General Knowledge - Scientific Fields


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The following table illustrates the major scientific fields and their founders −

Subject Founder/Father Description (if any)
Biogeography Alfred Russel Wallace Wallace worked on the impact of human activity on the natural world
Biology Aristotle
Botany Theophrastus
Evolution Charles Darwin On the Origin of Species (1859)
Genetics Gregor Mendel Studied the inheritance of traits in pea plants (forms the basis for Mendelian inheritance)
Microbiology Antonie van Leeuwenhoek The first to microscopically observe micro-organisms in water and the first to see bacteria
Molecular biology Linus Pauling
Molecular biophysics Gopalasamudram Narayana Iyer Ramachandran Founded the molecular biophysics unit (1970)
Paleontology Leonardo da Vinci
Parasitology Francesco Redi The founder of experimental biology. He was the first person who challenged the theory of spontaneous generation by demonstrating that maggots come from eggs of flies
Protozoology Antonie van Leeuwenhoek First to produce precise, correct descriptions of protozoa.
Atomic theory (early) Democritus Founder of atomism in cosmology
Atomic theory (modern) Father Roger Boscovich & First coherent description of atomic theory
John Dalton First scientific description of the atom as a building block for more complex structures.
Chemistry (early) Jabir First introduced the experimental method to Islamic alchemy
Chemistry (modern) Antoine Lavoisier Elements of Chemistry (1787)
Jöns Berzelius Development of chemical nomenclature (1800s)
John Dalton Revival of atomic theory (1803)
Nuclear chemistry Otto Hahn Applied Radiochemistry (1936)
Periodic table Dmitri Mendeleev He arranged the sixty-six elements known at the time in order of atomic weight by periodic intervals (1869)
Physical chemistry Mikhail Lomonosov The first person to read lectures in physical chemistry and coin the term in 1752
Geodesy (mathematical geography) Eratosthenes
Plate tectonics Alfred Wegener
Speleology Édouard-Alfred Martel
Cognitive therapy Aaron T. Beck
Electrophysiology Emil du Bois-Reymond
Gynaecology J. Marion Sims
Histology Marcello Malpighi
Medicine Charaka Wrote the Charaka Samhitā and founded the Ayurveda system of medicine
Psychology (experimental) Wilhelm Wundt Founded the first laboratory for psychological research
Plastic surgery Sushruta & Wrote the Sushruta Samhita
Harold Gillies
Psychoanalysis Sigmund Freud
Surgery (early) Sushruta Wrote the Sushruta Samhita
Atomic bomb Enrico Fermi
J. Robert Oppenheimer
Leslie Groves
Edward Teller
Classical mechanics Isaac Newton
Electricity William Gilbert & Wrote ‘De Magnete’ (1600)
Michael Faraday Discovered electromagnetic induction (1831)
Modern astronomy Nicolaus Copernicus Developed the first heliocentric model in De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (1543)
Nuclear physics Ernest Rutherford
Nuclear science Marie Curie & Pierre Curie
Optics Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen)
Quantum mechanics Max Planck
Relativity Albert Einstein
Thermodynamics Sadi Carnot
Algebra Brahmagupta
Muhammad Al-Khwarizmi (Algorismi)
Diophantus
Calculus Isaac Newton &
Gottfried Leibniz
Computer science George Boole &
Alan Turing
Geometry Euclid
Number theory Pythagoras
Trigonometry Aryabhata & Hipparchus
Fuzzy logic Lotfi Asker Zadeh
Anthropology Herodotus
Geography Eratosthenes
Demography Ibn Khaldun
History Herodotus He also coined the term 'History'
International law Alberico Gentili
Francisco de Vitoria
Hugo Grotius
Linguistics (early) Panini
Sociology Ibn Khaldun
Auguste Comte (also coined the term) Father of modern sociology
Accounting and Bookkeeping Luca Pacioli
Economics (early) Chanakya / Kautilya
Mathematical economics Daniel Bernoulli
Microcredit Muhammad Yunus Founded Grameen Bank


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