a final look and feel to the GUI (Graphical User Interface). This part will be covered in the Layout chapter.

  • Behavior − These are events which occur when the user interacts with UI elements. This part will be covered in the Event Handling chapter.

JavaFX provides several classes in the package javafx.scene.control. To create various GUI components (controls), JavaFX supports several controls such as date picker, button text field, etc.

Each control is represented by a class; you can create a control by instantiating its respective class.

Following is the list of commonly used controls while the GUI is designed using JavaFX.

S.No Control & Description
1

Label

A Label object is a component for placing text.

2

Button

This class creates a labeled button.

3

ColorPicker

A ColorPicker provides a pane of controls designed to allow a user to manipulate and select a color.

4

CheckBox

A CheckBox is a graphical component that can be in either an on(true) or off (false) state.

5

RadioButton

The RadioButton class is a graphical component, which can either be in a ON (true) or OFF (false) state in a group.

6

ListView

A ListView component presents the user with a scrolling list of text items.

7

TextField

A TextField object is a text component that allows for the editing of a single line of text.

8

PasswordField

A PasswordField object is a text component specialized for password entry.

9

Scrollbar

A Scrollbar control represents a scroll bar component in order to enable user to select from range of values.

10

FileChooser

A FileChooser control represents a dialog window from which the user can select a file.

11

ProgressBar

As the task progresses towards completion, the progress bar displays the task's percentage of completion.

12

Slider

A Slider lets the user graphically select a value by sliding a knob within a bounded interval.

Example

The following program is an example which displays a login page in JavaFX. Here, we are using the controls label, text field, password field and button.

Save this code in a file with the name LoginPage.java.

import javafx.application.Application; 
import static javafx.application.Application.launch; 
import javafx.geometry.Insets; 
import javafx.geometry.Pos; 

import javafx.scene.Scene; 
import javafx.scene.control.Button; 
import javafx.scene.control.PasswordField; 
import javafx.scene.layout.GridPane; 
import javafx.scene.text.Text; 
import javafx.scene.control.TextField; 
import javafx.stage.Stage;  
         
public class LoginPage extends Application { 
   @Override 
   public void start(Stage stage) {      
      //creating label email 
      Text text1 = new Text("Email");       
      
      //creating label password 
      Text text2 = new Text("Password"); 
       
      //Creating Text Filed for email        
      TextField textField1 = new TextField();       
      
      //Creating Text Filed for password        
      PasswordField textField2 = new PasswordField();  
       
      //Creating Buttons 
      Button button1 = new Button("Submit"); 
      Button button2 = new Button("Clear");  
      
      //Creating a Grid Pane 
      GridPane gridPane = new GridPane();    
      
      //Setting size for the pane 
      gridPane.setMinSize(400, 200); 
      
      //Setting the padding  
      gridPane.setPadding(new Insets(10, 10, 10, 10)); 
      
      //Setting the vertical and horizontal gaps between the columns 
      gridPane.setVgap(5); 
      gridPane.setHgap(5);       
      
      //Setting the Grid alignment 
      gridPane.setAlignment(Pos.CENTER); 
       
      //Arranging all the nodes in the grid 
      gridPane.add(text1, 0, 0); 
      gridPane.add(textField1, 1, 0); 
      gridPane.add(text2, 0, 1);       
      gridPane.add(textField2, 1, 1); 
      gridPane.add(button1, 0, 2); 
      gridPane.add(button2, 1, 2); 
       
      //Styling nodes  
      button1.setStyle("-fx-background-color: darkslateblue; -fx-text-fill: white;"); 
      button2.setStyle("-fx-background-color: darkslateblue; -fx-text-fill: white;"); 
       
      text1.setStyle("-fx-font: normal bold 20px 'serif' "); 
      text2.setStyle("-fx-font: normal bold 20px 'serif' ");  
      gridPane.setStyle("-fx-background-color: BEIGE;"); 
       
      //Creating a scene object 
      Scene scene = new Scene(gridPane); 
       
      //Setting title to the Stage 
      stage.setTitle("CSS Example"); 
         
      //Adding scene to the stage 
      stage.setScene(scene);
      
      //Displaying the contents of the stage 
      stage.show(); 
   }      
   public static void main(String args[]){ 
      launch(args); 
   } 
}

Compile and execute the saved java file from the command prompt using the following commands.

javac LoginPage.java 
java LoginPage 

On executing, the above program generates a JavaFX window as shown below.

CSS Example

The following program is an example of a registration form, which demonstrates controls in JavaFX such as Date Picker, Radio Button, Toggle Button, Check Box, List View, Choice List, etc.

Save this code in a file with the name Registration.java.

import javafx.application.Application; 
import javafx.collections.FXCollections; 
import javafx.collections.ObservableList; 

import javafx.geometry.Insets; 
import javafx.geometry.Pos; 

import javafx.scene.Scene; 
import javafx.scene.control.Button; 
import javafx.scene.control.CheckBox; 
import javafx.scene.control.ChoiceBox; 
import javafx.scene.control.DatePicker; 
import javafx.scene.control.ListView; 
import javafx.scene.control.RadioButton; 
import javafx.scene.layout.GridPane; 
import javafx.scene.text.Text; 
import javafx.scene.control.TextField; 
import javafx.scene.control.ToggleGroup;  
import javafx.scene.control.ToggleButton; 
import javafx.stage.Stage; 
         
public class Registration extends Application { 
   @Override 
   public void start(Stage stage) {    
      //Label for name 
      Text nameLabel = new Text("Name"); 
      
      //Text field for name 
      TextField nameText = new TextField(); 
       
      //Label for date of birth 
      Text dobLabel = new Text("Date of birth"); 
      
      //date picker to choose date 
      DatePicker datePicker = new DatePicker(); 
       
      //Label for gender
      Text genderLabel = new Text("gender"); 
      
      //Toggle group of radio buttons       
      ToggleGroup groupGender = new ToggleGroup(); 
      RadioButton maleRadio = new RadioButton("male"); 
      maleRadio.setToggleGroup(groupGender); 
      RadioButton femaleRadio = new RadioButton("female"); 
      femaleRadio.setToggleGroup(groupGender); 
       
      //Label for reservation 
      Text reservationLabel = new Text("Reservation"); 
      
      //Toggle button for reservation 
      ToggleButton Reservation = new ToggleButton(); 
      ToggleButton yes = new ToggleButton("Yes"); 
      ToggleButton no = new ToggleButton("No"); 
      ToggleGroup groupReservation = new ToggleGroup(); 
      yes.setToggleGroup(groupReservation);   
      no.setToggleGroup(groupReservation); 
       
      //Label for technologies known 
      Text technologiesLabel = new Text("Technologies Known"); 
      
      //check box for education 
      CheckBox javaCheckBox = new CheckBox("Java"); 
      javaCheckBox.setIndeterminate(false); 
      
      //check box for education 
      CheckBox dotnetCheckBox = new CheckBox("DotNet"); 
      javaCheckBox.setIndeterminate(false); 
       
      //Label for education 
      Text educationLabel = new Text("Educational qualification"); 
      
      //list View for educational qualification 
      ObservableList<String> names = FXCollections.observableArrayList( 
         "Engineering", "MCA", "MBA", "Graduation", "MTECH", "Mphil", "Phd"); 
      ListView<String> educationListView = new ListView<String>(names); 
      
      //Label for location 
      Text locationLabel = new Text("location"); 
      
      //Choice box for location 
      ChoiceBox locationchoiceBox = new ChoiceBox(); 
      locationchoiceBox.getItems().addAll
         ("Hyderabad", "Chennai", "Delhi", "Mumbai", "Vishakhapatnam"); 
       
      //Label for register 
      Button buttonRegister = new Button("Register");  
      
      //Creating a Grid Pane 
      GridPane gridPane = new GridPane();    
      
      //Setting size for the pane 
      gridPane.setMinSize(500, 500); 
       
      //Setting the padding    
      gridPane.setPadding(new Insets(10, 10, 10, 10));  
      
      //Setting the vertical and horizontal gaps between the columns 
      gridPane.setVgap(5); 
      gridPane.setHgap(5);       
      
      //Setting the Grid alignment 
      gridPane.setAlignment(Pos.CENTER); 
       
      //Arranging all the nodes in the grid 
      gridPane.add(nameLabel, 0, 0); 
      gridPane.add(nameText, 1, 0); 
       
      gridPane.add(dobLabel, 0, 1);       
      gridPane.add(datePicker, 1, 1); 
      
      gridPane.add(genderLabel, 0, 2); 
      gridPane.add(maleRadio, 1, 2);       
      gridPane.add(femaleRadio, 2, 2); 
      gridPane.add(reservationLabel, 0, 3); 
      gridPane.add(yes, 1, 3);       
      gridPane.add(no, 2, 3);  
       
      gridPane.add(technologiesLabel, 0, 4); 
      gridPane.add(javaCheckBox, 1, 4);       
      gridPane.add(dotnetCheckBox, 2, 4);  
       
      gridPane.add(educationLabel, 0, 5); 
      gridPane.add(educationListView, 1, 5);      
       
      gridPane.add(locationLabel, 0, 6); 
      gridPane.add(locationchoiceBox, 1, 6);    
       
      gridPane.add(buttonRegister, 2, 8);      
      
      //Styling nodes   
      buttonRegister.setStyle(
         "-fx-background-color: darkslateblue; -fx-textfill: white;"); 
       
      nameLabel.setStyle("-fx-font: normal bold 15px 'serif' "); 
      dobLabel.setStyle("-fx-font: normal bold 15px 'serif' "); 
      genderLabel.setStyle("-fx-font: normal bold 15px 'serif' "); 
      reservationLabel.setStyle("-fx-font: normal bold 15px 'serif' "); 
      technologiesLabel.setStyle("-fx-font: normal bold 15px 'serif' "); 
      educationLabel.setStyle("-fx-font: normal bold 15px 'serif' "); 
      locationLabel.setStyle("-fx-font: normal bold 15px 'serif' "); 
       
      //Setting the back ground color 
      gridPane.setStyle("-fx-background-color: BEIGE;");       
       
      //Creating a scene object 
      Scene scene = new Scene(gridPane); 
      
      //Setting title to the Stage 
      stage.setTitle("Registration Form"); 
         
      //Adding scene to the stage 
      stage.setScene(scene);  
      
      //Displaying the contents of the stage 
      stage.show(); 
   }      
   public static void main(String args[]){ 
      launch(args); 
   } 
}

Compile and execute the saved java file from the command prompt using the following commands.

javac Registration.java 
java Registration 

On executing, the above program generates a JavaFX window as shown below.

Registration Form

Advertisements