Air in motion is known as wind. Wind plays a significant role in determining the weather system of a given region.
Because of the rotation of the Earth, wind deflects to the right in the Northern Hemisphere and left in the Southern Hemisphere. The phenomena first reported by Coriolis and hence it is known as Coriolis Force.
To read the wind direction, weather vanes are used; however, at the airport, windsocks are used (indicated the wind direction).
Anemometer is used to measure the wind speed.
Winds normally are categorized as −
Primary Winds: It is also known as Prevailing Winds and Planetary Winds.
Secondary winds: It is also known as Periodic Winds and Seasonal Winds.
Local Winds: It is originated because of the local temperature and/or pressure difference.
Major Planetary Winds (as shown in the following image) are −
Trade Winds (Tropics)
Seasonal or Periodic Winds blow periodically i.e. for a specific period. For example, Monsoons (as shown in the following image).
Local Winds, which are originated largely because of the temperature differences are a localized phenomenon. The following map shows the major local winds of the world −
|Chinook||Canada & USA (Rockies Mountain Region)|
|Santa Anas||California (USA)|
|Pampero||Argentina (South America)|
|Zonda||Argentina (South America)|
|Norte||Mexico (Central America)|
|Papagayo||Mexico (Central America)|
|Foehn||Switzerland (Alps Region)|
|Sirocco||Sahara Region (North Africa)|
|Harmattan (also known as Doctor Wind)||West Africa|
|Bora||South & South Eastern Europe|
|Loo||Northern India & Pakistan|
|Buran (also known as Purga)||East Asia|
The highlighted terms (blue in color) are shown in the map given above.