General Knowledge - Wind System


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  • Air in motion is known as wind. Wind plays a significant role in determining the weather system of a given region.

  • Because of the rotation of the Earth, wind deflects to the right in the Northern Hemisphere and left in the Southern Hemisphere. The phenomena first reported by Coriolis and hence it is known as Coriolis Force.

Coriolis Force
  • To read the wind direction, weather vanes are used; however, at the airport, windsocks are used (indicated the wind direction).

Weather Vanes
  • Anemometer is used to measure the wind speed.

Anemometer

Types of Winds

  • Winds normally are categorized as −

    • Primary Winds: It is also known as Prevailing Winds and Planetary Winds.

    • Secondary winds: It is also known as Periodic Winds and Seasonal Winds.

    • Local Winds: It is originated because of the local temperature and/or pressure difference.

  • Major Planetary Winds (as shown in the following image) are −

    • Polar Easterlies

    • Westerlies (Mid-latitude)

    • Trade Winds (Tropics)

Planetary Winds
  • Seasonal or Periodic Winds blow periodically i.e. for a specific period. For example, Monsoons (as shown in the following image).

Seasonal Winds
  • Local Winds, which are originated largely because of the temperature differences are a localized phenomenon. The following map shows the major local winds of the world −

Local Winds
Local Winds Region/Location
Chinook Canada & USA (Rockies Mountain Region)
Santa Anas California (USA)
Pampero Argentina (South America)
Zonda Argentina (South America)
Norte Mexico (Central America)
Papagayo Mexico (Central America)
Foehn Switzerland (Alps Region)
Salano South Spain
Mistral France
Tramontana North Italy
Levant South France
Helm England
Etesian Greece
Berg South Africa
Sirocco Sahara Region (North Africa)
Khamsin Egypt
Gibli Tunisia
Harmattan (also known as Doctor Wind) West Africa
Bora South & South Eastern Europe
Loo Northern India & Pakistan
Simoon Arabia
Buran (also known as Purga) East Asia
Karaburan Central Asia
Brickfielder Victoria (Australia)
Norwester New Zealand

The highlighted terms (blue in color) are shown in the map given above.



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