• General Knowledge Tutorial

GK - Discovery and Invention

The following table enlists the major discoveries/inventions and their discoverers/inventors −

Discovery/Invention Discoverer/Inventor Time/Period Image
Magnifying Glass Roger Bacon (Great Britain) 13th Century Roger Bacon
Printing Press Johannes Gutenberg (German) 1440 (About) Johannes Gutenberg
Watch (Portable Clocks) Peter Henlein (Germany) 1509 (About) Peter Henlein
Optical Microscope (& also the Compound Microscope) Zacharias Janssen (Dutch) End of 16th Century Zacharias Janssen
Telescope Galileo (Italian) (however, in 1608, three inventors namely Hans Lippershey, Zacharias Janssen, & Jacob Metius invented that Galileo improved) 1609 Galileo
Barometer Evangelista Torricelli (Italian) 1643 Evangelista Torricell
Piano Bartolomeo Cristofori di Francesco (Italian) In the very beginning of 18th Century Bartolomeo Cristofori di Francesco
Steam Boat Denis Papin (French) 1704 Denis Papin
Steam Engine Thomas Newcomen (British) 1712 Thomas Newcomen
Watt Steam Engine James Watt (Scottish) 1776 James Watt
Mercury Thermometer Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit(Polish-German) 1714 Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit
Achromatic Lens John Dollond (British) 1758 John Dollond
Submarine David Bushnell (American) 1775 David Bushnell
Bifocal Lens Benjamin Franklin 1770s Benjamin Franklin
Power Loom Edmund Cartwright (British) 1784 Edmund Cartwright
Gas Turbine John Barber (British) 1791 John Barber
Electric Battery Alessandro Volta (Italian) 1800 Alessandro Volta
(Railway) Steam Locomotive Richard Trevithick (British) 1804 Richard Trevithick
Stethoscope René Laennec 1819 René Laennec
Hygrometer (Crude hygrometer was invented by Leonardo da Vinci in 1480) Johann Heinrich Lambert (French) 1755 Johann Heinrich Lambert
Electric Motor Michael Faraday (British) 1821 Michael Faraday
Typewriter William Austin Burt (American) 1829 William Austin Burt
Sewing Machine Barthélemy Thimonnier (French) 1829 Barthélemy Thimonnier
Dynamo Michael Faraday (British) 1831 Michael Faraday
Telegraph Samuel Morse (American) 1832-33 Samuel Morse
Revolver (However, the first Flintlock Revolver patented by Elisha Collier in 1814) Samuel Colt (American) 1835 Samuel Colt
Pedal Driven Bicycle Kirkpatrick Macmillan (Scottish) 1839 Kirkpatrick Macmillan
Pneumatic Tire Robert William Thomson (Scottish) 1845 Robert William Thomson
Francis Turbine James Bicheno Francis (British American) & Uriah A. Boyden (American) 1848 James Bicheno Francis
Refrigerator (In 1805, an American inventor Oliver Evans experimented a closed vapor-compression refrigeration cycle for the production of ice) Alexander Twining & James Harrison (However, in 1859, Ferdinand Carré of France developed the first gas absorption refrigeration system) 1850 Alexander Twining
Elevator/Lift (for the building) Elisha Otis (American) 1852 Elisha Otis
Machine Gun Richard Jordan Gatling (American) 1861 Richard Jordan Gatling
Dynamite Alfred Bernhard Nobel (Swedish) 1867 Alfred Bernhard Nobel
Air Brake George Westinghouse (American) 1872 George Westinghouse
Telephone Alexander Graham Bell (Scottish) 1875 Alexander Graham Bell
Phonograph/ Gramophone 1877 Phonograph
Film/Movie Camera (However, movie camera was invented by Francis Ronalds in 1845) Louis Le Thomas Alva Edison (American)Prince (French) 1888 Louis Le Thomas Alva Edison
Electric Lamp/Bulb (by using "a carbon filament”) Thomas Alva Edison (American) 1879 Thomas Alva Edison
The First Steam-powered Automobile Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot (French) 1768 N/A
The First Car Powered by an internal combustion Engine fueled by Hydrogen François Isaac de Rivaz (French) 1807 N/A
The First Petrol or Gasoline-powered Automobile Karl Benz German 1886 Karl Benz German
Inflatable Tire John Boyd Dunlop (Scottish) 1887 John Boyd Dunlop
X-Ray Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen (German) 1895 Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen
Radio Telegraph Guglielmo Marconi (Italian) 1890s Guglielmo Marconi
Nuclear Reactor (namely Chicago Pile-1) Enrico Fermi (Italian) 1942 Enrico Fermi
The first general-purpose Electronic Digital Computer John Presper Eckert, Jr. & John William Mauchly (Americans) 1945 John Presper Eckert, Jr. & John William Mauchly
Transistor William Shockley, John Bardeen & Walter Brattain (Americans) 1947 William Shockley, John Bardeen & Walter Brattain
Fiber Optics Narinder Singh Kapany (Indians) 1960 Narinder Singh Kapany
ARPANET, (the precursor to the Internet) Leonard Kleinrock (American) 1969 N/A
Radio Guglielmo Marconi (Italian) N/A N/A
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