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General Knowledge - World History Timeline

The following table illustrates the major events along with respective timeline −

Time Events
10000 BCE Middle East people domesticated goats and dogs.
9500 BCE Settled farming began.
6000 BCE Copper was discovered.
5000 BCE Sumerian civilization evolved between the rivers Euphrates and Tigris. Later it became popular as Mesopotamia (present day Iraq).
5000 BCE First calendar of 365 days, 12 months, and 30 days invented.
3500 BCE Bronze was discovered in Egypt.
3100 BCE First dynasty of Egypt.
3000 BCE Early writing.
2600 BCE Indus Valley civilization.
2560 BCE Great Pyramid of Giza.
2000 – 1200 BCE Iron Age.
1800 BCE Alphabetic writing appeared.
1700 BCE End of Indus Valley Civilization.
1400 BCE Water clock is invented in Egypt.
1027 BCE In China, Chou dynasty began.
850 BCE Homer had written the epic “Iliad and Odyssey”.
776 BCE Olympic Games first recorded.
753 BCE City of Rome was established by Romulus.
653 BCE Rise of Persian Empire.
600 BCE Sixteen Maha Janapadas emerged in India.
586 BCE The First Temple in Jerusalem (Solomon's Temple) was destroyed by the Babylonians.
550 BCE Pythagoras (Greek scholar) studied the movements of celestial bodies and mathematics.
509 BCE Founding of Roman Republic after exclusion of the last Roman King.
508 BCE Democracy introduced at Athens.
500 BCE Panini standardized the Sanskrit grammar and its morphology in the text Ashtadhyayi.
500 BCE Pingala learned the uses of zero and binary numeral system.
499 BCE Greco-Persian Wars.
490 BCE Battle of Marathon.
338 BCE In the Battle of Chaeronea, the king Philip II, defeated the combined forces of the Greek city-states Athens and Thebes.
337 BCE Philip II had created a strong and unified nation in Macedonia. He hired Aristotle (the Philosopher) to tutor his son, Alexander.
336 BCE Philip II was assassinated and Alexander became king.
331 BCE In the Battle of Gaugamela, Alexander the Great defeated Darius III of Persia.
326 BCE In the Battle of the Hydaspes River, Alexander the Great defeated Indian king Porus
323 BCE Death of Alexander at Babylon
300 BCE The Great Pyramid of Cholula constructed
221 BCE Qin Shi Huang unified China and the beginning of Imperial rule (in China)
221 BCE The Qin Dynasty began the construction of the Great Wall of China
206 BCE After the death of Qin Shi Huang, Han Dynasty established in China
200 BCE Paper is invented in China
124 BCE China's Imperial University was established
111 BCE First Chinese domination of Việtnam as the Nanyue Kingdom
4 BCE Birth of Jesus Christ (Widely accepted date)
Common Era (CE)
29 CE Jesus Christ crucified
70 CE The armies of Titus destructed Jerusalem
78 CE Origin of Saka Era in India
79 CE Mount Vesuvius erupted and destructed Pompeii and other towns (in Italy)
220 CE After the fall of Han Dynasty, three Kingdoms period begins in China
378 CE The Germanic tribes defeated Roman army in the battle of Adrianople
570 CE Prophet Mohammed (the founder of Muslim religion) born
581 CE Sui Dynasty came in China
613 CE Muhammad had commenced preaching publicly in his hometown, Mecca
622 CE Muhammad Migrated from Mecca to Medina
623 CE Muhammad abandoned Saturday as the Sabbath and made Friday as special day of the week
632 CE Muhammad died
660 CE The Quran, the holy book, was published for the first time
793 CE Scandinavians approached the island of Lindisfarne, Scotland by boat and they attacked monks and robbed their monastery. It is the first recorded raid by the Vikings
800 CE Gunpowder was invented
1050 CE An ancient tool of navigation namely The astrolabe” was first used in Europe
1077 CE Construction of the London Tower began
1117 CE The University of Oxford is established
1150 CE The University of Paris is established
1199 CE Europeans first used compasses
1209 CE The University of Cambridge is established
1215 CE John of England sealed the “Magna Carta
1298 CE Marco Polo published his itinerary of China, along with Rustichello da Pisa.
1299 CE Osman I established the Ottoman Empire
1347 CE The Black Death withered Europe for the first (of many times). In the first year, an estimated 20 to 40% of the population was thought to have perished.
1389 CE Battle of Kosovo (in Serbia)
1397 CE The Medici bank was established in Florence
1461 CE King Loius XI of France started postal service
1492 CE Christopher Columbus discovered a route going to the New World (i.e. Caribbean Islands and America)
1498 CE Vasco da Gama arrived India
1503 CE Leonardo da Vinci started making the painting of Mona Lisa; however, completed after three years
1506 CE Christopher Columbus died in Valladolid, Spain
1632 CE The city of Boston is founded
1636 CE Harvard University is established in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
1652 CE Dutch East India Company founded the city Cape Town in South Africa
1666 CE The Great Fire of London
1683 CE China conquered the Kingdom of Tungning and annexes Taiwan
1687 CE Isaac Newton published “Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica”
1694 CE The Bank of England is established
1697 CE The earliest known first-class cricket match had taken place in Sussex
1710 CE The world's first copyright legislation, Britain's Statute of Anne (also known as Copyright Act 1709), took effect
1724 CE Japan began successful forest management reform and subsequently timber cutting was reduced
1765 CE In France, a twenty-eight volume of encyclopedia was completed
1776 CE In USA, second Continental Congress meeting and declaration of independence July 4)
1781 CE The Spanish settlers founded the city of Los Angeles
1783 CE In USA, King George declared the thirteen colonies as "free and independent”
1783 CE In USA, based on the state's 1780 constitution, the Supreme Judicial Court of Massachusetts ruled slavery illegal
1785 CE Napoleon Bonaparte became a lieutenant in the French artillery
1787 CE The United States Constitution is written in Philadelphia and submitted to the states for ratification
1787 CE The slaves freed from London established Freetown (West Africa) i.e. present-day Sierra Leone
1795 CE The first graphite pencils were used
1789–1799 CE French Revolution
1797 CE Napoleon's invasion and partition of the Republic of Venice ended over 1,000 years of independence of the Serene Republic
1801 CE Napoleon (of France) defeated Austria
1804 CE Haiti attained its independence from France and became the first black republic
1805 CE In Milan (Italy), Napoleon was crowned as the King of Italy
1805 CE In the Battle of Austerlitz, Napoleon decisively defeated an Austrian-Russian army
1814 CE Napoleon abdicated and was exiled to Elba.
1815 CE Napoleon escaped; however, he was finally defeated at the Battle of Waterloo (in June) and exiled to Saint Helena Island
1820 CE Discovery of Antarctica
1821 CE Napoleon Bonaparte died (at Saint Helena Island, where he was exiled)
1823 CE Monroe Doctrine was declared by US President James Monroe
1825 CE The two railway station at Stockton and Darlington (the first public railway in the world) was opened
1833 CE Slavery Abolition Act banned slavery throughout the British Empire
1835 CE Vaccination became mandatory in Britain
1838 CE Charles Darwin developed the theory of evolutionary selection and specialization
1840 CE New Zealand is established, as the Treaty of Waitangi is signed between the Māori and British
1841 CE Richard Owen, first time, used the word "dinosaur"
1842 CE First time Anaesthesia was used
1845-49 CE The Irish Potato Famine that lead to the Irish diaspora
1848-58 CE California Gold Rush
1848 CE Karl Marx wrote Communist Manifesto
1849 CE Roman Republic's constitutional law became the first to abolish capital punishment
1854 CE Crimean War (fought between Russia and Turkey)
1856 CE World's first oil refinery founded in Romania
1859-69 CE Suez Canal constructed
1859 CE The first successful oil well was drilled in northern Pennsylvania (USA)
1859 CE John Tyndall, the British scientist, described the concept that the carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor trapping heat in the atmosphere. Further, he suggested that the changing in the concentration of gases could bring climate change
1861 CE Russia abolished serfdom
1861-65 CE American Civil War, took place between the Union and seceding Confederacy
1862 CE The first paper money was issued in the United States
1865 CE President of the United States, Abraham Lincoln was assassinated
1868 CE Michael Barrett was the last person to be publicly hanged in England
1869 CE Dmitri Mendeleev created Periodic table
1869 CE The Suez Canal route opened that linking the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea
1871 CE Royal Albert Hall opened in London
1872 CE The first National Park i.e. Yellowstone National Park, is established
1886 CE Burma was presented to Queen Victoria as a birthday gift
1886 CE Karl Benz sold the first commercial automobile
1887 CE Sir Arthur Conan Doyle published his first Sherlock Holmes story, ‘A Study in Scarlet’
1889 CE Eiffel Tower is inaugurated in Paris
1891 CE The German government initiated the first public old-age pension scheme
1892 CE For the first time, Fingerprinting was officially adopted.
1893 CE New Zealand became the first country to enact women's suffrage
1894 CE First commercial film was released by Jean Aimé Le Roy
1896 CE Olympic Games revived in Athens, Greece
1898 CE Britain obtained a 99-year lease of Hong Kong from China
1900 CE Hawaii became an official USA territory
1901 CE In Stockholm (Sweden), the first Nobel Prize ceremony was held
1901 CE Theodore Roosevelt become the youngest President of the United States
1904 CE Russian Japanese War
1905 CE Albert Einstein's formulation of relativity
1908 CE First commercial radio transmissions
1911 CE Xinhai Revolution in China overthrows the Qing Dynasty
1912 CE End of the Chinese Empire and Republic of China established
1912 CE First Balkan War began
1912 CE Woodrow Wilson elected as the 28th President of the United States
1913 CE Second Balkan War and Treaty of Bucharest too place
1914 CE Gavrilo Princip assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria in Sarajevo that triggered the World War I
1914 CE Panama Canal opened
1915 CE First use of poison gas at the Battle of Neuve Chapelle and Second Battle of Ypres
1916 CE The implementation of daylight saving time system
1917 CE Russian Revolution ended the Russian Empire
1917 CE The United States joined the Allies (countries) for the last 17 months of World War I
1918 CE End of World War I
1918 CE Poland, Ukraine, and Belarus declared their independence from Russia.
1919 CE Treaty of Versailles redrew European borders.
1919 CE League of Nations founded in Paris.
1920 CE Greece restores its monarchy after a referendum.
1920 CE International Court of Justice founded at Hague in the Netherlands.
1921 CE Adolf Hitler became Führer (guide, leader) of the Nazi Party.
1922 CE The Turkish Grand National Assembly abolished Ottoman Sultanate.
1923 CE Time Magazine was published first time
1923 CE Turkish War of Independence ended and Kemal Atatürk became the first President of the newly established Republic of Turkey. Capital was moved from Istanbul to Ankara
1924 CE Death of Vladimir Lenin (of Russia); rise of Stalin.
1924 CE The Caliphate was abolished by Kemal Atatürk.
1924 CE The US Federal Bureau of Investigation established under J Edgar Hoover.
1925 CE Benito Mussolini gains dictatorial powers in Italy and adopted the title of ‘Duce’.
1925 CE Mein Kampf (an autobiography of the National Socialist leader Adolf Hitler) was published.
1927 CE Joseph Stalin became leader of the Soviet Union.
1927 CE The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland officially became the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
1927 CE The BBC was granted a Royal Charter in the United Kingdom.
1928 CE Mickey Mouse was created at the Walt Disney Studio.
1929 CE Wall Street crash of 1929 and the beginning of the Great Depression
1929 CE Vatican City has given the status of a sovereign State.
1929 CE Saint Valentine's Day Massacre.
1930 CE First FIFA World Cup hosted
1931 CE Construction of the Empire State Building
1931 CE Statute of Westminster created the British Commonwealth of Nations
1931 CE Japan invaded Manchuria (China) and occupied it until the end of World War II
1932 CE Franklin D Roosevelt is elected President of the United States
1932 CE The Nazi party became the largest single party in the German parliament
1933 CE Adolf Hitler became the Chancellor of Germany
1935 CE Persia became Iran
1937 CE Japanese invaded China
1937 CE The Irish Republican Army attempted to assassinate King George VI of the UK
1938 CE Munich agreement that handed over Czechoslovakia to Nazi Germany
1939 CE Nazi invasion of Poland that triggered the beginning of World War II
1940 CE Nazis invaded France, the Netherlands, Denmark and Norway
1940 CE Soviet Union annexes the Baltic states
1940 CE Winston Churchill became the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
1941 CE Attack on Pearl Harbor that forced the USA to join World War II
1941 CE Hitler invaded the Soviet Union
1943 CE Battle of Stalingrad ended with over two million casualties and the retreat of the German Army
1943 CE Tehran Conference participated by Franklin Roosevelt, Winston Churchill, and Joseph Stalin; all agreed to launch Operation Overlord.
1943 CE Green Revolution began.
1944 CE Chechen insurgency ended with deportation of the entire Chechen population.
1944 CE First operational electronic computer, Colossus, introduced
1944 CE D Day (Military terms associated with Invasion of Normandy)
1945 CE Battle of Berlin
1945 CE Yalta Conference
1945 CE Atomic bombing on Hiroshima and Nagasaki (Japan)
1945 CE End of World War II in Europe. The Holocaust ends after (about) 12 million deaths
1945 CE Death of Franklin Delano Roosevelt, Adolf Hitler, and Benito Mussolini
1945 CE Potsdam Conference (World War II) divided Europe into Western and Soviet blocs
1945 CE United Nations founded
1946 CE First images had been taken of the Earth from space
1948 CE Beginning of apartheid in South Africa
1948 CE Division of North and South Korea
1949 CE Creation of NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization)
1949 CE Germany partitioned as the Soviet socialist German Democratic Republic and the NATO-backed Federal Republic of Germany
1949 CE Establishment of the People's Republic of China under the leadership of Mao Zedong
1951 CE Treaty of San Francisco terminated the Occupation of Japan and formally concluded hostilities between Japan and the US
1952 CE Egyptian Revolution under Gamal Abdel Nasser overthrew King Farouk and terminated British occupation
1953 CE Stalin died
1954 CE First time, the Soviet Union generated the electricity by nuclear power
1955 CE Warsaw Pact signed
1957 CE Beginning of the Space Age with the launch of Sputnik I
1958 CE NASA, the US Federal Aviation Authority and Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament (CND) established
1959 CE Cuban Revolution
1962 CE Cuban missile crisis
1962 CE Sino-Indian War
1963 CE Assassination of John F Kennedy
1965 CE Deaths of Winston Churchill
1968 CE Martin Luther King, Jr. and Robert F. Kennedy assassinated while the Poor People's Campaign
1969 CE Muammar Gaddafi overthrew King Idris of Libya in a Coup d'état and established the Libyan Arab Republic
1973 CE First space station, Skylab, was launched
1975 CE First Cricket World Cup hosted
1976 CE First outbreak of the Ebola virus
1978 CE Birth of the first test-tube baby
1979 CE Margaret Thatcher became the Prime Minister of the UK
1985 CE Mikhail Gorbachev became Premier of the Soviet Union
1985 CE First use of DNA fingerprinting
1986 CE Chernobyl disasters
1989 CE Fall of the Berlin Wall
1990 CE Sir Tim Berners-Lee invented the World Wide Web (WWW)
1990 CE Gulf War began
1990 CE After 27 years of imprisonment, Nelson Mandela released
1991 CE Gulf War ended after US withdrawal and failed uprising
1991 CE Dissolution of the Soviet Union and subsequent independence of 15 former Soviet republics
1991 CE Boris Yeltsin became the first President of the Russian Federation
1991 CE The first Website has been put online and made available to the public
1992 CE Maastricht Treaty created the European Union
1993 CE Velvet divorce between Czech Republic and Slovakia
1994 CE End of apartheid in South Africa and subsequent election of Nelson Mandela the great leader
1994 CE Opening of the Channel Tunnel
1995 CE Establishment of the World Trade Organization
1997 CE Transfer of sovereignty of Hong Kong from UK to China
1997 CE Diana, Princess of Wales, was killed in a car accident in Paris, France
1998 CE Google is founded by Larry Page and Sergey Brin
1999 CE Euro is introduced
2001 CE Terrorists destroyed the World Trade Center in New York City and damaged the Pentagon in Washington, DC
2001 CE Wikipedia founded.
2003 CE Iraq War began that triggered worldwide protests.
2003 CE The space shuttle, Columbia, collapsed (while landing) nearby Texas (USA); all the seven astronauts (including Indian astronaut Kalpana Chawla) died in the accident.
2005 CE Angela Merkel became Germany's first woman Chancellor.
2006 CE Ellen Johnson Sirleaf became the President of Liberia. She was the first elected female head of state in Africa.
2006 CE Execution of Saddam Hussein.
2008 CE Stock markets plunge across the world.
2008 CE Monarchy system terminated in Nepal.
2009 CE The world's tallest skyscraper, Burj Khalifa (in Dubai), has been built.
2010 The largest oil spill in US history occurred in the Gulf of Mexico.
2011 CE Osama bin Laden, Muammar Gaddafi, and Kim Jong-Il were killed.
2011 CE Iraq War ended.
2013 CE Deaths of Hugo Chávez, Nelson Mandela, and Margaret Thatcher.
2015 CE United States and Cuba resumed diplomatic relations.

GK - List of Wars(WorldWide)

The following table describes major wars of the world −

Date War Fought between
1600 BCE Battle of Mingtiao Tang of Shang defeated Jie of Xia. Shang dynasty began in China
1500 BCE Battle of the Ten Kings King Sudas defeated the Ten Kings in the Punjab region (India)
1184 BCE Battle of Troy Troy descended after the ten-year Trojan War
1046 BCE Battle of Muye Zhou Dynasty defeated the Shang Dynasty
925 BCE Battle of Bitter Lakes Shoshenq I of Egypt defeated a Bedouin incursion
707 BCE Battle of Ruge The Zheng general Zhu Dan defeated the king Huan of Zhou (China)
693 BCE Battle of Diyala River The king Sennacherib of Assyria defeated the Elamites of Southern Iran
616 BCE Battle of Arrapha The king Nabopolassar (of Babylonians) defeated the Assyrians
546 BCE Battle of Thymbra Cyrus the Great of Persia defeated Croesus of Lydia
545 BCE Battle of The 300 Champions The Spartans defeated the Argives
539-38 BCE Battle of Opis Cyrus the Great defeated Nabonidus
490 BCE Battle of Marathon Miltiades (of Athens) defeated Darius I of Persia and Artaphernes
432 BCE Battle of Potidaea Athens defeated Sparta
429 BCE Battle of Spartolos Chalcidians (with their allies) defeated Athens
411 BCE Battle of Eretria Spartans defeated the Athenian fleet
334 BCE Battle of the Granicus Alexander the Great defeated the Persian army
331 BCE Battle of Gaugamela Alexander the Great defeated Darius III in Mesopotamia and conquered Persia
326 BCE Battle of the Hydaspes Alexander the Great defeated the Indian King Porus
281 BCE Battle of Corupedium Seleucus defeated and killed Lysimachus
101 BCE Battle of Vercellae Marius (the Roman) defeated the Cimbri
67 BCE Battle of Jushi Han troops defeated the Xiongnu
66 BCE Battle of the Lycus Pompey the Great defeated Mithridates VI
58 BCE Battle of the Arar Caesar defeated the migrating Helvetii
47 BCE Battle of the Nile Caesar defeated Ptolemy XIII (the Egyptian king)
36 BCE Battle of Zhizhi Han forces defeated Xiongnu
Common Era (CE)
84 CE Battle of Mons Graupius Agricola (the Roman) defeated the Caledonians
208 CE Battle of Red Cliffs War of Three Kingdoms (of China)
312 CE Battle of Milvian Bridge Constantine defeated Maxentius and took control of Italy
547 CE Battle of Marta Tripolitanian Moors defeated John Troglita
630 CE Conquest of Mecca Muhammad conquered Mecca without any bloodshed
838 CE Battle of Anzen Abbasids (modern Turkey) defeated Theophilus
972 CE Battle of Cedynia Mieszko I (of Poland) defeated Hodon (of Germany)
1054 CE Battle of Dunsinane Malcolm defeated MacBeth
1057 CE Battle of Lumphanan Malcolm defeated MacBeth. In this battle MacBeth was killed
1179 CE Battle of Jacob's Ford Saladin defeats the Kingdom of Jerusalem
1215 CE Battle of Zhongdu Genghis Khan in cooperation with the Mongols defeated the Jin dynasty and seized Zhongdu (present day Beijing)
1361 CE Battle of Wisby Denmark defeated Sweden
1362-63 CE Battle of Blue Waters Pagan Lithuanians defeated the Islamic Tatar Forces
1370 CE Battle of Pontvallain France defeated England
1402 CE Battle of Angora / Battle of Ankara Timur defeated Ottoman sultan Bayezid I in Anatolia (Turkey)
1448 CE Battle of Kosovo Turkish and Orthodox forces defeated Roman Catholic
1533 CE Battle of Cuzco Spanish defeated the Inca Empire
1597 CE Battle of Chilchonryang Japanese Navy defeaterd Korean Navy
1597 CE Battle of Myeongnyang Korean Navy defeated Japanese Navy
1607 CE Battle of Gibraltar Dutch defeated Spanish (fleet)
1656 CE First Battle of Warsaw Poland seized its capital from Sweden
1656 CE Second Battle of Warsaw Sweden defeated Poland
1676 CE Battle of Lund Sweden defeat the Denmark
1694 CE Battle of Torroella The French Navy defeated Spain
1710 CE Battle of Prut Ottoman Turks defeated Russia
1729 CE Battle of Damghan Nader Shah defeated the Afghans
1779 CE Battle of Baton Rouge Spanish captured the city Baton Rouge
1796 CE Battle of Lodi General Napoleon Bonaparte (French Army) defeated Austria
1797 CE Battle of Rivoli Napoleon Bonaparte defeated Austria
1798 CE Battle of the Pyramids Napoleon defeated Mameluks (in Egypt)
1798 CE Battle of Ballinamuck British forces defeated Ireland and France
1799 Battle of Abukir Napoleon and Joachim Murat defeated Turks
1805 CE Battle of Austerlitz Napoléon Bonaparte defeated Russian
1813 CE Battle of Leipzig The coalition armies of Russia, Prussia, Austria, and Sweden defeated by Napoleon I (the Emperor of the French)
1815 CE Battle of Waterloo Wellington, Prussians, Dutch, and German (collectively) forces defeated Napoleon
1904 CE Battle of Yalu River Japan defeated Russia
1914 to 1918 CE World War I Allied Powers (France, UK, Russia, Serbia, Belgium, Italy, Japan, USA, etc.) defeated Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire, Bulgaria, etc.)
1917 CE Battle of Jerusalem British forces defeated Ottoman Empire and seized Jerusalem
1939 to 1945 CE World War II Allies Powers (France, UK, Russia, China, Poland, Canada, Australia, USA, etc.) defeated Axix Powers (Germany, Italy, Japan, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, etc.)
1947 CE Indo-Pakistani War The war ended with division of territory (Jammu & Kashmir)
1965 CE Second Indo-Pakistan War The war resulted in a stalemate
1990 CE Gulf War US and allied forces defeated Iraq
1995 CE First battle of Grozny Russian Army captured Grozny
1999 CE Kargil War Pakistani infiltrators returned to status quo ante bellum
2001 CE Battle of Kabul US forces attacked Kabul and seized it from the Taliban
2001 CE Battle of Kandahar US and allied forces seized the last remaining city from the Taliban
2001 CE Battle of Tora Bora US and allied forces besieged AlQaida, but Osama bin Laden was escaped
2003 CE Battle of Baghdad (Gulf War II) US forces captured the Iraqi capital from Saddam Hussein's forces
Jan 2011 CE First Battle of Benghazi Libyan rebel forces freed the city from Colonel Gaddafi's rule
March 2011 CE Battle of Bin Jawad Gaddafi forces recaptured the city
August 2011 CE Battle of Tripoli Tripoli is seized by rebel forces and Gaddafi government collapsed

General Knowledge - Important Revolutions

The following table describes major revolutions of the world −

S.No Name and Explanation

The Glorious Revolution or Revolution of 1688

This revolution ended the reign of James II in England and established the reign of William III and Mary II. It also ensured the Parliamentary supremacy over the (British) monarchy.


The American Revolution (1765 to 1783)

It was American Independence War against the British Rule.


The French Revolution (1790s)

It was the modern revolution in France that had taken place (roughly) between 1789 and 1799.


The Haitian Revolution (1791 to 1804)

The revolution was an anti-slavery and anti-colonial insurgence that took place at Saint Domingue (the former French colony).


The Russian Revolution (1917) (Also known as the Great October Socialist Revolution)

It was revolution that dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and founded the Soviet Union (in 1917).


The Cuban Revolution (1953-59)

It was an armed revolt under the leadership of Fidel Castro against the Cuban President Fulgencio Batista (basically, the US backed authoritarian government).


The Hungarian Revolution (of 1956)

It was basically Hungarian Uprising (nationwide) against the government of the Hungarian People's Republic and the Soviet-imposed policies.


Iranian Revolution of 1978–79, (also known as Islamic Revolution)

The revolution removed the monarchy system and founded the Islamic republic.


China's Cultural Revolution (1966)

The revolution enforced the communism in the country by removing the capitalist, traditional, and cultural elements.

GK - Countries and its Independence Date

The following table illustrates name of the country and its independence date −

Country Date
Hungary August 20, 1000
Switzerland August 1, 1291
Sweden June 6, 1523
Portugal December 1, 1640
United States July 4, 1776
Haiti January 1, 1804
Serbia February 15, 1804
Ecuador August 10, 1809
Chile February 12, 1810
Colombia July 20, 1810
Mexico September 16, 1810
Paraguay May 15, 1811
Venezuela July 5, 1811
Norway May, 1814
Argentina July 9, 1816
Costa Rica September 15, 1821
Greece March 25, 1821
Peru July 28, 1821
Nicaragua September 15, 1821
Honduras September 15, 1821
Guatemala September 15, 1821
El Salvador September 15, 1821
Dominican Republic December 1, 1821
Ecuador May 24, 1822
Brazil September 7, 1822
Bolivia August 6, 1825
Uruguay August 25, 1825
Belgium July 21, 1831
Liberia July 26, 1847
Canada July, 1867
Romania May 10, 1877
Philippines June 12, 1898
Cuba May 20, 1902
Panama November 3, 1903
Bulgaria September 22, 1908
Mongolia December 29, 1911
Albania November 28, 1912
Ireland April 24, 1916
Finland December 6, 1917
Lithuania February 16, 1918
Estonia February 24, 1918
Georgia May 26, 1918
Armenia May 28, 1918
Azerbaijan May 28, 1918
Czech Republic October 28, 1918
Poland November 11, 1918
Latvia November 18, 1918
Ukraine January 22, 1919
Afghanistan August 19, 1919
Turkey October 29, 1923
South Africa December 11, 1931
Iraq October 3, 1932
Lebanon November 22, 1943
Iceland June 3, 1944
Belarus July 3, 1944
South Korea August 15, 1945
North Korea August 15, 1945
Vietnam September 2, 1945
Jordan May 25, 1946
Syria April 17, 1946
Pakistan August 14, 1947
India August 15, 1947
Myanmar January 4, 1948
Israel Between April 15 & May 15, 1948 (depending on Hebrew Calendar)
Sri Lanka February 4, 1948
Libya December 24, 1951
Cambodia November 9, 1953
Laos October 22, 1953
Austria October 26, 1955
Morocco November 18, 1955
Sudan January 1, 1956
Tunisia March 20, 1956
Ghana March 6, 1957
Malaysia August 31, 1957
Guinea October 2, 1958
Cameroon January 1, 1960
Senegal April 4, 1960
Togo April 27, 1960
Madagascar June 26, 1960
Democratic Republic of the Congo June 30, 1960
Somalia July 1, 1960
Benin August 1, 1960
Burkina Faso August 5, 1960
Niger August 3, 1960
Ivory Coast August 7, 1960
Republic of the Congo August 15, 1960
Gabon August 17, 1960
Mali September 22, 1960
Nigeria October 1, 1960
Cyprus October 1, 1960
Mauritania November 28, 1960
Kuwait February 25, 1961
Sierra Leone April 27, 1961
Tanzania December 9, 1961
Samoa June 1, 1962
Burundi July 1, 1962
Rwanda July 1, 1962
Algeria July 5, 1962
Jamaica August 6, 1962
Trinidad & Tobago August 31, 1962
Uganda October 9, 1962
Malaysia September 16, 1963
Kenya December 12, 1963
Malawi July 6, 1964
Malta September 21, 1964
Zambia October 24, 1964
The Gambia February 18, 1965
Maldives July 26, 1965
Singapore August 9, 1965
Zimbabwe November 11, 1965
Guyana May 26, 1966
Botswana September 30, 1966
Lesotho October 4, 1966
Barbados November 30, 1966
Anguilla May 30, 1967
Yemen November 30, 1967
Nauru January 31, 1968
Mauritius March 12, 1968
Swaziland September 6, 1968
Equatorial Guinea October 12, 1968
Tonga June 4, 1970
Fiji October 10, 1970
Bangladesh March 26, 1971
United Arab Emirates December 2, 1971
Bahrain December 16, 1971
Qatar December 18, 1971
Bahamas July 10, 1973
Guinea Bissau September 24, 1973
Grenada February 7, 1974
Mozambique June 25, 1975
Cape Verde July 5, 1975
Comoros July 6, 1975
São Tomé and Príncipe July 12, 1975
Papua New Guinea September 16, 1975
Angola November 11, 1975
Suriname November 25, 1975
Western Sahara February 27, 1976
Seychelles June 29, 1976
Djibouti June 27, 1977
Solomon Islands July 7, 1978
Tuvalu October 1, 1978
Dominica November 3, 1978
Saint Lucia February 22, 1979
Kiribati July 12, 1979
Saint Vincent & the Grenadines October 27, 1979
Belize September 21, 1981
Antigua & Barbuda November 1, 1981
Northern Cyprus September 2, 1983
Saint Kitts and Nevis September 19, 1983
Brunei January 1, 1984
Latvia May 4, 1990
Lithuania March 11, 1990
Namibia March 21, 1990
Slovenia December 26 & June 25, 1990
Georgia April 9, 1991
Estonia August 20, 1991
Ukraine August 24, 1991
Moldova August 27, 1991
Kyrgyzstan August 31, 1991
Uzbekistan September 1, 1991
Macedonia September 8, 1991
Tajikistan September 9, 1991
Armenia September 21, 1991
Croatia October 8, 1991
Azerbaijan October 18, 1991
Turkmenistan October 27, 1991
Kazakhstan December 16, 1991
Bosnia and Herzegovina March 1, 1992
Slovakia July 17, 1992
Czech Republic January 1, 1993
Eritrea May 24, 1993
East Timor May 20, 2002
Montenegro May 21, 2006
Kosovo February 17, 2008
South Sudan July 9, 2011

GK - Indian History Time Line

The following table illustrates the major events and respective timelines of India −

Time Events
9000 BCE Period of early Neolithic culture
9000 BCE Bhimbetka rock shelters (found in Madhya Pradesh region); also evidenced some of the Stone Age rock paintings
7000 to 2500 BCE Mehergarh Culture (Neolithic Age)
3300 to 1700 BCE Phase of Indus Valley Civilization
1800 BCE Indo-Aryan migration
1500 to 1000 BCE Early Vedic Period
1300 BCE End of Cemetery H culture
1200 BCE Rigveda Period
1000 to 500 BCE Late Vedic period
1000 BCE Iron Age of India
877 BCE Birth of Parsvanatha (23rd Jain Tirthankara)
700 BCE Age of Upanishads
600 BCE Period of Sixteen Maha Janapadas
599 BCE Birth of Mahavira (24th Tirthankar of Jainism)
563 BCE Birth of Siddhārtha Gautama (Buddha)
558–491 BCE Bimbisara (also known as Srenika) founded Haryanka dynasty
527 BCE Nirvana of Mahavira
492–460 BCE Period of Ajatshatru (son of Bimbisara)
483 BCE Mahaparinirvana of Gautama Buddha
350 BCE Panini (a resident of Gandhara) had written Ashtadhyayi (Sanskrit Grammar book)
326 BCE Battle of the Hydaspes River between Porus and Alexander
321 BCE Chandragupta Maurya established Mauryan Empire in Magadha
305 BCE Chandragupta Maurya defeated Seleucus Nicator
300 BCE Chola dynasty (in south India)
297–273 BCE Period of Bindusara (son of Chandragupta Maurya)
268–232 BCE Period of the Great Ashoka (son of Bindusara)
265 BCE Kalinga War (between Ashoka and the kingdom of Kalinga)
260 BCE Ashoka inscribed the Edicts of Ashoka (written in Brahmi script)
251 BCE Mahinda (son of Ashoka) introduced Buddhism to Ceylon (Sri Lanka)
250 BCE The followers of Buddhists carved the first cave temples (namely Lomas Rishi)
232 BCE Ashoka died (Kunala, his son, succeeded)
184 BCE After the assassination of Brihadrata (by his general Pushyamitra shunga), Mauryan empire collapsed
184 BCE Establishement of the Shunga dynasty by Pushyamitra Shunga
78 BCE Beginning of Saka era
57 BCE Beginning of Vikram Era
Common Era (CE)
10 CE The Indo-Parthian kingdom established
240 CE Sri-Gupta established the Gupta Empire in Magadha (and its capital was in Pataliputra)
275 CE Pallava dynasty established
320 CE Chandragupta I became the king of Gupta empire
335 CE Samudragupta became the king of Gupta empire
380 CE Chandragupta II (son of Samudragupta) became the Gupta Emperor
405 CE Fahien, the Chinese traveler came India
450 CE Huna invasions
554 CE After the death of skandagupta, Gupta empire collapsed
606 CE Harshavardhana became the kind
629 CE Chinese monk Huang Tsang (Xuanzang) came to India
753 CE After defeating Chalukyas of Badami, Danti Durga established Rashtrakuta Kingdom
788 CE Birth of Adi Shankaracharya
1001 CE Invasion of Mahmud Ghazni
1025 CE Last invasion of Mahmud Ghazni that lead to destruction of temple of Somnath
1030 CE Death of Mahmud of Ghazni
1030 CE Alberuni came India
1191 CE First battle of Tarain between Mohammed Ghori and Prithviraj III (Ghauri was defeated)
1192 CE Second battle of Tarain between Mohammed Ghori and Prithviraj III (Prithviraj was defeated)
1154 CE Battle of Chandawar fought between Ghauri and Jaichand of Kannauj (Ghauri defeated Jayachandra and killed)
1192 CE Qutb al-Din Aybak constructed the Qutub Minar in Delhi
1206 CE Qutb-ud-din Aibak established ‘Slave Dynasty’ (which later came to known as Delhi Sultanate)
1210 CE While playing polo, Qutb-ud-din Aibak died
1221 CE Invasion of Changez Khan (Mongol invasion)
1240 CE Razia Sultan was killed by Turkish nobles
1336 CE Harihara I and his brother Bukka Raya I founded the Vijayanagara Empire
1398 CE Timur’s invasion
1483 CE Babur born
1498 CE The first voyage of Vasco de Gama from Europe to India
1526 CE The first Battle of Panipat in which Mughal ruler Babur defeated Ibrahim Lodi
1530 CE Babur died and his son Humayun became the emperor
1539 CE Battle of Chausa fought between Mughal emperor Humayun and Sher Shah Suri (Humayun defeated)
1540 CE Battle of Kannauj fought between Humayun and Sher Shah Suri and Humayun. Humayun lost the Mughal empire and hence escaped from India
1545 CE Sher Shah Suri died and his son Islam Shah Suri succeeded
1554 CE Islam Shah Suri died
1555 CE Humayun recuperated the throne of Delhi
1556 CE Humayun died and Akbar (his 12-year-old son) succeeded
1556 CE Second Battle of Panipat fought between Hemu and Akbar's forces (Hemu was defeated and killed)
1576 CE Battle of Haldighati fought between Rana Pratap and Akbar (Akbar defeated Rana Pratap)
1600 CE East India company is formed (in England) resultantly received exclusive trading rights with India
1605 CE Akbar died and his son Jahangir succeeded
1628 CE Jehangir died and his son Shah Jahan succeeded
1627 CE Birth of Chatrapati Shivaji
1658 CE Aurangzeb became the Mughal emperor
1666 CE Shah Jahan died
1674 CE Shivaji defeated Mughal emperor’s troops and established Maratha empire
1680 CE Death of Shivaji
1707 CE Death of Aurangzeb
1739 CE Invasion of Nadir Shah
1756 CE Black Hole of Calcutta incident
1760 CE Battle at Wandewash (British troops defeated French)
1761 CE Third Battle of Panipat fought between Maratha and Afghans (led by Ahmad Shah); Marathas were defeated
1767 CE First Anglo-Mysore War (Haidar Ali of Mysore defeated the combined armies of the East India Company)
1772 CE Birth of Ram Mohan Roy
1773 CE Warren Hastings appointed as first Governor-General of India
1799 CE Fourth Anglo-Mysore War (Tipu Sultan died in the war)
1806 CE Vellore Mutiny
1814 Raja Ram Mohan Roy established "Atmiya Sabha"
1820 CE Birth of Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar
1824 CE Birth of Dayananda Saraswati
1836 CE Birth of Sri Ramakrishna Paramhansa
1853 CE Started Postal Service in India
1853 CE First Rail run between Bombay and Thane
1855 CE Santhal rebellion
1856 CE Hindu Widows' Remarriage Act
1856 CE Birth of Bal Gangadhar Tilak
1857 CE Sepoy Mutiny
1861 CE Birth of Rabindranath Tagore
1863 CE Birth of Swami Vivekanand
1865 CE Birth of Lala Lajpat Rai
1869 CE Birth of Mahatma Gandhi
1873 CE Satyashodhak Samaj was established by Jyotirao Phule
1875 CE Arya Samaj was established
1877 CE First time Delhi Durbar organized
1885 CE Indian National Congress was founded
1899 CE V.D.Savarkar organized ‘Mithra Mela’
1902 CE Anushilan Samiti was organized
1905 CE Partition of Bengal
1906 CE Muslim League formed in Dacca
1907 CE Congress Session at Surat (Congress divided as Moderate and Extremists)
1908 CE Alipore bomb case
1909 CE Morley-Minto Reforms
1911 CE Cancellation of Partition of Bengal
1911 CE British government moved capital city from Calcutta to Delhi
1912 CE Delhi conspiracy case
1913 CE Formation of Gadar Party
1914 CE Hindu–German Conspiracy
1916 CE Lucknow Pact
1917 CE Champaran and Kheda Satyagraha
1919 CE Jallianwala Bagh massacre
1919 CE Montagu–Chelmsford Reforms
1919 CE Rowlatt Act
1920 CE Non-cooperation movement (Khilafat Movement)
1922 CE Chauri Chaura incident
1924 CE Formation of Hindustan Socialist Republican Association
1925 CE Kakori conspiracy
1927 CE Simon Commission
1928 CE Bardoli Satyagraha
1929 CE Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Dutt bombed on Central Assembly
1929 CE Resolution of Purna Swaraj
1930 CE Salt Satyagraha (Dandi March)
1930 CE First Round Table Conferences
1931 CE Gandhi–Irwin Pact
1931 CE Bhagat Singh, Rajguru, and Sukhdev martyred
1931 CE Second Round Table Conferences
1932 CE Poona Pact
1932 CE Communal Award
1932 CE Third Round Table Conferences
1935 CE Government of India Act 1935
1937 CE Indian provincial elections
1939 CE Subhas Chandra Bose established ‘All India Forward Bloc’
1940 CE Lahore Resolution
1940 CE August offer (1940)
1942 CE Cripps’ Mission
1942 CE Quit India Movement
1942 CE Subhas Chandra Bose established Indian National Army
1944 CE Subhas Chandra Bose named Mahatma Gandhi as the ‘Father of the Nation’
1945 CE Wavell Plan (Simla Conference)
1946 CE Royal Indian Navy Mutiny
1946 CE Cabinet Mission
1946 CE Great Calcutta Killings
1947 CE Indian Independence Act 1947
1947 CE Partition of India and Pakistan (both became independent nations)
1948 CE Mahatma Gandhi assassinated by Nathuram Godse
1948 CE India-Pakistan war
1950 CE Indian became Republic (of India)
1951 CE Congress Party won first general election
1962 CE India won Diu, Daman, and Goa from Portuguese
1964 CE Death of Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru
1965 CE Second Pakistan-India war
1966 CE Indira Gandhi (daughter of Jawaharlal Nehru) becomes prime minister
1971 CE Third Pakistan-India war
1974 CE India exploded first nuclear device (in underground test)
1975 CE Indira Gandhi declared state of emergency
1975 CE Birth control introduced
1977 CE Janata Party came into power (Congress party lost the election)
1979 CE Janta Party split
1980 CE Congress again came into power
1984 CE Operation Blue Star (Anti-Sikh Riots 1984)
1984 CE Indira Gandhi was assassinated
1988 CE SEBI (Security and Exchange Board of India) was established by The Government of India
1991 CE Rajiv Gandhi assassinated
1991 CE Economic reform program (liberalization)
1992 CE Babri Mosque in Ayodhya is demolished
1992 CE 1992 Odisha liquor deaths incident
1996 CE Amarnath Yatra tragedy
1998 CE BJP forms coalition government under Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee
2000 CE US President Bill Clinton’s India visit
2001 CE Massive earthquakes in Gujarat
2001 CE Suicide squad attacked parliament in New Delhi
2002 CE Godhra (Gujarat) incident
2003 CE Bomb blasts in Mumbai
2004 CE Tsunami incident
2005 CE Earthquake in Kashmir
2007 CE India's first commercial space rocket is launched (carried Italian satellite)
2008 CE Series of bomb explosions in Ahmedabad (Gujarat)
2008 CE Attack on two hotels namely the Taj Mahal Palace & Tower and the Oberoi Trident (Mumbai)
2009 CE India and Russia signed Uranium deal worth of $700 million
2012 CE Ajmal Kasab the sole surviving gunman of 2008 Mumbai attacks was hanged
2013 CE Mars Orbiter Mission, is successfully launched into the Orbit of Mars by ISRO (the Indian Space Research Organization)
2014 CE Congress was routed in the general elections and Narendra Modi (BJP) elected as the Prime Minister
2016 CE Terror Attacks on Pathankot Air Base
2016 CE India becomes member of Missile Technology Control Regime

General Knowledge - Indian Battles

The following table explains the major wars fought on Indian territory −

War Fought between Time
Battle of the Ten Kings King Sudas of Trustu-Bharata Trib defeated Ten Kings 14 BCE
Battle of the Hydaspes Between King Porus and Alexander 326 BCE
Conquest of the Nanda Empire Between Chandragupta Maurya and Dhana Nanda 321-320 BCE
Seleucid-Mauryan war Between Chandragupta Maurya and Seleucus 303 BCE
Kalinga War Between Ashoka and Rani Padmavati 262 BCE
Common Era(CE)
Huna Invasion Between Huna and Gupta empire 458 CE
Battle of Pullalur Between the Chalukya king Pulakesin II and the Pallava king Mahendravarman I 618–619 CE
Battle of Vatapi Between the Pallavas and Chalukyas 642 CE
Battle of Rajasthan A series of battles fought between the Umayyad and later the Abbasid caliphates, and kings to the east of the Indus river 712-740 CE
Battle of Peshawar Mahmud of Ghazni defeated Jayapala 1000 CE
First Battle of Tarain Prithvi Raj Chauhan defeated Muhammad Ghori 1191 CE
Second Battle of Tarain Muhammad Ghori defeated Prithvi Raj Chauhan 1192 CE
Battle of Chandawar Muhammad Ghori defeated Jaichandra 1194 CE
First Battle of Panipat Babur defeated Ibrahim Lodhi 1526 CE
Battle of Khanwa Mughal Emperor Babur defeated Rana Sanga of Mewar 1527 CE
Battle of Chanderi Babur defeated Medini Rai of Chanderi 1528 CE
Battle of Ghagra or Gogara Babur defeated Afghans 1529 CE
Battle of Chausa Shershah Suri defeated Mughal Emperor Humayun 1539 CE
Battle of kanauj or Billgram Shershah Suri defeated Mughal Emperor Humayun 1540 CE
Second Battle of Panipat Akbar defeated Hemu 1556 CE
Battle of Bannihatti or Tallikota Deccan sultanates defeated the Vijayanagara Empire 1565 CE
Battle of Haldighati Mughal Emperor's forces led by Man Singh I defeated Maharana Pratap 1576 CE
Battle of Kartarpur Between Mughal Emperor Shaha Jahan and Sikh led by Guru Hargobind Singh 1635 CE
Battle of Samugarh Between Dara Shikoh (the eldest son of Shah Jahan) and his two younger brothers Aurangzeb and Murad Baksh (third and fourth sons of the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan) 1658 CE
Battle of Kolhapur Shivaji defeated Adilshahi forces 1659 CE
Battle of Purandar Mughal forces defeated Shivaji 1665 CE
Battle of Sinhagad Between Mughal Empire and Maratha Empire 1670 CE
Battle of Bhupalgarh Mughal forces defeated Shivaji 1679 CE
Battle of Palkhed The Marathas defeated the Nizam 1728 CE
Battle of Mandsaur Malharrao Holkar (Maratha leader) defeated Jai Singh (Rajput ruler) 1733 CE
First Battle of Delhi Maratha defeated the Mughals 1737 CE
Battle of Vasai Maratha defeated Portuguese 1939 CE
First Battle of Katwa Between Nawab of Bengal and Maratha 1742 CE
Second Battle of Katwa Between Nawab of Bengal and Maratha 1745 CE
First Carnatic War Between British and French forces 1746-1748 CE
Second Carnatic War British forces defeated French forces 1749-1754 CE
Battle of Plassey British forces defeated Nawab Siraj ud-Daulah of Bengal 1757 CE
Battle of Wandiwash Between British and French forces 1760 CE
Third Battle of Panipat The King of Afghanistan, Ahmad Shah Abdali defeated the Maratha Empire 1761 CE
Battle of Buxar Between the British East India Company led by Hector Munro and the combined army of Mir Qasim, the Nawab of Bengal; the Nawab of Awadh; and the Mughal King Shah Alam II 1764 CE
First Anglo–Mysore War Between the Sultanate of Mysore and the East India Company 1767–1769 CE
First Rohilla War Between Shuja-ud-Daula, Nawab of Awadh and the Rohillas 1773-1774 CE
First Anglo-Maratha War Between the British East India Company and Maratha Empire 1775-1782 CE
Second Anglo–Mysore War Between the Kingdom of Mysore and the British East India Company 1780–1784 CE
Third Anglo–Mysore War Between the Kingdom of Mysore and the East India Company 1790–1792 CE
Fourth Anglo–Mysore War Between the Kingdom of Mysore and the British East India Company 1798–1799 CE
Second Anglo-Maratha War Between the British East India Company and the Maratha Empire 1803–1805 CE
Third Anglo-Maratha War Between the British East India Company and the Maratha Empire 1817–1818 CE
First Anglo-Sikh War Between the Sikh Empire and the East India Company 1845-1846 CE
Second Anglo-Sikh War Between the Sikh Empire and the British East India Company 1848-1849 CE
Bhutan War Between Bhutan and British East India Company 1865 CE
Third Anglo-Afghan War Between British India and Afghan 1919 CE
Battle of Imphal Between British India (Allied forces) and Japan Emperor 1944 CE

GK - Governors of Presidency

The following table illustrates the Governors of the Presidency along with their ruling period −

Name Period Picture
Warren Hastings 1773 to 1785 Warren Hastings
Sir John Macpherson 1785 to 1786 Sir John Macpherson
Earl Cornwallis 1786 to 1793 Earl Cornwallis
Sir John Shore 1793 to 1798 Sir John Shore
Sir Alured Clarke March 1798 to May 1798 Sir Alured Clarke
Marquess Wellesley 1798 to 1805 Marquess Wellesley
Marquess Cornwallis July 1805 to Oct 1805 Marquess Cornwallis
Sir George Barlow 1805 to 1807 Sir George Barlow
Lord Minto 1807 to 1813 Lord Minto
Marquess of Hastings 1813 to 1823 Marquess of Hastings
John Adam Jan 1823 to Aug 1823 John Adam
Lord Amherst 1823 to 1828 Lord Amherst
William Butterworth Bayley March 1828 to July 1828
Lord William Bentinck 1828 to 1833 Lord William Bentinck

GK - Governor-General of India

The following table illustrates the Governors-General of India along with their ruling period −

Name Period Picture
Lord William Bentinck 1833 to 1835 Lord William Bentinck
Sir Charles Metcalfe 1835 to 1836 Sir Charles Metcalfe
Lord Auckland 1836 to 1842 Lord Auckland
Lord Ellenborough 1842 to 1844 Lord Ellenborough
William Wilberforce Bird June 1844 to July 1844 N/A
Sir Henry Hardinge 1844 to 1848 Sir Henry Hardinge
Marquess of Dalhousie 1848 to 1856 Marquess of Dalhousie
Viscount Canning 1856 to 1858 Viscount Canning

General Knowledge - Viceroys of India

The following table illustrates the Viceroys of India along with their ruling period −

Name Period Picture
Viscount Canning 1858 to 1862 Viscount Canning
Earl of Elgin 1862 to 1863 Earl of Elgin
Sir Robert Napier Nov 1863 to Dec 1863 Sir Robert Napier
Sir William Denison 1863 to 1864 Sir William Denison
Sir John Lawrence 1864 to 1869 Sir John Lawrence
Earl of Mayo 1869 to 1872 Earl of Mayo
Sir John Strachey Feb 9, 1872 to Feb 23, 1872 Sir John Strachey
Lord Napier Feb 1872 to May 1872 Lord Napier
Lord Northbrook 1872 to 1876 Lord Northbrook
Lord Lytton 1876 to 1880 Lord Lytton
Marquess of Ripon 1880 to 1884 Marquess of Ripon
Earl of Dufferin 1884 to 1888 Earl of Dufferin
Marquess of Lansdowne 1888 to 1894 Marquess of Lansdowne
Earl of Elgin 1894 to 1899 Earl of Elgin
Lord Curzon 1899 to 1905 Lord Curzon
Earl of Minto 1905 to 1910 Earl of Minto
Lord Hardinge 1910 to 1916 Lord Hardinge
Lord Chelmsford 1916 to 1921 Lord Chelmsford
Earl of Reading 1921 to 1926 Earl of Reading
Lord Irwin 1926 to 1931 Lord Irwin
Earl of Willingdon 1931 to 1936 Earl of Willingdon
Marquess of Linlithgow 1936 to 1943 Marquess of Linlithgow
Viscount Wavell 1943 to 1947 Viscount Wavell
Lord Mountbatten Feb 1947 to Aug 1947 Lord Mountbatten
Governors-General of Independent India
Lord Mountbatten 1947 to 1948 Lord Mountbatten
C. Rajagopalachari 1948 to 1950 C. Rajagopalachari

GK - Classical Writers of India

The following table enlists authors and their works −

Author Works
Abhinavagupta Abhinavabharati
Adi Shankara Vivekachudamani
Atma Shatakam
Atma Shatakam
Al-beruni Kitab-i-Rahla
Ali Muhammad Khan Mirat-i-Muluk
Amara Simha Amarakosha
Apastamba Dharmasutra
Aryabhata Āryabhaṭīya
Ashtavakra Ashtavakra Gita
Aśvaghoṣa Buddhacarita
Badarayana Brahma Sutras
Bāṇabhaṭṭa Harshacharita
Bharata Muni Natya Shastra
Bharavi Kirātārjunīya
Bhāskara I Āryabhaṭīyabhāṣya
Bhāskara II Siddhānta Shiromani
Bhavabhuti Mahaviracharita
Bhāsa Svapnavasavadatta
Bilhana Vikramankadevacharita
Brahmagupta Brāhmasphuṭasiddhānta
Chanakya Arthashastra
Chand Bardoi Prithvaraj Raso
Charaka Charaka Samhita
Daṇḍin Daśakumāracarita
Hāla Gaha Sattasai
Harsha Vardhana Ratnavali
Ibn Batuta Tughlaqnama
Jaimini Purva Mimamsa Sutras
Jaimini Bharata
Jaimini Sutras
Jayadeva Gita Govinda
Jayasi Padmavat
Kalhana Rajatarangini
Kālidāsa Abhijñānaśākuntalam
Kashyap Kashyap Samhita
Krishnadeva Raya Madalasa Charitra
Kshemendra Ramayana-manjari
Kundakunda Samayasāra
Magha Shishupala Vadha
Mahendravarman I Mattavilasa Prahasana
Mahidasa Aitareya Aitareya Brahmana
Mahāvīra Ganit Saar Sangraha
Matanga Muni Brihaddeshi
Miraza Muhammad Kasim Alamgir-nama
Nagarjuna Mūlamadhyamakakārikā
Pāṇnini Ashtadhyayi
Patañjali Mahabhasya
Yoga Sūtras
Parashara Muni Bṛhat Parāśara Horāśāstra
Parameshvara Bhatadipika
Rajasekhara Balabharata
Somadeva Kathasaritsagara
Shaunaka Ṛgveda-Prātiśākhya
Sriharsha Naishadhīya-charitam
Śūdraka Mricchakatika
Surdas Sur Sagar
Sur Sarawali
Sahitya Ratna
Sushruta Sushruta Samhita
Tenali Rama Krishna Panduranga Mahatyam
Tulsidas Ramcharitmanas
Valmiki Ramayana
Yoga Vasistha
Varāhamihira Pancha-Siddhantika
Brihat Jataka
Vātsyāyana Nyāya Sutra Bhāshya
Kama Sutra
Vijñāneśvara Mitākṣarā
Virasena Dhavala
Vishakhadatta Mudrarakshasa
Vishnu Sharma Panchatantra
Vyasa Mahabharata
Yajnavalkya Shatapatha Brahmana
Yoga Yajnavalkya
Yājñavalkya Smṛti

General Knowledge - Mughal Literature

The following table enlists the Mughal period authors and their works −

Author Works
Gulbadan Begam Humayun Nama
Abul Fazl Ain-i-Akbari
Akbar Nama
Mulla Daud Tawarikh-i-Alfi
Jahangir Tuzuk-i-Jahangiri
Abdul Hamid Lahori Padshah Namah
Inayat Khan Shah Jahan Namah
Dara Shikoh Safinat-ul Auliya
Sakinat-ul Auliya
Aurangzeb Raqqat-e-Alamgiri
Bhimsen Nuskha-i-Dilkusha
Iswar Das Futuhat-i-Alamgiri
Babur Tuzuk-i-Baburi
Amir Khusrau Tarikh-i-Alai

GK - Historical Monuments of India

The following table enlists the major monuments of India −

Monuments Constructed by Location
Nalanda University Gupta Dynasty Rajgir, Nalanda (Bihar)
The seven Pagodas of Mahabalipuram Narasimhavarman II Mahabalipuram (Tamil Nadu)
Jagannatha Temple King Anantavarman Chodaganga Deva (Eastern Ganga Dynasty) Puri, Odisha
Lingaraj Temple Somavamsi Dynasty Bhubaneswar, Odhisha
Khajuraho Group of Monuments Chandela Dynasty Chhatarpur, Madhya Pradesh
Brihadeeswara Temple (also known as RajaRajeswara Temple) Raja Raja Chola I Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu
Ajanta Caves Satavahana Dynasty later Mauryan Dynasty Aurangabad, Maharashtra
Ellora Caves Kalachuri, Chalukya, and Rashtrakuta Dynasties Aurangabad, Maharashtra
Agra Fort Mughal Emperor Akbar Agra, Uttar Pradesh
Thousand Pillars Temple (also known as Rudreshwara Swamy Temple) Kakatiya Dynasty Hanamakonda, Telangana
Red Fort Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan Delhi
Taj Mahal Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan Agra, Uttar Pradesh
Konark Sun Temple Narasimhadeva I (Eastern Ganga Dynasty) Konark, Odisha
Fatehpur Sikri Mughal Emperor Akbar Agra, UP
Bibi Ka Maqbara Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb Aurangabad, Maharashtra
Jama Masjid Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan Delhi
Mehrangarh Fort Rao Jodha Jodhpur, Rajasthan
Tajmahal Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan Agra, Uttar Pradesh
Qutub Minar Qutubuddin Aibak Delhi
Makkah Masjid Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah Hyderabad, Telangana
Hawa Mahal Maharaja Sawai Pratap Singh Jaipur, Rajasthan
Moti Masjid Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan Agra, Uttar Pradesh
Humayun's Tomb Akbar and Humayun’s wife Empress Bega Begum Delhi
Charminar Quli Qutub Shah Hyderabad, Telangana
Elephanta Caves Not exactly known Mumbai (Harbour), Maharashtra
Bara Imambara Asaf-ud-Daula (Nawab of Awadh) Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh
Dilwara Temples Vastupal-Tejpal Mount Abu, Rajasthan
Gateway of India British Government (Designed by George Wittet) Mumbai City, Maharashtra
India Gate Designed by Edwin Lutyens Delhi
Jantar Mantar Maharaja Jai Singh Delhi
Parana Qila (Old Fort) Shershah Suri Delhi
Golden Temple Fourth Sikh guru, Guru Ram Das Amritsar, Punjab
Victoria Memorial British Government Kolkata, West Bengal
Thillai Natarajah Temple Made collectively by Pallava, Chola, Pandya, etc. Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu
Group of Hampi Monuments Vijayanagara Empire Hampi, Karnataka
Lotus Temple Architect - Fariborz Sahba Delhi

GK - Socio-Religious Movements

The following table describes the major Socio-Religious Movements of Modern India −

Name Founder Place Year
Atmiya Sabha Rammohan Roy Calcutta 1815
Brahmo Samaj Rammohan Roy Calcutta 1828
Dharma Sabha Radhakant Dev Calcutta 1829
Tattvabodhini Sabha Debendranath Tagore Calcutta 1839
Manav Dharma Sabha Mehtaji Durgaram Manchharam Surat 1844
Paramhansa Mandli Dadoba Pandurang Bombay 1849
Radha Swami Satsang Tulsi Ram Agra 1861
Brahmo Samaj of India Keshub Chunder Sen Calcutta 1866
Dar-ul-Ulum Muhammad Qasim Nanotvi,Rasheed Ahmed Gangohi and 'Abid Husaiyn Deoband (a town in Saharanpur, UP) 1866
Prarthna Samaj Dr. Atmaram Pandurang Bombay 1867
Arya Samaj Swami Dayananda Bombay 1875
Theosophical Society Helena Petrovna Blavatsky, Colonel Henry Steel Olcott, William Quan Judge New York City, United States 1875
Sadharan Brahmo Samaj Ananda Mohan Bose, Sib Chandra Deb and Umesh Chandra Dutta Calcutta 1878
Deccan Education Society Vishnushastri Chiplunkar, Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Gopal Ganesh Agarkar Pune 1884
Muhammadan Educational Conference Sir Syed Ahmad Khan Aligarh 1886
Deva Samaj Shiv Narayan Agnihotri Lahore 1887
Ramakrishna Mission Swami Vivekanand Belur 1897
Ramakrishna Mission Swami Vivekanand Belur 1897
Servants of India Gopal Krishna Gokhale Pune 1905
Seva Sadan Society Ramabai Ranade Pune 1909
Social Service League Narayan Malhar Joshi Bombay 1911

GK - Lower Caste Movements

The following table describes the major Lower Caste Movements of Modern India −

Name Founder Place Year
Satyashodhak Samaj Jyotirao Phule Maharashtra 1873
Aruvippuram Movement Sri Narayana Guru Aruvippuram, Kerala 1888
The Depressed Class Mission Society Mahrshi Vitthal Ramji Shinde Bombay 1906
Justice Party (officially the South Indian Liberal Federation) T. M. Nair and P. Theagaraya Chetty Madras, Tamil Nadu 1916
Bahishkrit Hitakarini Sabha B. R. Ambedkar Bombay 1924
Self-Respect Movement E. V. Ramasamy (also called as Periyar by his devoted followers) Madras, Tamil Nadu 1925
Harijan Sevak Sangh Mahatma Gandhi Pune 1932

GK - Indian Revolutionary Organizations

The following table describes the major Revolutionary Organizations of Modern India −

Name Founder Place Year
Vyayam Mandala Chapekar Brothers Poona 1896-97
Mitra Mela (from 1903, it is transformed as Abhinav Bharat Society/Young India Society) Savarkar Brothers Nasik 1901
Anushilan Samiti Satish Chandra Basu * Pramathanath Mitra Calcutta 1902
Swadesh Bandhab Samiti Ashwini Kumar Dutta N/A 1905
Hindustan Republican Association (HRA) Sachindra Nath Sanyal, Narendra Mohan Sen, Pratul Ganguly Kanpur 1924
Bharat Naujawan Sabha Bhagat Singh Lahore 1926
Hindustan Socialist Republican Association Army (HSRA) Chandrasekhar Azad, Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev Thapar New Delhi 1928
Indian Home Rule Society Shyamji Krishna Varma London 1905
Indian Independence League Taraknath Das California (USA) 1907
Gadar Party Lala Hardayal USA & Canada 1913

GK - Parts of Indian Constitution

The following table enlists the Parts and Articles of the Indian Constitutions −

Part Contains Articles
Part I Union and its Territory 1 to 4
Part II Citizenship 5 to 11
Part III Fundamental Rights 12 to 35
Part IV Directive Principles of State Policy 36 to 51
Part IVA Fundamental Duties 51A
Part V The Union 52 to 151
Part VI The States 152 to 237
Part VII States in the B part of the First schedule (repealed by 7th Amendment)
Part VIII The Union Territories 239 to 242
Part IX The Panchayats 243 to 243O
Part IXA The Municipalities 243P to 243ZG
Part IXB The Co-operative Societies 243ZH to 243ZT
Part X The scheduled and Tribal Areas 244 to 244A
Part XI Relations between the Union and the States 245 to 263
Part XII Finance, Property, Contracts and Suits 264 to 300A
Part XIII Trade and Commerce within the territory of India 301 to 307
Part XIV Services Under the Union, the States 308 to 323
Part XIVA Tribunals 323A to 323B
Part XV Elections 324 to 329A
Part XVI Special Provisions Relating to certain Classes 330 to 342
Part XVII Languages 343 to 351
Part XVIII Emergency Provisions 352 to 360
Part XIX Miscellaneous 361 to 367
Part XX Amendment of the Constitution 368
Part XXI Temporary, Transitional and Special Provisions 369 to 392
Part XXII Short title, date of commencement, etc. 393 to 395

GK - Schedules of Indian Constitution

The following table describes the Schedule of the Indian Constitution −

Schedule Contains
First Schedule Lists the states and territories of India (also about their changes)
Second Schedule Lists the salaries of officials holding public office, Presidents, judges, and Comptroller and Auditor General of India
Third Schedule Forms of oaths and Affirmations of offices for elected officials including judges
Fourth Schedule Allocation of seats in the Rajya Sabha (the Upper House of Parliament) per State or Union Territory
Fifth Schedule Provisions as to the Administration and Control of Scheduled Areas and Scheduled Tribes
Sixth Schedule Provisions as to the Administration of Tribal Areas in the States of Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura, and Mizoram
Seventh Schedule The Union (central government), state, and concurrent lists of responsibilities
Eight Schedule The Languages
Ninth Schedule Validation of certain Acts and Regulations
Tenth Schedule "Anti-defection" provisions for the Members of Parliament and the Members of the State Legislatures
Eleventh Schedule Panchayat Raj (rural local government)
Twelfth Schedule Municipalities (urban local government)

General Knowledge - Presidents of India

The following table enlists all the Presidents of India −

Name Tenure Picture
From To
Rajendra Prasad Jan., 1950 May, 1962 Rajendra Prasad
Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan May, 1962 May, 1967 Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan
Zakir Husain (died in Office) May 1967 May 1969 Zakir Husain
Varahagiri Venkata Giri (He was an acting President May 1969 July 1969 Varahagiri Venkata Giri
Mohammad Hidayatullah (He was an acting President) July 1969 August 1969 Mohammad Hidayatullah
Varahagiri Venkata Giri August 1969 August 1974 Varahagiri Venkata Giri
Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed August 1974 February 1977 Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed
Basappa Danappa Jatti (He was an acting President) February 1977 July 1977 Basappa Danappa Jatti
Neelam Sanjiva Reddy July 1977 July 1982 Neelam Sanjiva Reddy
Giani Zail Singh July 1982 July 1987 Giani Zail Singh
Ramaswamy Venkataraman July 1987 July 1992 Ramaswamy Venkataraman
Shankar Dayal Sharma July 1992 July 1997 Shankar Dayal Sharma
Kocheril Raman Narayanan July 1997 July 2002 Kocheril Raman Narayanan
A. P. J. Abdul Kalam July 2002 July 2007 A.P.J Abdul Kalam
Pratibha Patil July 2007 July 2012 Pratibha Patil
Pranab Mukherjee July 2012 Till date Pranab Mukherjee

General Knowledge - Prime Ministers of India

The following table enlists name of all the Prime Minsters of India −

Name Tenure Picture
From To
Jawaharlal Nehru August 1947 May 1964 Jawaharlal Nehru
Gulzarilal Nanda (He was an Acting Prime Minister) May 1964 June 1964 Gulzarilal Nanda
Lal Bahadur Shastri June 1964 January 1966 Lal Bahadur Shastri
Gulzarilal Nanda (He was second time an Acting Prime Minister) January 11, 1966 January 24, 1966 Gulzarilal Nanda
Indira Gandhi January 1966 March 1977 Indira Gandhi
Morarji Desai March 1977 July 1979 Morarji Desai
Charan Singh July 1979 January 1980 Charan Singh
Indira Gandhi January 1980 October 1984 Indira Gandhi
Rajiv Gandhi October 1984 December 1989 Rajiv Gandhi
V. P. Singh December 1989 November 1990 V. P. Singh
Chandra Shekhar November 1990 June 1991 Chandra Shekhar
P. V. Narasimha Rao June 1991 May 1996 P. V. Narasimha Rao
Atal Bihari Vajpayee May 16, 1996 June 1, 1996 Atal Bihari Vajpayee
H. D. Deve Gowda June 1996 April 1997 H. D. Deve Gowda
I. K. Gujral April 1997 March 1998 I.k Gujral
Atal Bihari Vajpayee March 1998 May 2004 Atal Bihari Vajpayee
Manmohan Singh May 2004 May 2014 Manmohan Singh
Narendra Modi May 2014 Till date Narendra Modi

General Knowledge - The Universe

  • Pythagoras, who was an Ionian Greek philosopher and mathematician, first used the term “COSMOS” for the order of the Universe.

  • Cosmology is the discipline that describes the large scale properties of the universe as a whole.

  • The distance covered by light in one year is known as “Light Year.” The Velocity of light is 300,000 km/s.

  • The distance between the Sun and the Earth is known as “Astronomical Unit.” One astronomical unit is (roughly) equal to 149.6 million kilometers.

  • Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) is an Explorer Mission of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). It is launched for the study and measurement of cosmology.

  • Professor Sir Fred Hoyle, who was an English astronomer, coined the term “Big Bang” to explain a scientific theory on the creation of cosmos.

  • Galaxy is a huge collection of stellar and interstellar matter, which are bound together by its own gravity in the Space. There are several galaxies in the universe, for example, Milky Way.

  • The name galaxy where we live is ‘Milky Way.’

  • The largest galaxy is ‘Andromeda Galaxy.’ It is also the closest to Milky Way. Milky Way is the second largest galaxy.

  • The radius of Milky Way is about 50,000 light years.

  • The Solar System is a part of Milky Way.

  • The Sun takes 225 million light years to complete one circuit.

  • The collapsed stars, which are immeasurably dense and having huge gravitational force (even light cannot escape rather get absorbed) are known as “Black Holes.”

  • Quasar is a massive and extremely remote celestial object that keeps emitting remarkably large amounts of energy. Typically, it has a star like image, which can be seen through the telescope.

  • Constellation is a group of stars being arranged in a pictorial configuration. It was basically observed by the ancient astronomers. For example, Sirius (Canis Major), Canopus (Carina), Turus (Bootes), etc.

  • Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) is the British Astronomy center, located at Chajnantor (at an altitude of about 5,000 meters), in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile.

  • Edwin Hubble, who was an American astronomer, first studied galaxies in detail. Based on Shape, Edwin classified galaxies as Elliptical, Spiral, and Barred Spiral.

  • At the end of life-cycle, when a star loses its light and the density increases (very high), by this time, it is largely composed of neutrons and hence known as ‘Neutron Star.’

  • Most likely, the rotating neutron star emits intermittent radio signals, is known as ‘Pulsar.’

  • A star with low temperature and small mass (glowing feebly) is known as ‘Red Dwarf.’

  • A star that suddenly increases its brightness (greatly) because of a catastrophic explosion and ejects most of its mass is known as ‘Supernova.’

  • Satellites (or Moons) are the bodies that keep revolving around their respective planets. For example, Moon revolves around the Earth, etc.

  • The Sun is the closest star to the Earth (at the distance of about 149,600,000 km).

  • Located at the distance of about 4.24 light-years, Proxima Centauri is the second closest star to the Earth.

  • The Sun is made up of extremely hot gasses and its glowing surface is known as the ‘Photosphere.’ The layer immediately above the photosphere is known as ‘Chromosphere’ (sphere of color).

  • The Chromosphere is 10,000 km thick transparent shell of plasma.

  • The Outermost layer of the Sun is known as the ‘Corona.’

  • Temperature of the outer surface is 6,0000 C and interior temperature is 15,000,0000 C.

  • The rotation period of the Sun is 25 days, 9 hours, and 7 minutes.

  • The traveling speed of the Sun’s Rays is 30,000 m/s.

  • The time taken by Sun’s Rays to reach the Earth is 8 minutes and 16.6 seconds.

  • The Sun is largely composed (chemically) of Hydrogen (71%), Helium (26.5%), and some other elements (2.5%).

  • Sometimes, in the photosphere, some patches of gas, which is cooler that its surrounding (gas) are known as the ‘Sunspots.’

  • The Planets are the celestial bodies that revolve around the Sun as well as (at the same time) rotate on their imaginary axis.

General Knowledge - Solar System

  • There are eight planets namely (arranged in the order of increasing distance from the Sun) −

    • Mercury

    • Venus

    • Earth

    • Mars

    • Jupiter

    • Saturn

    • Uranus

    • Neptune

  • The largest planet is Jupiter and Mercury is the smallest planet of the system.



  • Mercury is the nearest to the Sun.

  • Mercury takes 58.65 Earth days to complete its rotation (on its axis) and takes 88 days to complete its one revolution (i.e. in its orbit around the Sun).

  • Mercury is the fastest planet and it has no moon (satellite).


  • Venus, which is also popular as an evening star and morning star, is the brightest celestial body in the universe after Sun and Moon.

  • Venus is the Hottest Planet of the solar system. It is closest to the Earth.

  • Venus takes 243 Earth days to complete its rotation (on its axis) and takes 224.7 days to complete its one revolution (i.e. in its orbit around the Sun).

  • Venus has no satellite and it spins in the opposite direction of the Earth’s spin.

  • Venus is named after the Roman goddess of Beauty.


  • Earth is the third planet from the Sun.

  • By the time, Earth is the only planet where life exists.

  • Earth takes 23 hours, 56 minutes, and 40 seconds to complete its rotation (on its axis) and takes 365.26 days to complete its one revolution (i.e. in its orbit around the Sun).

  • Mass of the Earth is 5.98 x 1024 kg and its diameter is 12,756 km.

  • Escape Velocity of the Earth is 11,200 m/s.

  • Obliquity (i.e. tilt of axis degrees) of the Earth is 23.40.

  • Mean density of the Earth is 5.514 g/cm3 and the surface is 510,072,000 km2.

  • Mean surface temperature of the Earth is 281 K; the mean maximum surface temperature is 310 K and the mean minimum surface temperature is 260 K.

  • The major atmospheric components of the Earth are Nitrogen (78%), Oxygen (20.95%), Argon (0.930%), and Carbon Dioxide (0.039%).


  • Moon is the only known satellite of the Earth.

  • Moons rotation time (on its axis) and revolution time (around the Earth) is same (i.e. 27 days, 7 hours, 43 minutes, and 11.47 seconds. This is the reason that we always see only one side of the Moon.

  • Moon revolves around the Earth once in every 27.3 days, which is known as ‘Sidereal Month;’ however, it takes 29.5 days to return to the same point on the celestial sphere in reference to the Sun (due to revolution motion of the Earth around the Sun) and it is known as ‘Synodic Month.’

  • When two full Moons occur in the same month, it is known as ‘Blue Moon.’

  • A Full Moon is basically the lunar phase that occurs when the Moon is completely illuminated as seen from the Earth.

  • As shown in the following image, the Lunar Phase or phase of the moon, is the shape of the illuminated portion of the Moon that is visible from the Earth. As Moon revolves, the lunar phases change cyclically and we can see from the full moon (full visible) to the new moon (not at all visible).



  • Mars is known as the ‘Red Planet’ of the solar system.

  • Mars takes 24 hours, 37 minutes, and 30 seconds to complete its rotation (on its axis) and takes 687 days to complete its one revolution (i.e. in its orbit around the Sun).

  • Mars has two satellites namely Phobos (means fear) and Deimos (means terror).


  • Jupiter takes 9 hours, 50 minutes, and 30 seconds to complete its rotation (on its axis) and takes 12 earth years to complete its one revolution (i.e. in its orbit around the Sun).

  • Jupiter has 63 natural satellites/moon, significant of them are Europa, Ganymede, Callisto, etc. Among all, Ganymede is the largest satellite in the whole solar system.


  • Saturn is the largest planet after Jupiter in the solar system.

  • Saturn is popular for its spectacular rings system.

  • The rings system of Saturn is made up of a variety of separate particles that rotate in circular orbits independently.

  • Saturn takes 10 hours and 14 minutes to complete its rotation (on its axis) and takes 30 years to complete its one revolution (i.e. in its orbit around the Sun).

  • Saturn has total 47 satellites/moons; among them, Titan is the biggest satellite.


  • Uranus is first identified as planet by William Herschel in 1781.

  • Like Saturn, Uranus also has a system of five faint rings.

  • Uranus takes 16 hours to complete its rotation (on its axis) and takes 84 years to complete its one revolution (i.e. in its orbit around the Sun).

  • Uranus has 27 satellites; significant of them are Miranda, Ariel, Umbriel, Titania, etc.


  • Neptune is the farthest planet which appears greenish through a telescope.

  • Neptune is discovered by Berlin scientist J. G. Galle in 1846.

  • Neptune takes 18 hours to complete its rotation (on its axis) and takes 165 years to complete its one revolution (i.e. in its orbit around the Sun).

  • Neptune has 13 satellites/moons; significant of them are ‘Triton’ and ‘Nereid.’

  • Until 2006, there were nine planets (including Pluto), but in 2006, the ninth planet Pluto is categorized as the dwarf planet by International Astronomical Union (IAU).


  • Asteroids, also known as small planets or planetoids, are the rocky debris largely found between the planets Mars and Jupiter. These are too small to have their own atmosphere (as shown in the following image).

  • The Asteroids revolve around the Sun, which varies from 3 to 10 years.

  • By the time, more than 450,000 Asteroids are discovered; the largest Asteroid is Ceres, which diameter is about 1,025 km.


  • Meteors, also popular as ‘Shooting Star’ or ‘Falling Star,’ is the passage of a comet, asteroid, or meteoroid into the Earth's atmosphere. It is heated (because of the collisions with air particles) and normally seen in the upper atmosphere (as shown in the following image).

  • Meteoroids are the small rocky or metallic bodies that normally travel through outer space. Meteoroids are expressively smaller than asteroids, and its size ranges from small grains to 1-meter-wide objects.


  • Comets are the icy small Solar System body; normally while passing close to the Sun, heats up and starts to outgas, displaying a visible atmosphere (i.e. basically coma) along with a tail (as shown in the following image – in the insat view).


General Knowledge - Basics of Planet Earth

  • Total surface area of the Earth is 510,100,500 sq. km, out of which −

    • The total land area is 148,950,800 sq. km (29.08% of total area) and

    • The total water area is 361,149,700 sq. km (70.92%).

  • Diameter of the Earth at Equator is 12,755 km, at the poles 12,712 km, and mean diameter is 12,734 km.

Diameter of Earth
  • Circumference of the Earth at Equator is 40,075 km and at the poles 40,024 km.

  • Equatorial radius of the Earth is 6,377 km.

  • The total mass of the Earth is 5.98 x 1024 kg.

  • Approximate age of the Earth is 4,500 million years.

  • The mean velocity of the Earth in its orbit (around the Sun) is 107,218 km/h.

  • The most abundant elements of the Earth are

    • Iron (about 32.5%),

    • Oxygen (29.8%),

    • Silicon (15.6%), and

    • Magnesium (13.9%)

Structure of Earth

  • The Earth is structured in three layers namely −

    • Crust,

    • Mantle, and

    • Core – Further classified as outer core (fluid layer) and inner core (solid layer).

Structure of Earth
  • The Crust is the uppermost layer of the Earth, largely composed of rocks. Its thickness ranges from 5 km to 60 km and density ranges from 2.7 to 3.

  • The Crust shares about 1 percent of Earth’s volume.

  • The Crust is categorized as ‘Continental Crust’ and ‘Oceanic Crust.’

  • The thickness of Continental Crust ranges from 30 km to 50 km. It is largely composed by granites, which density (i.e. 2.7) is lesser than the Oceanic Crust.

  • The thickness of Oceanic Crust ranges from 5 km to 10 km and it is composed primarily of basalt, diabase, and gabbro.

  • The density of Oceanic Crust is 3.0.

  • The most abundant element of Crust is Oxygen (46.6%) followed by Silicon (27.7%) and Aluminum (8.1%).

  • The Crust is also known as ‘Sial’ (i.e. Silicon and Aluminum)

  • The boundary between the Crust and the Mantle is known as the “Mohorovičić Discontinuity.”

  • The Mantle is located between the Crust and the (Outer) Core, which thickness is about 2885 km.

  • The Mantle shares about 83% of the Earth’s volume and about 65% of the mass.

  • The density of Mantle is about 3.4 g/cm3.

  • The upper layer of Mantle is known as ‘Asthenosphere.’

  • The Crust and the upper part of Mantle collectively known as ‘Lithosphere.’

  • The Core is mostly composed of iron and nickel; therefore, it is also known as ‘Nife’ (i.e. Nickel and Ferrous).

  • The Core shares about 16% of Earth’s total volume and 30% of the mass.

  • The thickness of the Core is about 3,400 km from the Mantle (likewise, the total depth from the Surface of the Earth is 6,300 km).

  • Core is categorized as outer core (which is in molten state) and inner core (which is in solid state).

  • Density of the inner core is about 13 g/cm3.

General Knowledge - Geological Time Scale

The following table describes Geological Time Scale in brief −

Era Period Period Age (as Million Years Ago – MYA) Major Events


It is the Age of Mammals.

(about 65.5 MYA to Present Day)

Quaternary Holocene 0.01 MYA to present End of the Ice Age and dominance of human beings.
Pleistocene 1.6 MYA Ice Age began and the earliest human appeared.
Tertiary Pliocene 5.3 MYA Trace of human ancestors.
Miocene 23.7 MYA Abundance of grass.
Oligocene 36.6 MYA Dominance of mammals.
Eocene 57.8 MYA Extinction incident
Paleocene 65.5 MYA First large mammals evidenced.


Age of Reptiles.

(about 245 MYA to 65.5 MYA

Cretaceous Extinction of Dinosaurs 144 MYA Flowering plants appeared.
Jurassic 208 MYA First birds appeared.
Triassi First Dinosaurs 245 MYA Reptiles were dominant and evidence of first mammals.


(about 570 MYA to 245 MYA)

Permian Age of Amphibians 286 MYA
Carboniferous 360 MYA First Reptile and large fish appeared.
Devonian Age of Fishes 408 MYA First land animal appeared.
Silurian 438 MYA First insects, land plants, & jawed fish appeared.
Ordovician 505 MYA Extinction incident evidenced.
Cambrian 570 MYA First fungi evidenced.


(about 4600 MYA to 570 MYA)

Proterozoic 2500 MYA First multicellular life appeared.
Achean 3800 MYA First unicellular life appeared.
Hadean Priscoan 4600 MYA Earth cooled and atmosphere and Ocean formed.

GK - Facts of Earth's Movement

  • The Earth’s rotation on its axis causes day and night.

  • The Earth’s revolution (in its orbit around the Sun) causes change in seasons.

  • When nights and days are equal is known as ‘Equinoxes.’ During the equinox’s time, the Sun shines exactly over the equator.

  • March 21 (of every year) is known as the vernal (spring) equinox and September 23 (of every year) is known as the autumnal equinox.

  • When the difference between the length of day and night is maximum is known as ‘Solstice.’

  • During the solstice time, the Sun shines over the tropics (either on Tropic of Cancer or Tropic Capricorn).

  • 23.500 North represents ‘Tropic of Cancer.’ On June 21, the Sun shines over the Tropic of Cancer and it is known as the longest day of the year.

  • June 21 is known as the Summer Solstice.

Summer Solstice
  • 23.500 South represents ‘Tropic of Capricorn.’ On December 21, the Sun shines over the Tropic of Capricorn and it is known as the longest night of the year.

  • December 21 is known as Winter Solstice.

Winter Solstice
  • When light of a celestial body is obscured by another celestial body, the situation is known as ‘Eclipse.’

  • When the Earth comes between the Sun and the Moon, it is known as “Lunar Eclipse.”

Lunar Eclipse
  • When the Moon come between the Sun and the Earth, it is known as “Solar Eclipse.”

Solar Eclipse

General Knowledge - Atmosphere

  • The composition of the Earth’s atmosphere changes with the altitude.

  • The major constituents of the Earth’s atmosphere are −

    • Nitrogen – 78.09%

    • Oxygen – 20.95%

    • Argon – 0.93%

    • Carbon Dioxide – 0.039% (remaining other gasses)

  • The pressure exerted by the weight of air at a given point is known as “Atmospheric Pressure” or “Barometric Pressure.”

  • With increasing altitude, the atmospheric pressure decreases.

  • On an average, a column of air (which is normally one square centimeter in cross-section), measured at the sea level, has the weight of about 1.03 kg (about 10.1 N).

  • The Average Air Pressure is about 14.70 pounds per square inch, (equivalent to 1,013.25 × 103 dynes per square centimeter or 1,013.25 millibars) at the sea level.

  • A visible mass of condensed vapor floating above the general level of the ground is known as Cloud.

  • Based on the altitude, cloud is classified as −

    • High Altitude Cloud: For example, Cirrus, Cirrocumulus, & Cirrostratus.

    • Middle Altitude Cloud: For example, Altostratus and Altocumulus.

    • Low Altitude Cloud: Stratus, Stratocumulus, Cumulus, and Nimbostratus (it can be also seen in the middle altitude).

    • Vertical: Cumulonimbus


GK - Structure of Atmosphere

  • The structure of the atmosphere is classified into the following layers −

    • Troposphere: 0 to 12 km

    • Stratosphere: 12 to 50 km

    • Mesosphere: 50 to 80 km

    • Thermosphere: 80 to 700 km

    • Exosphere: 700 to 10,000 km


  • Troposphere is the closest to the Earth’s surface and contains water vapor (clouds), moisture, dust, etc.

  • Most of the weather phenomena take place in Troposphere.

  • Height of the Troposphere varies i.e. at the equator, it is measured about 18 km and at the poles, it is 12 km.

  • Tropopause is the transitional zone that separates Troposphere and Stratosphere.


  • Stratosphere is the second-lowest layer of the Earth’s Atmosphere that goes up to 50 km.

  • Stratosphere contains Ozone (O3) Layer that absorbs the ultraviolet rays (coming through the Sun rays) and protects life on the Earth.

  • As the ultraviolet radiation absorbs in Stratosphere, therefore the temperature rises with increasing altitude.

  • The Stratopause is the transitional zone that separates Stratosphere and Mesosphere.


  • Mesosphere, present above the Stratosphere, extends up to (from 50 km to) 80 km.

  • Temperature in the Mesosphere decreases with increasing altitude.

  • Mesopause is the transitional zone that separates Mesosphere and Thermosphere.


  • Above the Mesosphere, Thermosphere is the second-highest layer that starts at the altitude of 80 km and extends up to (roughly) 700 km (however, it varies between 500 and 1000 km).

  • The lower part of the Thermosphere (roughly between 80 km and 550 km) contains ions and known as Ionosphere.

  • The temperature of the Thermosphere rises with increasing altitude.

  • Thermopause is the transitional zone that separates Thermosphere and Exosphere.


  • Exosphere is the highest or outermost layer of the Earth’s atmosphere that extends (starting from 700 km altitude) up to 10,000 km where it ultimately merges into the solar wind.

  • Major constituents of the Exosphere are helium, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon dioxide.

  • The phenomena of Aurora Borealis and Aurora Australis can be seen in the lower part of the Exosphere (merged with upper part of the Thermosphere).

Structure of Atmosphere
  • The Satellite (orbiting the Earth) is normally placed in the Exosphere (as shown in the image given above).

General Knowledge - Wind System

  • Air in motion is known as wind. Wind plays a significant role in determining the weather system of a given region.

  • Because of the rotation of the Earth, wind deflects to the right in the Northern Hemisphere and left in the Southern Hemisphere. The phenomena first reported by Coriolis and hence it is known as Coriolis Force.

Coriolis Force
  • To read the wind direction, weather vanes are used; however, at the airport, windsocks are used (indicated the wind direction).

Weather Vanes
  • Anemometer is used to measure the wind speed.


Types of Winds

  • Winds normally are categorized as −

    • Primary Winds: It is also known as Prevailing Winds and Planetary Winds.

    • Secondary winds: It is also known as Periodic Winds and Seasonal Winds.

    • Local Winds: It is originated because of the local temperature and/or pressure difference.

  • Major Planetary Winds (as shown in the following image) are −

    • Polar Easterlies

    • Westerlies (Mid-latitude)

    • Trade Winds (Tropics)

Planetary Winds
  • Seasonal or Periodic Winds blow periodically i.e. for a specific period. For example, Monsoons (as shown in the following image).

Seasonal Winds
  • Local Winds, which are originated largely because of the temperature differences are a localized phenomenon. The following map shows the major local winds of the world −

Local Winds
Local Winds Region/Location
Chinook Canada & USA (Rockies Mountain Region)
Santa Anas California (USA)
Pampero Argentina (South America)
Zonda Argentina (South America)
Norte Mexico (Central America)
Papagayo Mexico (Central America)
Foehn Switzerland (Alps Region)
Salano South Spain
Mistral France
Tramontana North Italy
Levant South France
Helm England
Etesian Greece
Berg South Africa
Sirocco Sahara Region (North Africa)
Khamsin Egypt
Gibli Tunisia
Harmattan (also known as Doctor Wind) West Africa
Bora South & South Eastern Europe
Loo Northern India & Pakistan
Simoon Arabia
Buran (also known as Purga) East Asia
Karaburan Central Asia
Brickfielder Victoria (Australia)
Norwester New Zealand

The highlighted terms (blue in color) are shown in the map given above.

General Knowledge - Other Winds

Jet Streams

  • Jet streams are narrow and meandered strip of fast blowing air currents found in the upper altitude (i.e. upper troposphere or lower stratosphere).

Polar Jet

El Niño

  • El Niño, also known as El Niño Southern Oscillation (or ENSO), refers to the cycle of warm and cold temperatures, as measured by sea surface temperature, of the tropical central and eastern Pacific Ocean. However, the cool phase of ENSO is known as "La Niña."

  • El Niño is accompanied by high air pressure in the western Pacific and low air pressure in the eastern Pacific (as shown in the following image).

Nino Situation


  • Cyclone is a large-scale air mass that keeps rotating around a strong center of low pressure. It rotates counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere.

  • In the northeastern Pacific oceans and the Atlantic Ocean, the tropical cyclone is known as “Hurricane.”

  • In the Indian and south Pacific Oceans, the tropical cyclone is called as “Cyclone,” and in the northwestern Pacific Ocean it is known as “Typhoon.”

  • In the South Indian Ocean (specifically South-west of Australia), a tropical cyclone is known as “Willy-Willy.”


  • Anticyclone is a large-scale wind system that circulates around a central region of high atmospheric pressure. It rotates clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and anti-clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere (the following image illustrates the comparative structure of cyclone and anti-cyclone).

Cyclone Anticyclone

General Knowledge - Facts of Continent

There are seven continents as shown in the image given below −

Seven Continent

The following table illustrates some basic facts of all the continents −

Continent Area (km2) % of Total Land Mass Population % of Total Populat ion Density Per Sq. km
Asia 43,820,000 29.5 4,164,252,000 60 95
Africa 30,370,000 20.4 1,022,234,000 15 33.7
North America 24,490,000 16.5 542,056,000 8 22.1
South America 17,840,000 12 392,555,000 6 22
Europe 10,180,000 6.8 738,199,000 11 72.5
Australia 9,008,500 5.9 29,127,000 0.4 3.2
Antarctica 13,720,000 9.2 4,490 (not native population at all) 0 0.0003

The Following table illustrates the Extremes of the Continents −

Continent Highest Point Elevation in Meter Location Lowest Point Elevation in Meter Location
Asia Mt. Everest 8,848 Nepal Dead Sea -427 Israel & Jordan
Africa Mt Kilimanjaro 5,895 Tanzania Lake Assal -155 Djibouti
North America Mt. McKinley (Denali) 6,198 Alaska (USA) Death Valley -86 California (USA)
South America Aconcagua 6,960 Argentina Laguna del Carbon -105 Argentina
Europe Mt. Elbrus 5,642 Russia Caspian Sea -28 In the Russia Part
Australia Puncak Jaya 4,884 Indonesia Lake Eyre -15 Australia
Antarctica Vinson Massif 4,892 Antarctica Deep Lake, Vestfold Hills -50 Antarctica

General Knowledge - Rocks

  • Rock is the solid mineral material that forms part of the surface of the earth, exposed on the Earth’s surface or underlying the soil.

  • Rock is divided into following three types −

    • Igneous Rocks

    • Sedimentary Rock

    • Metamorphic Rock

Igneous Rock

  • Igneous Rock is normally formed by the solidification of the molten magma.

  • All other types of rocks are formed by the igneous rock; therefore, igneous rock is also known as primary rock.

  • About 95% of the Earth’s crust is made of igneous rock.

  • Granite, Basalt, and Volcanic rock are the major types of igneous rock.

Igneous Rocks

Sedimentary Rock

  • The rocks, which is formed because of the deposition of weathered remains of igneous rocks, is known as ‘Sedimentary Rock.’

  • Sedimentary rocks share 5% of the Earth’s surface, but cover (in terms of area) about 75% of Earth’s (exposed) surface.

  • Sedimentary rocks also contain organic materials (i.e. source of energy for the human beings).

  • Major examples of sedimentary rocks are Gypsum, Limestone, Chalk, Coal, Conglomerates, Sandstone, Claystone, etc.

Sedimentary Rocks

Metamorphic Rock

  • Because of the intense pressure, high fluctuating temperature, and presence and absence of moisture and chemicals, over a period of time, igneous rock or sedimentary rocks get modified (metamorphosed) and called as ‘Metamorphic Rock.’

  • Major examples of metamorphic rock are Slate, Gneiss, Marble, Quartzite, etc.

Metamorphic Rocks

General Knowledge - Mountains

  • Mountain is a large natural elevation of the earth's surface that rises abruptly from the surrounding area.

Types of Mountains

  • The following are the major types of the Mountains −

    • Fold Mountains − e.g. Himalayas (in Asia), Rockies (in North America), Andes (in South America), Alps (Europe), etc.

    • Block Mountains − e.g. Black Forest (Germany), Vosges (France), etc.

    • Volcanic Mountains − e.g. Mt. Vesuvius (Italy), Mt. Fujiyama (Japan), Mt. Cotopaxi & Mt. Chimborazo (South America), etc.

    • Residual/Relict Mountain − e.g. Aravalli, Western Ghats (India), etc.

Types of Mountain

General Knowledge - Facts of Hydrosphere

  • Hydrosphere is the combined name (for the study purpose) given to all the water bodies found on the Earth’s surface, for example, Oceans, Rivers, Lakes, etc.

  • About 71% of the Earth’s surface is covered by water and rest is covered by landmass.

  • About 97.5% (of total hydrosphere) is saline water and rest 2.5% is fresh water.

  • About 68.7% of the fresh water is available in the form of permanent snow found in the regions of Arctic, Antarctic, and other mountain glaciers.

  • About 29.9% fresh water is available in the form of (fresh) groundwater.

  • Only about 0.26% fresh water is easily accessible for the use, available in the form of rivers, lakes, reservoirs, etc.


  • There are five Oceans namely −

  • Pacific Ocean

  • Atlantic Ocean

  • Indian Ocean

  • Arctic Ocean &

  • Southern Ocean

Southern Ocean
  • The following table describes the major facts of all the five Oceans −

Ocean Area (sq. km) % of Total Avg. Depth (in meter) Deepest Point
Pacific Ocean 168,723,000 46.6 3,970 Mariana Trench (10,994 m deep)
Atlantic Ocean 85,133,000 23.5 3,646 Puerto Rico Trench (8,648 m)
Indian Ocean 70,560,000 19.5 3,741 Diamantina Trench (8,047 m) Sunda Trench (7,725 m)
Arctic Ocean 15,558,000 15,558,000 1,205 Eurasian Basin (5,450 m)
Southern Ocean 21,960,000 6.1 3,270 South Sandwich Trench (7,236 m)

General Knowledge - Major Seas

The following table enlists major Seas of the world −

Sea Area (sq. km) Location (in)
Arabian Sea 3,862,000 Indian Ocean
South China Sea 3,500,000 Pacific Ocean
Caribbean Sea 2,754,000 Atlantic Ocean
Mediterranean Sea 2,500,000 Atlantic Ocean
Bay of Bengal 2,172,000 Indian Ocean
Bering Sea 2,000,000 Pacific Ocean
Sea of Okhotsk 1,583,000 Pacific Ocean
Gulf of Mexico 1,550,000 Atlantic Ocean
East China Sea 1,249,000 Pacific Ocean
Hudson Bay 1,230,000 Atlantic Ocean
Sea of Japan 977,980 Pacific Ocean
Major Seas

General Knowledge - Major Lakes

The following table enlists the major Lakes of the world −

Sea Area (sq. km) Location (in)
Caspian Sea 436,000 Asia
Lake Superior 82,100 North America
Lake Victoria 68,870 Africa
Lake Huron 59,600 North America
Lake Michigan 58,000 North America
Lake Tanganyika 32,600 Africa
Lake Baikal 31,500 Russia
Great Bear Lake 31,000 Canada
Malawi 29,500 Africa
Great Slave Lake 27,000 27,000
Major Lakes

General Knowledge - Major Straits

The following table enlists the major Straits* of the world −

Strait Connects Separates
Bab-el-Mandeb Red Sea to Gulf of Aden Yamen (Asia) from Djibouti & Eritrea (Africa)
Bass strait Pacific Ocean (No other water body) Tasmania from the Australian mainland
Bering Strait Bering Sea (Pacific Ocean) to Chukchi Sea (Arctic Ocean) Russia from Alaska (USA)
Bosphorus Strait Black Sea to Sea of Marmara Asian Turkey from European Turkey
Cook Strait Pacific Ocean (No other water body) North Island from South Islands of New Zealand
Davis strait Baffin Bay to Atlantic Ocean Greenland from Nunavut (Canada's Baffin Island)
Denmark strait Atlantic Ocean (No other water body) Iceland from Greenland
Dover strait English Channel & North Sea England from France
English Channel North Sea & Atlantic Ocean England from France
Florida Strait Gulf of Mexico to Atlantic Ocean Florida (USA) from Cuba
Gibraltar Strait Atlantic Ocean to Mediterranean Sea Spain (Europe) from Morocco (Africa)
Hormuz strait Gulf of Oman to Persian Gulf UAE & Oman from Iran
Hudson strait Atlantic Ocean to Hudson Bay Baffin Island from Quebec (in Canada)
Magellan strait Pacific Ocean to Atlantic Ocean Mainland South America from north and Tierra del Fuego to the south (South America)
Malacca Strait South China Sea to Andaman Sea Malay Peninsula from Indonesian island
Mozambique Strait Indian Ocean (No other water body) Madagascar from Mozambique
Palk Strait Bay of Bengal to Gulf of Mannar India from Sri Lanka
Sunda Strait Indian Ocean to Java Sea Islands of Java from Sumatra (Indonesia)
Torres Strait Arafura Sea to Coral Sea (Pacific Ocean) Australia from Papua New Guinea
Tsugaru Strait Sea of Japan (East Sea) to Pacific Ocean Honshu from Hokkaido (Japan)
Yucatan Strait Gulf of Mexico to Caribbean Sea Mexico from Cuba
100 Channel Bay of Bengal to Andaman Sea Island of Little Andaman from Car Nicobar Island (of India)
90 Channel Indian Ocean (No other water body) Laccadive Islands of Kalpeni from Suheli Par, and Maliku Atoll (of India)

*Strait is a thin waterbody that connects two big water masses and separates two land masses.

General Knowledge - Major Rivers

The following table enlists the major Rivers of the world −

River Length (in KM) Ending Point Location
Nile 6,650 Mediterranean Sea Africa
Amazon 6,400 Atlantic Ocean South America
Yangtze 6,300 East China Sea China (Asia)
Mississippi–Missouri 6,275 Gulf of Mexico USA
Yenisei–Angara– Selenge 5,539 Kara Sea Russia
Yellow River (Huang He) 5,464 Bohai Sea China (Asia)
Ob–Irtysh 5,410 Gulf of Ob Asia
Paraná – Río de la Plata 4,880 Atlantic Ocean South America
Congo–Chambeshi (Zaïre) 4,700 Atlantic Ocean Africa
Amur–Argun 4,444 Sea of Okhotsk Asia

General Knowledge - Waterfalls

The following table enlists the major Waterfalls (Based on Height) of the world −

Waterfalls Height (in Meters) Location On (River)
Angel Falls 979 Venezuela Churun River (a tributary of Orinoco River)
Tugela Falls 948 South Africa Tugela River
Tres Hermanas Falls 914 Peru N/A
Olo'upena Falls 900 Hawaii (USA) N/A
Yumbilla Falls 896 Peru N/A

The following table enlists the major Waterfalls (Based on Flow Rate) of the world −

Waterfalls Mean annual flow rate (m3/s) Width (m) River Location
Boyoma Falls 17,000 1,372 Lualaba Democratic Republic of the Congo
Guaíra Falls 13,300 Parana Paraguay & Brazil
Khone Phapheng Falls 11,610 10,783 Mekong Laos
Niagara Falls 2,407 1,203 Niagara Canada
Iguazú Falls 1,746 2,700 Iguazu Argentina & Brazil
Victoria 1,088 1,708 Zambezi Zambia & Zimbabwe

General Knowledge - Time Line

  • Parallels of longitude determine the time of a given place.

  • Local time (of any place) is measured in reference to Greenwich Time (London), which changes at the rate of four min/degree of longitude.

  • Greenwich Time Line is also known as “Prime Meridian” i.e. 00.

  • International Standard Time is measured in reference of the Prime Meridian (or Greenwich).

  • The Earth rotates through 3600 in 24 hours or 150 in 1 hour or 10 in 4 minutes. Therefore, the local time varies at the rate of 4 min/degree of longitude from the Greenwich Time.

Time Line
  • As shown in the map given above, Kolkata is approximately 900 east of Greenwich; so, Kolkata is (900 x 4 = 360 min) six hours ahead of the Greenwich Time (London).

GK - International Boundaries

The following tables describes the important International Boundaries/Lines −

S.No Name & Description

The 17th Parallel

It is the Line Between North & South Vietnam


The 38th parallel

It is the Line Between North & South Korea (Before the Korean war)


The 49th Parallel (also The Medicine Line)

It is the Boundary Between Canada & the USA


The 24th Parallel

It is the Line that Pakistan claims for the demarcation purpose, but India does not accept it


The Siegfried Line

It is the Boundary Between France and Germany


The Maginot Line

It is France’s Defensive Line


The Hindenburg Line

It was the Line that described Germany’s position during the World War I


The Oder–Neisse line

It is the Boundary Between Germany & Poland


The Radcliffe Line

It is the Boundary Between India & Pakistan


The McMahon Line

It is the Boundary Between India & China (However, originally signed between Britain & Tibet)


The Mannerheim Line

It was a defensive line drawn on the Karelian Isthmus by Finland against the Soviet Union


The Durand Line

It is the Boundary Between Pakistan & India (formerly between British India and Afghanistan)


The Line of Control (LoC)

It is the military control line between India and Pakistan (in the state of Jammu & Kashmir)


The Line of Actual Control (LAC)

It is the Effective Boundary between India and China

GK - Landlocked States of India

The following table enlists the landlocked states of India −

Name Location Image
Haryana (North) Haryana
Jharkhand East Jharkhand
Madhya Pradesh Central Madhya Pradesh
Chhattisgarh (Central) East Chhattisgarh
Telangana South Telangana

GK - Landlocked Countries of World

The following table enlists the landlocked countries of the world −

Name Continent/Location
Lesotho Africa (Locked by only one country i.e. South Africa)
Vatican City Europe (Locked by only one Country i.e. Italy)
San Marino Europe (Locked by only one Country i.e. Italy)
Mongolia Asia (Locked by two countries namely Russia & China)
Bhutan Asia (Locked by two countries namely India & China)
Nepal Asia (Locked by two countries namely India & China)
Andorra Europe (Locked by two countries namely France & Spain)
Liechtenstein Europe (it is one of the double landlocked countries between Switzerland & Austria)
Moldova Europe (Locked by two countries namely Ukraine & Romania)
Swaziland Africa (Locked by two countries namely South Africa & Mozambique)
Uzbekistan Asia (it is double landlocked country surrounded by Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Turkmenistan
Afghanistan Asia
Armenia Asia
Azerbaijan Asia
Kazakhstan Asia
Kyrgyzstan Asia
Tajikistan Asia
Turkmenistan Asia
Uzbekistan Asia
Laos Asia
Austria Europe
Belarus Europe
Hungary Europe
Kosovo Europe
Luxembourg Europe
Macedonia Europe
Moldova Europe
Serbia Europe
Slovakia Europe
Switzerland Europe
Bolivia South America
Paraguay South America
Botswana Africa
Burkina Faso Africa
Burundi Africa
Central African Republic Africa
Chad Africa
Czech Republic Africa
Ethiopia Africa
Malawi Africa
Mali Africa
Niger Africa
Rwanda Africa
South Sudan Africa
Uganda Africa
Zambia Africa
Zimbabwe Africa

General Knowledge - Countries with Capitals

The following tables illustrates the Countries with tiher Capitals, Currencies, Language, & Religion/s −

Country Capitals Currency Language Religion*
Afghanistan Kabul Afghani Pashto, Dari (Persian) Islam
Albania Tirana Lek Albanian Islam, Christianity
Algeria Algiers Algerian Dinar Arabic; Tamazight; French Islam
Andorra Andorra la Vella Euro Catalan Christianity
Angola Luanda Kwanza Portuguese Christianity
Antigua & Barbuda Saint John's East Caribbean Dollar English Christianity
Argentina Buenos Aires Argentine Peso Spanish Christianity (But Secular Country)
Armenia Yerevan Dram Armenian Christianity
Australia Canberra Australian Dollar English Christianity (But Secular Country)
Austria Vienna Euro German Christianity
Azerbaijan Baku Manat Azerbaijani Islam
The Bahamas Nassau Bahamian Dollar English Christianity
Bahrain Manama Bahraini Dinar Arabic Islam
Bangladesh Dhaka Taka Bangla Islam
Barbados Bridgetown Barbadian Dollar English Christianity
Belarus Minsk Belarusian Ruble Belarusian; Russian Christianity
Belgium Brussels Euro Dutch; French; German Secular
Belize Belmopan Belize Dollar English Christianity
Benin Porto-Novo West African CFA Franc French Christianity
Bhutan Thimphu Ngultrum Dzongkha Buddhism, Hindu
Bosnia & Herzegovina Sarajevo Convertible Mark Bosnian; Croatian; Serbian Islam, Christianity
Botswana Gaborone Pula English; Tswana Christianity
Brazil Brasilia Real Portuguese Christianity
Brunei Bandar Seri Begawan Brunei Dollar Malay Islam
Bulgaria Sofia Lev Bulgarian Secular
Burkina Faso Ouagadougou West African CFA Franc French Islam, Christianity
Burundi Bujumbura Burundi Franc Kirundi; French Christianity
Cambodia Phnom Penh Riel Khmer Buddhism
Cameroon Yaoundé Central African CFA Franc French; English Christianity
Canada Ottawa Canadian Dollar English; French Christianity (But Secular Country)
Cape Verde Praia Cape Verdean Escudo Portuguese Christianity
Central African Republic Bangui Central African CFA Franc Sango; French Christianity
Chad N'Djamena Central African CFA Franc French; Arabic Islam, Christianity
Chile Santiago Chilean Peso Spanish Christianity
China Beijing Chinese Yuan Mandarin N/A
Colombia Bogota Colombian Peso Spanish Christianity
Comoros Moroni Comorian Franc Comorian; Arabic; French Islam
Democratic Republic of the Congo Kinshasa Congolese Franc French Christianity
Republic of the Congo Brazzaville Central African CFA Franc French N/A
Costa Rica San Jose Colon Spanish Christianity
Cote d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) Yamoussoukro; Abidjan West African CFA Franc French Islam, Christianity
Croatia Zagreb Croatian Kuna Christianity
Cuba Havana Cuban Peso Spanish Christianity
Cyprus Nicosia Euro Greek; Turkish Christianity, Islam
Czech Republic Prague Czech Koruna Czech; Slovak N/A
Denmark Copenhagen Danish Krone Danish Christianity
Djibouti Djibouti City Djiboutian Franc Arabic; French Islam, Christianity
Dominica Roseau East Caribbean Dollar English; French; Antillean Creole Christianity
Dominican Republic Santo Domingo Dominican Peso Spanish Christianity
East Timor (Timor-Leste) Dili United States Dollar Tetum; Portuguese Christianity
Ecuador Quito United States Dollar Spanish Christianity
Egypt Cairo Egyptian Pound Arabic Islam
El Salvador San Salvador United States Dollar Spanish Christianity
Equatorial Guinea Malabo Central African CFA Franc Spanish; French; Portuguese Christianity
Eritrea Asmara Nakfa Arabic; Tigrinya; English Christianity, Islam
Estonia Tallinn Estonian Kroon; Euro Estonian Secular
Ethiopia Addis Ababa Birr Amharic Islam, Christianity
Fiji Suva Fijian Dollar English; Bau Fijian; Hindi Christianity, Hindu, Islam
Finland Helsinki Euro Finnish; Swedish Christianity
France Paris Euro; CFP Franc French Secular
Gabon Libreville Central African CFA Franc French Christianity
The Gambia Banjul Dalasi English Islam
Georgia Tbilisi Lari Georgian Christianity
Germany Berlin Euro German Christianity
Ghana Accra Ghanaian Cedi English Christianity, Islam
Greece Athens Euro Greek (Christianity) Orthodoxy
Grenada St. George's East Caribbean Dollar English; Patois Christianity
Guatemala Guatemala City Quetzal Spanish Christianity
Guinea Conakry Guinean Franc French Islam, Christianity
Guinea-Bissau Bissau West African CFA Franc Portuguese Islam, Christianity
Guyana Georgetown Guyanese Dollar English Christianity, Hindu, Islam
Haiti Port-au-Prince Gourde Haitian Creole; French Christianity
Honduras Tegucigalpa Lempira Spanish Christianity
Hungary Budapest Forint Hungarian Christianity
Iceland Reykjavik Icelandic Krona Icelandic Christianity
India New Delhi Indian Rupee Hindi; English Secular
Indonesia Jakarta Rupiah Indonesian Islam
Iran Tehran Rial Persian Islam
Iraq Baghdad Iraqi Dinar Arabic; Kurdish Islam
Republic of Ireland Dublin Euro English; Irish Christianity
Israel Jerusalem Shekel Hebrew; Arabic Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Druze
Italy Rome Euro Italian Christianity
Jamaica Kingston Jamaican Dollar English Christianity
Japan Tokyo Yen Japanese Buddhism or Shinto (But Secular Country)
Jordan Amman Jordanian Dinar Arabic Islam
Kazakhstan Astana Tenge Kazakh; Russian Islam, Christianity
Kenya Nairobi Kenyan Shilling Swahili; English Christianity
Kiribati Tarawa Atoll Kiribati Dollar English; Gilbertese Christianity
North Korea Pyongyang North Korean Won Korean Secular
South Korea Seoul South Korean Won Korean Atheist (but some follow Buddhist & Christian)
Kosovo Pristina Euro Albanian; Serbian Islam
Kuwait Kuwait City Kuwaiti Dollar Arabic; English Islam
Kyrgyzstan Bishkek Som Kyrgyz; Russian Islam, Russian Orthodoxy
Laos Vientiane Kip Lao (Laotian) Buddhism
Latvia Riga Lats Latvian Christianity
Lebanon Beirut Lebanese Pound Arabic; French Islam, Christianity
Lesotho Maseru Loti Sesotho; English Christianity
Liberia Monrovia Liberian Dollar English Christianity
Libya Tripoli Libyan Dinar Arabic Islam
Liechtenstein Vaduz Swiss Franc German Christianity
Lithuania Vilnius Lithuanian Litas Lithuanian Christianity
Luxembourg Luxembourg Euro German; French; Luxembourgish Christianity (But it is a Secular Country)
Macedonia Skopje Macedonian Denar Macedonian Christianity, Islam
Madagascar Antananarivo Malagasy Ariary Malagasy; French; English Traditional Religion
Malawi Lilongwe Malawi Kwacha English Christianity, Islam
Malaysia Kuala Lumpur Ringgit Malay Islam
Mali Bamako West African CFA Franc French Islam, Christianity
Malta Valletta Euro Maltese; English Christianity
Marshall Islands Majuro United States Dollar Marshallese; English Christianity
Mauritania Nouakchott Ouguiya Arabic Islam
Mauritius Port Louis Mauritian Rupee English Christianity, Islam
Mexico Mexico City Mexican Peso Spanish Christianity
Federal States of Micronesia Palikir United States Dollar English Christianity
Moldova Chisinau Moldovan Leu Moldovan (Romanian) Christianity
Monaco Monaco Euro French; Italian; English Christianity
Mongolia Ulaanbaatar Togrog Mongolian Buddhism
Montenegro Podgorica Euro Montenegrin Islam, Christianity
Morocco Rabat Moroccan Dirham Arabic Islam
Mozambique Maputo Mozambican Metical Portuguese Christianity, Islam
Myanmar (Burma) Nypyidaw Kyat Burmese Buddhism
Namibia Windhoek Namibian Dollar English; Afrikaans; German Christianity
Nauru Yaren Australian Dollar English; Nauran Christianity
Nepal Kathmandu Nepalese Rupee Nepali Hindu, Buddhism, Islam
Netherlands Amsterdam; The Hague Euro Dutch Christianity (But a Secular Country)
New Zealand Wellington New Zealand Dollar English Christianity (But a Secular Country)
Nicaragua Managua Cordoba Spanish Christianity
Niger Niamey West African CFA Franc French Islam, Christianity
Nigeria Abuja Naira English Christianity, Islam
Norway Oslo Norwegian Krone Norwegian Christianity
Oman Muscat Omani Rial Arabic Islam
Pakistan Islamabad Pakistani Rupee Urdu; English Islam
Palau Melekeok United States Dollar English; Palauan Christianity
Panama Panama City Balboa Spanish Christianity
Papa New Guinea Port Moresby Papa New Guinean Kina English; Tok Pisin; Hiri Motu Christianity
Paraguay Asuncion Guarani Spanish; Guarani Christianity
Peru Lima Nuevo Sol Spanish Christianity
Philippines Manila Philippine Peso Filipino; English Christianity, Islam
Poland Warsaw Złoty Polish Christianity
Portugal Lisbon Euro Portuguese Christianity
Qatar Doha Qatari Riyal Arabic Islam
Romania Bucharest Romanian Rupee Romanian Christianity
Russia Moscow Ruble Russian Christianity
Rwanda Kigali Rwandan Franc Kinyarwanda; French; English Christianity
Saint Kitts and Nevis Basseterre East Caribbean Dollar English Christianity
Saint Lucia Castries East Caribbean Dollar English; French Christianity
Saint Vincent & The Grenadines Kingstown East Caribbean Dollar English Christianity
Samoa Apia Tala Samoan; English Christianity
San Marino San Marino Euro Italian Christianity
Sao Tome and Principe Sao Tome Dobra Portuguese Christianity
Saudi Arabia Riyadh Saudi Riyal Arabic Islam
Senegal Dakar West African CFA Franc French Islam
Serbia Belgrade Serbian Dinar Serbian Christianity
Seychelles Victoria Seychoellois Rupee Seychellois Creole; French; English Christianity
Sierra Leone Freetown Leone Krio; English Islam, Christianity
Singapore Singapore Singapore Dollar English; Malay; Mandarin Chinese Buddhist, Christianity
Slovakia Bratislava Euro Slovak Christianity
Slovenia Ljubljana Euro Slovene Christianity
Solomon Islands Honiara Solomon Islands Dollar Solomons Pijin Christianity
Somalia Mogadishu Somali Shilling Somali; Arabic Islam
South Africa Pretoria; Cape Town; Bloemfontein Rand Zulu; Xhosa; Afrikaans Christianity
Spain Madrid Euro Spanish Christianity
Sri Lanka Colombo Sri Lankan Rupee Sinhala; Tamil Buddhist, Hindu, Islam
Sudan Khartoum Sudanese Pound Arabic; English Islam
Suriname Paramaribo Surinamese Dollar Dutch Christianity
Swaziland Mbabane Lilangeni English; SiSwati Christianity
Sweden Stockholm Swedish Krona Swedish Christianity
Switzerland Berne Swiss Franc German; French; Italian Christianity
Syria Damascus Syrian Pound Arabic Islam, Christianity
Taiwan Taipei New Taiwan Dollar Mandarin Polytheistic ancient Chinese religion, Buddhism
Tajikistan Dushanbe Somoni Tajik; Russian Islam
Tanzania Dar es Salaam; Dodoma Tanzanian Schilling Swahili Islam, Christianity
Thailand Bangkok Thai Baht Thai Buddhism
Togo Lome West African CFA Franc French Traditional/Native religion, Christianity
Tonga Nuku'alofa Pa'anga Tongan; English Christianity
Trinidad and Tobago Port-of-Spain Trinidad and Tobago Dollar English Christianity, Hindu, Islam
Tunisia Tunis Tunisian Dinar Tunisian; French Islam
Turkey Ankara Turkish Lira Turkish Islam (But Secular country)
Turkmenistan Ashgabat Turkmen New Manat Turkmen; Russian Islam
Tuvalu Vaiaku Tuvaluan Dollar Tuvaluan; English Christianity
Uganda Kampala Ugandan Shilling Swahili; English Christianity
Ukraine Kiev Hryvnia Ukrainian; Russian Eastern Orthodoxy
United Arab Emirates Abu Dhabi Dirham Arabic Islam
United Kingdom London Pound Sterling English Christianity
United States of America Washington D.C. United States Dollar English; Spanish Christianity
Uruguay Montevideo Uruguayan Peso Spanish Christianity
Uzbekistan Tashkent Uzbekistan Som Uzbek; Russian Islam
Vanuatu Port-Vila Vanuatu Vatu Bislama; English; French Christianity
Vatican City Vatican City Euro Latin; Italian Christianity
Venezuela Caracas Bolivar Fuerte Spanish Christianity
Vietnam Hanoi Dong Vietnamese Native religious practice, Christianity
Yemen Sanaa Yemeni Rial Arabic Islam
Zambia Lusaka Zambian Kwacha English Christianity
Zimbabwe Harare United States Dollar English Christianity

*List of religion/s illustrates only those religions, which are practiced by majority of the people (in their respective country). In addition, there are number of religions practiced by minority of people in most of the countries, not enlisted here.

GK - Top Ten Countries by Area

The following table enlists top ten largest countries with their geographical area −

Country Area in Sq. km Location
Russia 17,098,246 Eurasia
Canada 9,984,670 North America
China 9,572,900 Asia
The United States 9,525,067 North America (after including sea territories, it is third largest)
Brazil 8,515,767 South America
Australia 7,692,024 Australia
India 3,287,263 Asia
Argentina 2,780,400 South America
Kazakhstan 2,724,900 Asia
Algeria 2,381,741 Africa

GK - Top Ten Smallest Countries

The following table enlists the top ten smallest countries of the world −

Country Area in Sq. km Population Location
Vatican City 0.44 Italy (Europe)
Monaco 2.02 North America France (Europe)
Nauru 21 10,084 Pacific Ocean
Tuvalu 26 10,640 Pacific Ocean
San Marino 61 32,576 Italy (Europe)
Liechtenstein 160 37,340 Europe
Marshall Islands 181 72,191 Pacific Ocean
Saint Kitts and Nevis 261 54,961 Caribbean Sea
Maldives 300 393,500 Indian Ocean
Malta 316 445,426 Mediterranean Sea

GK - Top Ten Countries by Population

The following table illustrates the top ten countries by population −

Country Population % of World Population
China 1,377,171,510 18.79
India 1,291,090,094 17.61
The United States 323,833,000 4.42
Indonesia 258,705,000 3.53
Brazil 206,063,797 2.81
Pakistan 193,977,638 2.65
Nigeria 186,988,000 2.55
Bangladesh 160,914,278 2.2
Russia 146,600,000 2
Japan 126,960,000 1.73

General Knowledge - Hot Deserts

The following table enlists the major Hot Desert of the world −

Desert Area (in Sq. km)* Located in
Sahara Desert 9,100,000 North Africa
Arabian Desert 2,600,000 West Asia (Middle East)
Great Victoria Desert 647,000 Australia
Kalahari Desert 570,000 South of Africa
Great Basin Desert 490,000 North America
Syrian Desert 490,000 Middle East
Karoo Desert 400,000 South Africa
Thar Desert 376,000 India & Pakistan
Chihuahuan Desert 362,600 Mexico
Great Sandy Desert 284,993 Northwestern Australia
Sonoran Desert 260,000 USA & Mexico
Simpson Desert 176,500 Central Australia
Gibson Desert 156,000 Western Australia
Mojave Desert 124,000 USA
Atacama Desert 105,000 South America
Namib Desert 81,000 South-west of Africa

* The above given area is relative and not a fixed value.

General Knowledge - Cold Deserts

The following table illustrates the major Cold Desert of the world −

Desert Area (in Sq. km) * Located in
Antarctica 14,000,000 Antarctica
Arctic Desert N/A Arctic
Greenland 2,166,086 Greenland
Russian Arctic N/A Russia
Gobi Desert 1,300,000 China & Mongolia (Asia)
Patagonian Desert 670,000 South America
Karakum Desert 350,000 Turkmenistan
Taklamakan Desert 337,000 China

GK - Petroleum Producing Countries

The following table enlists the major petroleum producing countries of the world −

Country Production (BBL/Day, est.)
United States 13,973,000
Saudi Arabia 11,624,000
Russia 10,853,000
People's Republic of China 4,572,000
Canada 4,383,000
United Arab Emirates 3,471,000
Iran 3,375,000
Iraq 3,371,000
Brazil 2,950,000
Mexico 2,812,000
Kuwait 2,767,000
Venezuela 2,689,000
Nigeria 2,427,000
Qatar 2,055,000
Norway 1,904,000

GK - Countries by Oil Consumption

The following table enlists the major oil consuming countries of the world.

Country Consumption (BBL */Day, est.)
United States 19,840,000
People's Republic of China 9,790,000
Japan 4,464,000
India 3,509,000
Russia 3,196,000
Saudi Arabia 2,817,000
Brazil 2,594,000
Germany 2,400,000
South Korea 2,301,000
Canada 2,259,000
Mexico 2,133,000
France 1,792,000
Iran 1,709,000
Italy 1,454,000
Spain 1,384,000

*BBL is a unit of volume equivalent to 42 US gallons or 159 liters

GK - Countries by Petroleum Reserve

The following table enlists the countries having maximum reserve of petroleum −

Country Reserves (MMBBL*, est.)
Venezuela 297,740
Saudi Arabia 268,350
Canada 175,200
Iran 157,300
Iraq 140,300
Kuwait 104,000
UAE 97,800
Russia 80,000
Libya 48,014
Nigeria 37,200
United States 36,420
Kazakhstan 30,002
China 25,585
Qatar 25,382
Brazil 13,986

General Knowledge - Countries by Oil Export

The following table enlists the oil exporting countries in decreasing order −

Country Export (BBL/Day)
Saudi Arabia 8,865,000
Russia 7,201,000
Kuwait 2,300,000
Iran 1,808,000
Iraq 3,500,000
Kuwait 104,000
United Arab Emirates 2,595,000
Nigeria 2,500,000
Angola 1,738,000
Venezuela 1,712,000
Norway 1,680,000
Canada 1,579,000

General Knowledge - Countries by Oil Import

The following table enlists the oil importing countries in decreasing order −

Country Import (BBL/Day)
United States 7,713,000
China 5,658,000
India 3,782,000
Japan 3,408,000
South Korea 2,450,000
Germany 2,219,000
Italy 1,198,000
France 1,668,000
Netherlands 961,000
Venezuela 1,712,000
Norway 1,680,000
Canada 1,579,000

GK - Countries by Coal Production

The following table enlists the coal producing countries in decreasing order −

Country Production (Million Tonnes) Share in Total (%)*
China 3,874 46.9
United States 906.9 12.9
Australia 644 6.2
India 537.6 3.9
Indonesia 458 7.2
Russia 357.6 4.3
South Africa 260.5 3.8
Germany 185.8 1.1
Poland 137.1 1.4
Kazakhstan 108.7 1.4

* Shares are based on data expressed in tonnes oil equivalent.

Gk - Countries by Coal Reserves

The following table enlists the coal reserve countries in decreasing order −

Country Reserves (Million Tonnes) Share in Total (%)
United States 246,643 27.1
Russia 157,010 17.3
China 114,500 12.6
India 92,445 10.2
Australia 78,500 8.6
South Africa 48,750 5.4
Ukraine 34,153 3.8
Kazakhstan 31,279 3.4
Poland 14,000 1.5
Brazil 10,113 1.1

GK - Countries by Coal Consumption

The following table enlists the coal consuming countries in decreasing order −

Country Consumption (Million short Tonnes) Share in Total (%)
China 4,053 50.7
United States 1,003 12.5
India 788 9.9
Russia 262 3.3
Germany 256 3.3
South Africa 210 2.6
Japan 202 2.5
Poland 162 2.0

GK - Countries by Coal Imports

The following table enlists the coal importing countries in decreasing order −

Country Import (Million Short Tonnes) Share in Total (%)
Japan 206.7 17.5
China 195.1 16.6
South Korea 125.8 10.7
India 101.6 8.6
Taiwan 71.1 6.0
Germany 55.1 4.7
Turkey 30.0 2.5
United Kingdom 29.3 2.5
Italy 23.7 1.9
Netherlands 22.8 1.9

GK - Countries by Coal Exports

The following table enlists the coal exporting countries in decreasing order −

Country Export (Million Short Tonnes) Share in Total (%)
Indonesia 421.8 29.8
Australia 332.4 23.5
Russia 150.7 10.7
United States 126.7 8.7
Colombia 92.2 6.5
South Africa 357.6 4.3
South Africa 82.0 5.8
Canada 38.8 2.7
Kazakhstan 35.2 2.5
Mongolia 24.3 1.7
Vietnam 21.1 1.5

GK - Countries by Aluminum Production

The following table enlists the Aluminum producing countries in decreasing order −

Country Production (Thousands of Tonnes)
People's Republic of China 23,300
Russia 3,500
Canada 2,940
United Arab Emirates 2,400
India 2,100
United States 1,720
Australia 1,680
Norway 1,200
Brazil 960
Bahrain 930
Iceland 810
South Africa 735

GK - Countries by Bauxite Production

The following table enlists the Bauxite producing countries in decreasing order −

Country Production (Thousands of Tonnes)
Australia 81,000
People's Republic of China 47,000
Brazil 32,500
Guinea 19,300
India 19,000
Jamaica 9,800
Kazakhstan 5,500
Russia 5,300
Suriname 2,700
Venezuela 2,200
Greece 2,100
Guyana 1,800

GK - Countries by Copper Production

The following table enlists the Copper producing countries in decreasing order −

Country Production (Thousands of Tonnes)
Chile 5,750
People's Republic of China 1,760
Peru 1,380
United States 1,360
Democratic Republic of the Congo 1,030
Australia 970
Russia 742
Zambia 708
Canada 696
Mexico 515

GK - Countries by Gold Production

The following table enlists the Gold producing countries in decreasing order −

Country Production (Metric Tonnes)
People's Republic of China 490
Australia 300
Russia 242
United States 200
Canada 150
Peru 150
South Africa 140
Mexico 120
Uzbekistan 103
Ghana 85

GK - Countries by Gold Export

The following table enlists the Gold exporting countries in decreasing order −

Country Value (In Millions of USD)
Switzerland 52,519
Hong Kong (China) 48,312
United States 27,154
South Africa 20,436
China 15,754
United Arab Emirates 14,745
Australia 13,530
Germany 11,037
Peru 9,686

Gk - Countries by Diamond Export

The following table enlists the Diamond exporting countries in decreasing order −

Country Value (In Millions of USD)
United Kingdom 9,983
Belgium & Luxembourg 9,941
South Africa 8,465
Russia 4,677
India 2,411
Israel 2,027
Switzerland 1,819
Canada 1,690
Hong Kong (China) 1,047

GK - Countries by Diamond Production

The following table enlists the Diamond producing countries in decreasing order −

Country Production (Million Carats, est.)
Russia 39
Botswana 23
Democratic Republic of the Congo 15.7
Australia 12
Canada 10.6
Zimbabwe 10.4
Angola 9.4
South Africa 8.1

GK - Countries by Iron-ore Production

The following table enlists the Iron-ore producing countries in decreasing order −

Country Production (Thousands of Tonnes)
China 1,380,000
Australia 824,000
Brazil 428,000
India 129,000
Russia 112,000
Ukraine 68,000
South Africa 80,000
United States 43,000
Canada 39,000
Sweden 37,000

GK - Countries by Iron-ore Export

The following table enlists the Iron-ore exporting countries in decreasing order −

Country Value (In Million USD)
Australia 54,397
Brazil 32,738
South Africa 5,580
Canada 4,569
India 3,212
Ukraine 3,170
Sweden 3,076
Russia 2,813
Kazakhstan 2,362
Mauritania 1,583

GK - Countries by Uranium Reserve

The following table enlists the Uranium reserve countries in decreasing order −

Country Reserves (in Tonnes) World Share (in %)
Australia 1,673,000 31
Kazakhstan 651,800 12.1
Canada 485,300 9
Russia 480,300 8.9
South Africa 295,600 5.5
Namibia 284,200 5.3
Brazil 278,700 5.2
Niger 272,900 5
China 265,000 4.92
United States 207,400 3.8

Gk - Countries by Silver Production

The following table enlists the Silver producing countries in decreasing order −

Country Production (In Tonnes)
Mexico 5,400
China 4,000
Peru 3,500
Russia 1,700
Australia 1,700
Bolivia 1,200
Chile 1,200
Poland 1,150
United States 1,090
Canada 720

GK - Countries by Manganese Production

The following table enlists the Manganese producing countries in decreasing order −

Country Production (In Tonnes)
South Africa 5,213,338
China 6,000,000
Australia 4,567,000
Brazil 3,128,000
Gabon 2,978,972
Kazakhstan 2,200,000
India 2,092,000
Ukraine 2,000,000
Ghana 1,800,000
Mexico 381,982

Gk - Countries by Rice Production

The following table enlists the Rice producing countries in decreasing order −

Country Production (In Million Metric Tonnes*)
China 204
India 152.6
Indonesia 69
Vietnam 43.7
Thailand 37.8
Bangladesh 33.9
Myanmar 33
Philippines 18
Brazil 11.5
Japan 10.7

GK - Countries by Wheat Production

The following table enlists the Aluminum producing countries in decreasing order −

Country Production (In Million Metric Tonnes*)
China 122
India 94
United States 58
Russia 52
France 39
Canada 38
Germany 25
Pakistan 24
Australia 23
Turkey 22

GK - Countries by Maize Production

The following table enlists the Maze producing countries in decreasing order −

Country Production (In Tonnes*)
United States 353,699,440
China 217,730,000
Brazil 80,516,571
Argentina 32,119,211
Ukraine 30,949,550
India 23,290,000
Mexico 22,663,953
Indonesia 18,511,853
France 15,053,100
South Africa 12,365,000

* Estimated Value (2013)

GK - Countries by Cotton Production

The following table enlists the Cotton producing countries in decreasing order −

Country Production (In Metric Tonnes*)
China 6,532,000
India 6,423,000
United States 3,553,000
Pakistan 2,308,000
Brazil 1,524,103
Uzbekistan 849,000
Turkey 697,000
Australia 501,000
Turkmenistan 210,000
Mexico 198,000

* Estimated Value (2014)

GK - Countries by Jute Production

The following table enlists the Jute producing countries in decreasing order −

Country Production (In Metric Tonnes*)
India 1,912,000
Bangladesh 1,452,044
China 45,000
Uzbekistan 20,000
Nepal 14,424
Vietnam 3,227
Myanmar 2,650
Zimbabwe 2,500
Egypt 2,400
Thailand 2,200

* Estimated Value (2012)

Gk - Countries by Sugarcane Production

The following table enlists the Sugarcane producing countries in decreasing order −

Country Production (In Thousand Metric Tonnes*)
Brazil 79,267
India 341,200
China 125,536
Thailand 100,096
Pakistan 63,750
Mexico 61,180
Colombia 34,876
Indonesia 33,700
Philippines 31,874
United States 27,906

Gk - Countries by Tobacco Production

The following table enlists the Tobacco producing countries in decreasing order −

Country Production (In Tonnes*)
China 3,200,000
India 875,000
Brazil 810,550
United States 345,837
Indonesia 226,700
Malawi 151,150
Argentina 148,000
Tanzania 120,000
Zimbabwe 115,000

* Estimated Value (2012)

GK - Countries by Tea Production

The following table enlists the Tea producing countries in decreasing order −

Country Production (In Tonnes*)
China 1,939,457
India 1,208,780
Kenya 432,400
Sri Lanka 340,230
Vietnam 214,300
Turkey 212,400
Iran 160,000
Indonesia 148,100
Argentina 105,000
Japan 84,800

* Estimated Value (2013)

Gk - Countries by Coffee(Green) Production

The following table enlists the Coffee (Green) producing countries in decreasing order −

Country Production (In Metric Tonnes*)
Brazil 3,037,534
Vietnam 1,292,389
Indonesia 657,200
Colombia 464,640
India 314,000
Peru 303,264
Honduras 300,000
Ethiopia 275,530
Guatemala 248000
Mexico 246,121

* Estimated Value (2012)

GK - Countries by Rubber Production

The following table enlists the Rubber (natural) producing countries in decreasing order −

Country Production (In Metric Tonnes*)
Thailand 3,500,000
Indonesia 3,040,400
Malaysia 970,000
Vietnam 863,773
India 805,000
China 780,000
Côte d'Ivoire 256,000
Brazil 177,100
Philippines 164,200
Myanmar 152,000

* Estimated Value (2012)

GK - Countries by Orange Production

The following table enlists the Orange producing countries in decreasing order −

Country Production (In Metric Tonnes*)
Brazil 18,012,560
United States 8,166,480
China 6,500,000
India 5,000,000
Mexico 3,666,790
Spain 2,933,800
Egypt 2,786,397
Italy 1,770,503
Turkey 1,662,000
South Africa 1,612,828

* Estimated Value (2012)

GK - Countries by Grape Production

The following table enlists the Grape producing countries in decreasing order −

Country Production (In Metric Tonnes*)
China 9,600,000
United States 6,661,820
Italy 5,819,010
France 5,338,512
Spain 5238300
Turkey 4,275,659
Chile 3,200,000
Argentina 2,800,000
Iran 2,150,000
South Africa 1839030

* Estimated Value (2012)

GK - Countries by Banana Production

The following table enlists the Banana producing countries in decreasing order −

Country Production ((In Metric Tonnes*)
India 24,869,490
China 10,550,000
Philippines 9,225,998
Ecuador 7,012,244
Brazil 6,902,184
Indonesia 6,189,052
Angola 2,991,454
Guatemala 2,700,000
Tanzania 2,524,740
Mexico 2,203,861

* Estimated Value (2012)

Gk - Countries by Apple Production

The following table enlists the Apple producing countries in decreasing order −

Country Production (In Metric Tonnes*)
China 37,000,000
United States 4,110,046
Turkey 2,889,000
Poland 2,877,336
India 2,203,400
Italy 1,991,312
Iran 1,700,000
Chile 1,625,000
Russian Federation 1,403,000
France 1,382,901

* Estimated Value (2012)

Gk - Countries by Mangoes Production

The following table enlists the Mangoes producing countries in decreasing order −

Country Production (In Metric Tonnes*)
India 15,250,000
China 4,400,000
Kenya 2,781,706
Thailand 2,650,000
Indonesia 2,376,339
Pakistan 1,950,000
Mexico 1,760,588
Brazil 1,175,735
Bangladesh 945,059
Nigeria 860,000

(Data also included Mangosteens and Guavas)

* Estimated Value (2012)

General Knowledge - Top Ranking Countries

The following table enlists the Top Ranking countries in their respective fields −

Statistics Country
The largest producer of opium Afghanistan
The largest producer of hashish Afghanistan
The largest producer of heroin Afghanistan
The highest infant mortality rate Afghanistan
The lowest annual energy consumption per capita Afghanistan
The lowest electricity consumption per capita Afghanistan
The largest recipient of foreign aid Afghanistan
The country, which have the highest number of lakes Canada
The country, which have the longest border Canada (shared with US)
The highest air temperature ever recorded 57.80 C (Libya, 1922)
The longest railway tunnel Gotthard Base Tunnel (57,104 m, Switzerland)
The highest consumption of (pure) alcohol per capita Czech Republic (14.1 liter/year)
The lowest fertility rate Singapore (0.8 births per woman)
The highest Human Development Index Norway
The largest Democracy India
The least corrupt country Denmark
The largest wind power producer China
The largest total length of high-speed railways China
The largest total length of controlled-access highways China
The largest steel producer China
The largest renewable energy producer China
The largest motor vehicle producer China
The largest forex reserves China
The largest electricity consumer China
The largest electricity producer China
The longest total length of roadways United States
The largest total length of pipelines United States
The highest producing off-shore wind farm United Kingdom
The highest percent of forest area Surinam (90.2%)
The Highest annual energy consumption per capita Iceland
The highest consumption of tobacco per capita Greece
The largest wine producer France
The longest bridge Danyang–Kunshan Grand Bridge (164,800 m)
The country having maximum number of time zones Russia (9 Zones)
The country sharing international boundary with the maximum number of countries Russia & China (14 countries each)
The country with longest coastline Canada
The largest perfume exporter France
The most languages spoken in a country Papua New Guinea (820)

GK - Mineral Resources in India

List of States by Coal Reserves

State Reserves (In Million Tonnes, est.)
Jharkhand 80,716
Odisha 75,073
Chhattisgarh 52,533
West Bengal 31,318
Madhya Pradesh 25,673

List of States by Coal Production

State Production (In Million Tonnes, est.)
Chhattisgarh 127
Jharkhand 113
Odisha 112
Madhya Pradesh 75.5
Andhra Pradesh 50.5
Maharashtra 37
  • Assam has the largest tertiary coal (about 63% of the total) reserves and major coal regions are Makum, Nazira, Mikir Hills, Dilli-Jeypore, etc.

  • Located in Tamil Nadu, Neyveli is the largest lignite coal field in India. Other states producing lignite coal are Gujarat, Rajasthan, and Jammu and Kashmir.

  • The major coal producing regions in Jharkhand are Bokaro, North & South Karanpura, Giridih, Daltonganj, Ramgarh, Rajmahal, etc.

  • The major coal producing regions in Odisha are Talcher and Ranapur Himgir.

Coal Fileds of India
  • The major coal producing regions in Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh are Korba, Umaria, Singrauli, Chirmiri, Sohagpur, etc.

  • The major coal producing regions in Andhra Pradesh are Adilabad, Karimnagar, Warangal, Khammam, East and West Godavari.

  • The major coal producing regions in Maharashtra are Nagpur-Wardha region, Ballarpur, Chanda, etc.

  • The major coal producing regions in West Bengal are Raniganj and Asansol

General Knowledge - Iron Ore Reserves

  • The major iron ore producing regions/mines in Odisha are Gurumahisani, Sulaipat, and Badampahar (in Mayurbhanj district); Kiriburu and Bagiaburu (in Keonjhar district); and Bonai (in Sundargarh district).

  • The major iron ore producing regions/mines in Chhattisgarh are Dhalli Rajhara (in Durg district) and Bailadila (in Bastar district).

Iron Ore Deposits
  • The major iron ore producing regions/mines in Karnataka are Donai Malai (in Bellary-Hospet); Bababudan (in Chikmagalur district); Kudremukh (in Chittradurg district); and Arasul (in Shimoga district).

  • The major iron ore producing regions/mines in Jharkhand are Noamundi, Gua, Budaburu, etc. However, recently one of the largest iron ore reserves has been discovered at Chiria.

  • The major iron ore producing regions/mines in Goa are Pirna, Sirigao, Kudnem, Baragan etc.

List of States by Iron Production

State Production (In Million Tonnes, est.)
Odisha 62
Chhattisgarh 30
Karnataka 22
Jharkhand 22
Goa 10

General Knowledge - Petroleum in India

  • Located in Lakhimpur district of Assam, Digboi is the oldest oil producing region of India.

  • Bappapung and Hunsapung are the two major oil fields of Digboi.

  • Major oil fields of Gujarat are Amkleswar (largest), Cambay, Kosamba, Kalol, Mehsana, Nowgam, Dholka, Sananda, Lunej, Wavel Bakal, and Kathana.

  • Located about 150 km north west of Mumbai City in the Arabian Sea, Bombay High is one of the leading oil producing regions.

Oil Production Regions

General Knowledge - Rice in India

  • India is one of the largest producers of white rice and brown rice in the world. It shares about 20% of rice production of the world.

  • Following are the major rice producing regions (in India) −

    • West Bengal

    • Punjab

    • Uttar Pradesh

    • Andhra Pradesh

    • Tamil Nadu

    • Bihar

    • Chhattisgarh

    • Odisha

    • Assam

Major Rice Producing

General Knowledge - Wheat in India

  • Wheat is one of the most important Rabi Crops. It is grown between September and December and harvested between February and May.

  • Uttar Pradesh has the highest amount of wheat production; however, with 4,693 kg/hectare, Punjab has the highest per hectare wheat production.

  • Following are the major wheat producing regions in India −

    • Uttar Pradesh

    • Punjab

    • Haryana

    • Madhya Pradesh

    • Rajasthan

    • Bihar

    • Gujarat

    • Maharashtra

    • Uttarakhand

    • West Bengal

Wheat Producing

General Knowledge - Sugarcane in India

  • India is the second (rank) producer of sugarcane in the world after Brazil.

  • Uttar Pradesh is the biggest producer of sugarcane in India; however, with 107 tonnes/hectare, Tamil Nadu has the highest per hectare sugarcane production.

  • Following are the major wheat producing regions in India −

    • Uttar Pradesh

    • Maharashtra

    • Tamil Nadu

    • Karnataka

    • Andhra Pradesh

    • Bihar

    • Gujarat

    • Haryana

    • Punjab

    • Odisha

Sugarcane Producing

General Knowledge - Coffee in India

  • India is a leading coffee producing country in the world. Arabica and Robusta are the two types of coffee that grown in India.

  • With (about) 70% of total share (of coffee production), Karnataka is the largest coffee producer.

  • Following are the major coffee producing regions in India −

    • Karnataka

    • Kerala

    • Tamil Nadu

    • Andhra Pradesh

    • Odisha

Coffee in India

General Knowledge - Tea in India

  • India is the second largest producer of tea in the world (after China).

  • Assam is the largest tea producer state in India.

  • Following are the major tea producing regions in India −

    • Assam

    • West Bengal

    • Tamil Nadu

    • Karnataka

    • Kerala

    • Uttar Pradesh

    • Uttarakhand

    • Himachal Pradesh

Tea Producing

General Knowledge - Cotton in India

  • India is the second largest producer of cotton in the world (after China).

  • Gujarat is the largest cotton producer state in India.

  • Following are the major cotton producing regions in India −

    • Gujarat

    • Maharashtra

    • Telangana

    • Karnataka

    • Andhra Pradesh

    • Haryana

    • Madhya Pradesh

    • Rajasthan

    • Punjab

    • Tamil Nadu

Cotton Producing

General Knowledge - Milk in India

  • India is the second largest (cow) milk producer in the world after China.

  • With 17% total share, Uttar Pradesh is the largest milk producing state in India.

  • Following are the major milk producing regions in India −

    • Uttar Pradesh

    • Rajasthan

    • Andhra Pradesh

    • Gujarat

    • Punjab

    • Madhya Pradesh

    • Maharashtra

    • Haryana

    • Tamil Nadu

    • Bihar

Gk - Nuclear Power Plants in India

  • Nuclear Power production in India is one of the growing sources of energy in India.

  • Located in Maharashtra, Tarapur is the first and largest nuclear power plant in India.

  • Following are the major Operating nuclear power plants in India −

    • Tarapur (Maharashtra)

    • Rawatbhata (Rajasthan)

    • Kudankulam & Kalpakkam (Tamil Nadu)

    • Kaiga (Karnataka)

    • Kakrapar (Gujarat)

    • Narora (Uttar Pradesh)

Nuclear Power Plants

Gk - Thermal Power Plants in India

  • Thermal power is the biggest source of power in India.

  • More than 70% of total energy consumed in India is shared by thermal power.

  • Following are the major Thermal Power Plants (producing more than 1,500 MW) in India −

Name Location Capacity
Mundra Thermal Power Station Gujarat 4,620 MW
Vindhyachal Thermal Power Station Madhya Pradesh 4,260 MW
Mundra Ultra Mega Power Plant Gujarat 4,150 MW
KSK Mahanadi Power Project Chhattisgarh 3,600 MW
Jindal Tamnar Thermal Power Plant Chhattisgarh 3,400 MW
Tiroda Thermal Power Station Maharashtra 3,300 MW
Barh Super Thermal Power Station Bihar 3,300 MW
Talcher Super Thermal Power Station Odisha 3,000 MW
Sipat Thermal Power Plant Chhattisgarh 2,980 MW
NTPC Dadri Uttar Pradesh 2,637 MW
NTPC Ramagundam Telangana 2,600 MW
Korba Super Thermal Power Plant Chhattisgarh 2,600 MW
Mejia Thermal Power Station West Bengal 2,430 MW
Sterlite Jharsuguda Power Station Odisha 2,400 MW
Kahalgaon Super Thermal Power Station Bihar 2,340 MW
Chandrapur Super Thermal Power Station Maharashtra 2,340 MW
Singrauli Super Thermal Power Station Uttar Pradesh 2,050 MW
Rihand Thermal Power Station Uttar Pradesh 2,000 MW
Simhadri Super Thermal Power Plant Andhra Pradesh 2,000 MW
Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant Tamil Nadu 2,000 MW
North Chennai Thermal Power Station Tamil Nadu 1,830 MW
Dr Narla Tata Rao Thermal Power Station Andhra pradesh 1,760 MW
Kothagudem Thermal Power Station Telangana 1,720 MW
Anpara Thermal Power Station Uttar Pradesh 1,630 MW
Trombay Thermal Power Station Maharashtra 1,580 MW
Suratgarh Super Thermal Power Plant Rajasthan 1,500 MW
Vallur Thermal Power Project Tamil Nadu 1,500 MW
Indira Gandhi Super Thermal Power Project Haryana 1,500 MW

Gk - Hydro Power Plants in India

  • With the total capacity of 47,057 MW, India is the seventh largest producer of Hydroelectric energy in the world.

  • Following are the major Hydro Power Plants (producing more than 100 MW) in India −

Name River Location Capacity (MW)
Tehri Dam Bhagirathi Uttarakhand 2400 MW
Srisailam Dam Krishna Andhra Pradesh 1670 MW
Nagarjunasagar Krishna Andhra Pradesh 965 MW
Sardar Sarovar Narmada Gujarat 1450 MW
Baspa-II Baspa Himachal Pradesh 300 MW
Nathpa Jhakri Satluj Himachal Pradesh 1500 MW
Bhakra Dam Satluj Punjab 1325 MW
Pandoh Dam Beas Himachal Pradesh 990 MW
Baira Siul Ravi Himachal Pradesh 198 MW
Chamera-I Ravi Himachal Pradesh 540 MW
Chamera-II Ravi Himachal Pradesh 300 MW
Pong Beas Himachal Pradesh 396 MW
Uri Hydroelectric Dam Jhelum Jammu & Kashmir 480 MW
Dulhasti Chenab Jammu & Kashmir 390 MW
Salal Chenab Jammu & Kashmir 690 MW
Sharavathi Sharavati Karnataka 1035 MW
Kalinadi Kalinadi Karnataka 955 MW
Idukki Periyar Kerala 780 MW
Bansagar Dam Sone Madhya Pradesh 425 MW
Bargi Dam Narmada Madhya Pradesh 105 MW
Omkareshwar Narmada Madhya Pradesh 520 MW
Indira Sagar Narmada Madhya Pradesh 1000 MW
Loktak Manipur Manipur 105 MW
Koyna Koyna Maharashtra 1960 MW
Bhira Hydroelectric Project Mulshi Dam Maharashtra 150 MW
Teesta VI Teesta Sikkim 510 MW
Tanakpur Sharda Uttarakhand 120 MW
Dhauliganga-I Dhauliganga Uttarakhand 280 MW
Loharinag Pala Bhagirathi Uttarakhand 600 MW

GK - Wind Power Plants in India

  • In 1986, the first wind power is set up at Ratnagiri in Maharashtra, Okha in Gujarat, and Tuticorin in Tamil Nadu.

  • With the swift development (of wind power in India), at present, India is the fourth largest wind power installed country in the world.

  • With the total capacity of 7455.2 MW, Tamil Nadu is the largest producer of Wind Energy followed by Maharashtra (4450.8 MW), Gujarat (3645.4 MW), and Rajasthan (3307.2 MW).

  • Following are the major Wind Power Plants (producing more than 50 MW) in India −

Name Location State Capacity (MW)
Muppandal windfarm Kanyakumari Tamil Nadu 1500
Jaisalmer Wind Park Jaisalmer Rajasthan 1064
Brahmanvel windfarm Dhule Maharashtra 528
Dhalgaon windfarm Sangli Maharashtra 278
Vankusawade Wind Park Satara District Maharashtra 259
Vaspet Vaspet Maharashtra 144
Mamatkheda Wind Park Mamatkheda Madhya Pradesh 100.5
Anantapur Wind Park Nimbagallu Andhra Pradesh 100
Damanjodi Wind Power Plant Damanjodi Odisha 99
Jath Jath Maharashtra 84
Welturi Welturi Maharashtra 75
Acciona Tuppadahalli Chitradurga District Karnataka 56.1
Dangiri Wind Farm Jaiselmer Rajasthan 54
Bercha Wind Park Ratlam Madhya Pradesh 50

GK - Geothermal Power Plants in India

  • Geothermal energy is thermal energy, which is generated through the natural hot springs.

  • In India, by the time, geothermal energy installed capacity is experimental; however, the potential capacity is more than 10,000 MW.

  • Following are the six most promising geothermal energy sites in India −

    • Tattapani in Chhattisgarh

    • Puga in Jammu & Kashmir

    • Cambay Graben in Gujarat

    • Manikaran in Himachal Pradesh

    • Surajkund in Jharkhand

    • Chhumathang in Jammu & Kashmir

  • Following are the six major geothermal provinces in India

    • Himalayan Province e.g. Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, etc.

    • Areas of Faulted blocks e.g. Aravalli belt, Naga-Lushi, West coast regions and Son-Narmada lineament.

    • Volcanic Arc e.g. Andaman and Nicobar Arc (Barren Island).

    • Deep sedimentary basin of Tertiary age e.g. Cambay basin in Gujarat.

    • Radioactive Province e.g. Surajkund, Hazaribagh, and Jharkhand.

    • Cratonic Province e.g. Peninsular India.

Geothermal Map

Gk - Other Energy Sources in India

Solar Energy

  • India is one of the leading Solar Energy producing countries in the world.

  • By the time, the total installed grid connected solar power capacity is (about) 7,568 MW; however, the proposed target is 100,000 MW that set to achieve by 2022.

  • With the total production of 1285.932 MW, Rajasthan is ranked first, followed by Tamil Nadu (1267 MW), Gujarat (1120 MW), and Andhra Pradesh (864 MW).

Tidal Energy

  • India is estimated to have a potential of 40 to 60 GW of Wave Energy all around its coastal area.

  • Sagar Shakthi is a 1 MW OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) plant built off the Tuticorn coast.

  • Located at Borya and Budhal villages in the coastal region of Ratnagiri district, are the major tidal energy plants in Maharashtra.

General Knowledge - National Parks of India

  • National Parks in India are the protected areas where hunting, poaching, tree cutting, wandering, etc. are strictly prohibited.

  • The first National Park in India is established in 1936 namely Hailey National Park, which now known as Jim Corbett National Park (Uttarakhand).

  • Following is the list of all major National Parks of India −

Name Location Area (sq. km) Year of Establishment
Jim Corbett National Park Uttarakhand 1318.5 1936
Mudumalai National Park Tamil Nadu 321.5 1940
Hazaribagh National Park Jharkhand 184 1954
Kanha National Park Madhya Pradesh 940 1955
Tadoba National Park Chandrapur (Maharashtra) 625 1955
Madhav National Park Madhya Pradesh 375 1959
Gir National Park Gujarat 1412 1965
Bandhavgarh National Park Madhya Pradesh 446 1968
Sanjay Gandhi National Park Maharashtra 104 1969
Bandipur National Park Karnataka 874 1974
Kaziranga National Park Assam 859 1974
Namdapha National Park Arunachal Pradesh 1985 1974
Navegaon National Park Maharashtra 134 1975
Blackbuck National Park, Velavadar Gujarat 34 1976
Guindy National Park Tamil Nadu 3 1976
Valmiki National Park Bihar 898 1976
Dudhwa National Park Uttar Pradesh 490 1977
Keibul Lamjao National Park Manipur 40 1977
Khangchendzonga National Park Sikkim 1784 1977
Pench National Park Madhya Pradesh 758 1977
Eravikulam National Park Kerala 97 1978
Mollem National Park Goa 107 1978
Nameri National Park Assam 137 1978
North Button Island National Park Andaman and Nicobar Islands 0.44 1979
Saddle Peak National Park Andaman and Nicobar Islands 32.5 1979
Vansda National Park Gujarat 23.99 1979
Desert National Park Rajasthan 3162 1980
Gulf of Mannar Marine National Park Tamil Nadu 6.23 1980
Marine National Park, Gulf of Kutch Gujarat 163 1980
Silent Valley National Park Kerala 237 1980
Simlipal National Park Odisha 845 1980
Dachigam National Park Jammu & Kashmir 141 1981
Guru Ghasidas (Sanjay) National Park Chhattisgarh 1440 1981
Keoladeo Ghana National Park Bharatpur (Rajasthan) 29 1981
Hemis National Park Jammu & Kashmir 4400 1981
Indravati National Park Chhattisgarh 1258 1981
Kishtwar National Park Jammu & Kashmir 400 1981
Panna National Park Madhya Pradesh 542 1981
Ranthambore National Park Rajasthan 392 1981
Sanjay National Park Madhya Pradesh 466 1981
Satpura National Park Madhya Pradesh 524 1981
Kanger Ghati National Park Chhattisgarh 200 1982
Nanda Devi National Park Uttarakhand 630 1982
Periyar National Park Kerala 305 1982
Sirohi National Park Manipur 41 1982
Valley of Flowers National Park Uttarakhand 87.5 1982
Mahatma Gandhi Marine National Park Andaman and Nicobar Islands 281.5 1983
Mandla Plant Fossils National Park Madhya Pradesh 0.27 1983
Rajaji National Park Uttarakhand 820 1983
Van Vihar National Park Madhya Pradesh 4.45 1983
Great Himalayan National Park Himachal Pradesh 754 1984
Sundarbans National Park West Bengal 1330 1984
Bannerghatta National Park Karnataka 104 1986
Mouling National Park Arunachal Pradesh 483 1986
Neora Valley National Park West Bengal 88 1986
Nokrek National Park Meghalaya Meghalaya 1986
Singalila National Park West Bengal 78.6 1986
Anshi National Park Karnataka 417 1987
Gugamal National Park Maharashtra 361 1987
Kudremukh National Park Karnataka 600 1987
Middle Button Island National Park Andaman and Nicobar Islands 0.44 1987
Mount Harriet National Park Andaman and Nicobar Islands 46.6 1987
Pin Valley National Park Himachal Pradesh 807 1987
South Button Island National Park Andaman and Nicobar Islands 0.03 1987
Bhitarkanika National Park Odisha 145 1988
Nagarhole National Park Karnataka 643 1988
Gangotri National Park Uttarakhand 2390 1989
Indra Gandhi Wildlife Sanctuary and National Park Tamil Nadu 117 1989
Sri Venkateswara National Park Andhra Pradesh 353 1989
Sultanpur National Park Haryana 1.43 1989
Govind Pashu Vihar Wildlife Sanctuary Uttarakhand 472 1990
Manas National Park Assam 500 1990
Murlen National Park Mizoram 100 1991
Campbell Bay National Park Andaman and Nicobar Islands 426 1992
Galathea National Park Andaman and Nicobar Islands 110 1992
Phawngpui Blue Mountain National Park Mizoram 50 1992
Salim Ali National Park Jammu & Kashmir 9 1992
Ntangki National Park Nagaland 202 1993
Gorumara National Park West Bengal 79 1994
Kasu Brahmananda Reddy National Park Telangana 1.42 1994
Mahavir Harina Vanasthali National Park Telangana 14.5 1994
Mrugavani National Park Telangana 3.6 1994
Rani Jhansi Marine National Park Andaman and Nicobar Islands 256 1996
Dibru-Saikhowa National Park Assam 340 1999
Orang National Park Assam 78.8 1999
Mukurthi National Park Tamil Nadu 78 2001
Anamudi Shola National Park Kerala 7.5 2003
Clouded Leopard National Park Tripura 5 2003
Kalesar National Park Haryana 100 2003
Mathikettan Shola National Park Kerala 12.8 2003
Pambadum Shola National Park Kerala 1.3 2003
Chandoli National Park Maharashtra 317.6 2004
Omkareshwar National Park Madhya Pradesh 293.5 2004
Rajiv Gandhi (Rameswaram) National Park Karnataka 2.4 2005
Mukundra Hills National Park Rajasthan 200.5 2006
Bison (Rajbari) National Park Tripura 31.6 2007
Papikonda National Park Andhra Pradesh 1012.8 2008
Inderkilla National Park Himachal Pradesh 104 2010
Khirganga National Park Himachal Pradesh 710 2010
Simbalbara National Park Himachal Pradesh 27.8 2010
Jaldapara National Park West Bengal 216 2012
Balphakram National Park Meghalaya 220 2013

Following is the list of all major Wildlife Sanctuaries (of India):

Name Location
Chandraprabha Sanctuary Uttar Pradesh
Dandeli Wildlife Sanctuary Karnataka
Dachigam Sanctuary Jammu & Kashmir
Indian Wild Ass Sanctuary Rann of Kutch (Gujarat)
Karakoram Wildlife Sanctuary Jammu & Kashmir
Periyar Sanctuary Kerala
Tadwai Sanctuary Warangal (Andhra Pradesh)
Tungabhadra Sanctuary Bellary (Karnataka)
Bharatpur Bird Sanctuary Rajasthan
Chilka Lake Bird Sanctuary Puri (Odisha)
Ghatprabha Bird Sanctuary Karnataka
Kumarakom Bird Sanctuary (also Vembanad Bird Sanctuary) Kerala
Kaundinya Bird Sanctuary Chittoor (Andhra Pradesh)
Mayani Bird Sanctuary Satara (Maharashtra)
Nal Sarovar Bird Sanctuary Ahmedabad (Gujarat)
Nelapattu Bird Sanctuary Nellore (Andhra Pradesh)
Pulicat Lake Bird Sanctuary Tamil Nadu & Andhra Pradesh
Ranganthittu Bird Sanctuary Karnataka
Sultanpur Bird Sanctuary Gurgaon (Haryana)
Salim Ali Bird Sanctuary Chorao Island (Goa)
Vedanthangal Bird Sanctuary Tamil Nadu
Mount Abu Wildlife Sanctuary Rajasthan
Buxa Tiger Reserve West Bengal
Sariska Tiger Reserve Rajasthan
Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve Madhya Pradesh
Sunderban Tiger Reserve West Bengal

General Knowledge - India Tribes

The following table enlists major tribes and their geographical location of India (state-wise) −

Habitat Tribes
Andaman and Nicobar Islands Jarawas
Shom Pens
Andhra Pradesh Andh
Arunachal Pradesh Abor
Assam Chakma
Bihar Asur
Chhattisgarh Andh
Gujarat Bavacha
Himachal Pradesh Gaddi
Jammu & Kashmir Bakarwal
Jharkhand Asur
Karnataka Adiyan
Kerala Eravallan
Madhya Pradesh Bhaina
Maharashtra Bamcha
Manipur Angami
Kacha Naga
Meghalaya Chakma
Mizoram Chakma
Nagaland Kachari
Odisha Bathudi
Punjab Balmiki
Rajasthan Bhil
Sikkim Bhutia
Tamil Nadu Eravallan
Kochu Velan
Tripura Chaimal
Uttarakhand Bhotia
Uttar Pradesh Bhotia
West Bengal Bhumji

General Knowledge - World Tribes

The following table enlists major tribes (of the world) and their geographical location −

Tribes Homeland
Aeta Philippines
Ainu Japan
Aleuts Alaska, USA
Bedouin Arab (desert region)
Berbers North Africa (east to west)
Bindibu or Aborigins Australian Desert
Baruya Papua New Guinea
Bushmen/San Southern Africa (Kalahari Desert)
Chukchi Northern part of Russia
Eskimo North America
Fulani West Africa
Hausa North & west Africa
Hotten tots/Khoikhoi Southwestern Africa
Ibans Brunei, Malaysia, Indonesia
India Tribes Amazon Rainforest (Brazil)
Inuit North America
Kalmyks Russia
Kazakhs Central Asia
Kirghiz Kyrgyzstan
Koryaks Russian Far East
Lapps Northern Finland
Maoris New Zealand
Masai Kenya and Tanzania
Orang Asli Peninsular Malaysia
Pygmies Central Africa
Red Indian North America
Samoyeds Siberia regions
Semangs Malay Peninsula
Tuareg North Africa
Yokuts South-west USA
Zulus Southern part of Africa

GK - Indian Economy Fact Sheet

The following table illustrates the major facts of Indian economy −

Field Facts
Total Population 1,210,193,422
Sex Ratio 942
Urban Population 31.16 %
Population Density 382 persons per square kilometer
Literacy Rate 72.99%
Male Literacy Rate 80.89 %
Female Literacy Rate 64.64 %
% of Schedule Caste 16.635
% of Schedule Tribe 8.614
Child Sex Ratio 919
GDP Annual Growth Rate 7.5% (2016-17)
GDP (nominal) Ranking 2016 7th largest economy (India is 9th fastest growing nation of the world)
GDP (PPP) Ranking 2016 3rd largest economy (after China and USA)
Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) $31 billion in 2015 (China $28 billion & the US $27 billion)
Largest trading partner of India China (USA stands second)
Largest export partner of India USA (UAE stands second)
Largest import partner of India China (Saudi Arabia, Switzerland, & USA stand 2, 3, & 4 respectively)
Unemployment rate 9.60% (2011 census), Kerala has the highest graduate unemployment rate (over 30%)
Per capita income USD 1581.6
Total Road length (network) ranking of India 2nd (USA stands first)
Total Rail length (network) ranking of India 4th (USA – 1st, China – 2nd, & Russia – 3rd)
HDI ranking of India 130th (Norway is the first rank country)
Inflation rate of India 5.9 (2015)
Contribution of Agriculture in GDP (of India) 17.83% (2014)
Contribution of Industry in GDP (of India) 30.09% (2014)
Contribution of Services in GDP (of India) 52.08% (2014)

General Knowledge - Branches of Science

The following table enlists branches of science and their meaning −

Term Meaning
Acarology Study of mites
Accidence Study of Grammar
Acology Study of medical remedies
Acoustics Science of sound
Aedoeology Study of generative organs
Aerobiology Study of airborne organisms
Aerodynamics Science of movement in a flow of air or gas
Aerolithology Study of meteorites
Aerology Study of the atmosphere
Aeronautics Study of navigation through air or space
Agriology The comparative study of primitive peoples
Agrobiology Study of plant nutrition
Agrology Study of agricultural soils
Agronomics Study of productivity of land
Agrostology Study of grasses
Alethiology Study of truth
Algedonics Science of pleasure and pain
Anaesthesiology Study of anesthetics
Anatomy Study of internal structure of the body
Andragogy Theory and practice of education of adults
Anemology Study of wind
Angiology Study of blood flow and lymphatic system
Aphnology Science of wealth
Apiology Study of bees
Arachnology Study of spiders
Archaeology Study of human material remains
Archology Science of the origins of government
Arctophily Study of teddy bears
Areology Study of Mars
Aretaics The science of virtue
Astacology The science of crayfish
Astheniology Study of diseases of weakening and aging
Astrogeology Study of extraterrestrial geology
Astrometeorology Study of effect of stars on climate
Astronomy Study of celestial bodies
Astrophysics Study of behavior of interstellar matter
Astroseismology Study of star oscillations
Autecology Study of ecology of one species
Autology Scientific study of oneself
Axiology Science of the ultimate nature of value
Bacteriology Study of bacteria
Barodynamics Science of the support and mechanics of bridges
Barology Study of gravitation
Bibliology Study of books
Bibliotics Study of documents to determine authenticity
Bioecology Study of interaction of life in the environment
Biology Study of life
Biometrics Study of biological measurement
Bionomics Study of organisms interacting in their environments
Botany Study of flora (plants)
Bromatology Study of food
Brontology Scientific study of thunder
Cacogenics Study of racial degeneration
Caliology Study of bird's nests
Cambistry Science of international exchange
Campanology Art of bell ringing
Caricology Study of sedges
Carpology Study of fruit
Cartography Science of making maps and globes
Cartophily Hobby of collecting cigarette cards
Catacoustics Science of echoes or reflected sounds
Catechectics Art of teaching by question and answer
Cetology Study of whales and dolphins
Chalcography Art of engraving on copper or brass
Chemistry Study of properties of substances
Chrematistics Study of wealth; political economy
Climatology Study of climate
Clinology Study of aging or individual decline after maturity
Codicology Study of manuscripts
Coleopterology Study of beetles and weevils
Cometology Study of comets
Cosmetology Study of cosmetics
Cosmology Study of the universe
Criminology Study of crime
Cryobiology Study of life under cold climate
Cryptology Study of codes
Ctetology Study of the inheritance of acquired characteristics
Cytology Study of living cells
Dactyliology Study of rings
Dactylography Study of fingerprints
Dactylology Study of sign language
Demography Study of Population
Demology Study of human behavior
Dendrochronology Study of tree rings
Dendrology Study of trees
Dermatoglyphics Study of skin patterns and fingerprints
Dermatology Study of skin
Desmology Study of ligaments
Diagraphics Art of making diagrams or drawings
Diplomatics Science of deciphering ancient writings and texts
Dysgenics Study of racial degeneration
Ecclesiology Study of church affairs
Ecology Study of environment
Economics Study of material wealth
Edaphology Study of soils
Egyptology Study of ancient Egypt
Ekistics Study of human settlement
Electrochemistry Study of relations between electricity and chemicals
Electrostatics Study of static electricity
Embryology Study of embryos
Endemiology Study of local diseases
Endocrinology Study of glands
Entomology Study of insects
Epistemology Study of grounds of knowledge
Eremology Study of deserts
Ergology Study of effects of work on humans
Ergonomics Study of people at work
Eschatology Study of death; final matters
Ethnogeny Study of origins of races or ethnic groups
Ethnology Study of cultures
Ethnomethodology Study of everyday communication
Ethology Study of natural or biological character
Ethonomics Study of economic and ethical principles of a society
Etymology Study of origins of words
Euthenics Science concerned with improving living conditions
Fluviology Study of watercourses
Folkloristics Study of folklore and fables
Gastroenterology Study of stomach; intestines
Genealogy Study of descent of families
Genesiology Study of reproduction and heredity
Genethlialogy Art of casting horoscopes
Geochronology Study of measuring geological time
Geogeny Science of the formation of the earth's crust
Geogony Study of formation of the earth
Geography Study of surface of the earth and its inhabitants
Geology Study of earth's crust
Geomorphogeny Study of the origins of land forms
Geoponics Study of agriculture
Geotechnics Study of increasing habitability of the earth
Geratology Study of decadence and decay
Gerocomy Study of old age
Gerontology Study of the elderly; aging
Glaciology Study of ice ages and glaciation
Glossology Study of language; study of the tongue
Glyptography Art of engraving on gems
Gnomonics Art of measuring time using sundials
Gnosiology Study of knowledge; philosophy of knowledge
Graminology Study of grasses
Grammatology Study of systems of writing
Graphemics Study of systems of representing speech in writing
Gromatics Science of surveying
Gynaecology Study of women’s physiology
Gyrostatics Study of rotating bodies
Haemataulics Study of movement of blood through blood vessels
Hagiology Study of saints
Halieutics Study of fishing
Hamartiology Study of sin
Harmonics Study of musical acoustics
Hedonics Part of ethics or psychology dealing with pleasure
Heliology Science of the sun
Helioseismology Study of sun's interior by observing its surface oscillations
Helminthology Study of worms
Hematology Study of blood
Heortology Study of religious feasts
Hepatology Study of liver
Heraldry Study of coats of arms
Heresiology Study of heresies
Herpetology Study of reptiles and amphibians
Hierology Science of sacred matters
Hippiatrics Study of diseases of horses
Hippology Study of horses
Histology Study of the tissues of organisms
Histopathology Study of changes in tissue due to disease
Historiography Study of writing history
Historiology Study of history
Homiletics Art of preaching
Hoplology Study of weapons
Horography Art of constructing sundials or clocks
Horology Science of time measurement
Horticulture Study of gardening
Hydrobiology Study of aquatic organisms
Hydrodynamics Study of movement in liquids
Hydrogeology Study of ground water
Hydrography Study of investigating bodies of water
Hydrokinetics Study of motion of fluids
Hydrology Study of water resources
Hydrometeorology Study of atmospheric moisture
Hydropathy Study of treating diseases with water
Hyetology Science of rainfall
Hygiastics Science of health and hygiene
Hygienics Study of sanitation; health
Hygiology Study of cleanliness
Hygrology Study of humidity
Hygrometry Science of humidity
Hymnography Study of writing hymns
Hypnology Study of sleep; study of hypnosis
Hypsography Science of measuring heights
Iamatology Study of remedies
Iatromathematics Archaic practice of medicine in conjunction with astrology
Ichnography Art of drawing ground plans; a ground plan
Ichnology Science of fossilized footprints
Ichthyology Study of fish
Iconography Study of drawing symbols
Iconology Study of icons; symbols
Ideogeny Study of origins of ideas
Immunogenetics Study of genetic characteristics of immunity
Immunology Study of immunity
Immunopathology Study of immunity to disease
Insectology Study of insects
Irenology Study of peace
Kalology Study of beauty
Karyology Study of cell nuclei
Kinematics Study of motion
Kinesics Study of gestural communication
Kinesiology Study of human movement and posture
Kinetics Study of forces producing or changing motion
Koniology Study of atmospheric pollutants and dust
Ktenology Science of putting people to death
Kymatology Study of wave motion
Labeorphily Collection and study of beer bottle labels
Larithmics Study of population statistics
Lepidopterology Study of butterflies and moths
Leprology Study of leprosy
Lexicology Study of words and their meanings
Lexigraphy Art of definition of words
Lichenology Study of lichens
Limnobiology Study of freshwater ecosystems
Limnology Study of bodies of fresh water
Linguistics Study of language
Liturgiology Study of liturgical forms and church rituals
Magirics Art of cookery
Magnanerie Art of raising silkworms
Magnetics Study of magnetism
Malacology Study of mollusks
Malariology Study of malaria
Mastology Study of mammals
Mechanics Study of action of force on bodies
Meconology Study of or treatise concerning opium
Melittology Study of bees
Metallography Study of the structure and constitution of metals
Metallurgy Study of alloying and treating metals
Metaphysics Study of principles of nature and thought
Metapsychology Study of nature of the mind
Meteorology Study of weather
Metrics Study of versification
Metrology Science of weights and measures
Microbiology Study of microscopic organisms
Muscology Study of mosses
Museology Study of museums
Mycology Study of funguses
Mythology Study of myths; fables; tales
Naology Study of church or temple architecture
Neonatology Study of newborn babies
Neossology Study of nestling birds
Nephology Study of clouds
Nephrology Study of the kidneys
Neurobiology Study of anatomy of the nervous system
Neurology Study of nervous system
Neuropsychology Study of relation between brain and behaviour
Neurypnology Study of hypnotism
Neutrosophy Study of the origin and nature of philosophical neutralities
Nomology Science of the laws; especially of the mind
Noology Science of the intellect
Nosology Study of diseases
Nostology Study of senility
Numerology Study of numbers
Numismatics Study of coins
Obstetrics Study of midwifery
Oceanography Study of oceans
Odontology Study of teeth
Oenology Study of wines
Oikology Science of housekeeping
Olfactology Study of the sense of smell
Ombrology Study of rain
Oncology Study of tumors
Oneirology Study of dreams
Onomasiology Study of nomenclature
Onomastics Study of proper names
Ontology Science of pure being; the nature of things
Oology Study of eggs
Ophiology Study of snakes
Ophthalmology Study of eye diseases
Optics Study of light
Optometry Science of examining the eyes
Orchidology Study of orchids
Ornithology Study of birds
Orology Study of mountains
Orthoepy Study of correct pronunciation
Orthography Study of spelling
Orthopterology Study of cockroaches
Osmics Scientific study of smells
Osphresiology Study of the sense of smell
Osteology Study of bones
Otorhinolaryngology Study of ear, nose, and throat
Paedology Study of children
Paedotrophy Art of rearing children
Paidonosology study of children's diseases; pediatrics
Palaeoanthropology Study of early humans
Palaeobiology Study of fossil plants and animals
Palaeoclimatology Study of ancient climates
Palaeolimnology Study of ancient fish
Palaeolimnology Study of ancient lakes
Palaeontology Study of fossils
Paleo-osteology Study of ancient bones
Palynology Study of pollen
Parapsychology Study of unexplained mental phenomena
Parasitology Study of parasites
Paroemiology Study of proverbs
Pathology Study of disease
Patrology Study of early Christianity
Pedagogics Study of teaching
Pedology Study of soils
Penology Study of crime and punishment
Petrology Study of rocks
Pharmacognosy Study of drugs of animal and plant origin
Pharmacology Study of drugs
Pharyngology Study of the throat
Philately Study of postage stamps
Philosophy Science of knowledge or wisdom
Phoniatrics Study and correction of speech defects
Phonology Study of speech sounds
Photobiology Study of effects of light on organisms
Phraseology Study of phrases
Phycology Study of algae and seaweeds
Physics Study of properties of matter and energy
Physiology Study of processes of life
Piscatology Study of fishes
Pisteology science or Study of faith
Planetology Study of planets
Pneumatics Study of mechanics of gases
Podology Study of the feet
Polemology Study of war
Potamology Study of rivers
Prosody Study of versification
Protistology Study of protists
Proxemics Study of man’s need for personal space
Psalligraphy Art of paper-cutting to make pictures
Psephology Study of election results and voting trends
Pseudology Art or science of lying
Pseudoptics Study of optical illusions
Psychobiology Study of biology of the mind
Psychogenetics Study of internal or mental states
Psychology Study of mind
Psychopathology Study of mental illness
Psychophysics Study of link between mental and physical processes
Pteridology Study of ferns
Pyretology Study of fevers
Pyroballogy Study of artillery
Pyrography Study of woodburning
Quinology Study of quinine
Raciology Study of racial differences
Radiology study of X-rays and their medical applications
Rhabdology Art of calculating using numbering rods
Rhochrematics Science of inventory management and the movement of products
Sarcology Study of fleshy parts of the body
Schematonics art of using gesture to express tones
Sedimentology Study of sediment
Seismology Study of earthquakes
Selenodesy Study of the shape and features of the moon
Selenology Study of the moon
Semantics Study of meaning
Semantology science of meanings of words
Semasiology Study of meaning; semantics
Semiology Study of signs and signals
Semiotics Study of signs and symbols
Sociobiology Study of biological basis of human behavior
Sociology Study of society
Somatology science of the properties of matter
Spectrology Study of ghosts
Speleology Study and exploration of caves
Sphagnology Study of peat moss
Stasiology Study of political parties
Statics Study of bodies and forces in equilibrium
Stemmatology Study of relationships between texts
Stoichiology Science of elements of animal tissues
Stratigraphy Study of geological layers or strata
Symptomatology Study of symptoms of illness
Synecology Study of ecological communities
Synectics Study of processes of invention
Syntax Study of sentence structure
Teleology Study of final causes; analysis in terms of purpose
Telmatology Study of swamps
Thalassography science of the sea
Thanatology Study of death and its customs
Thaumatology Study of miracles
Theology Study of religion; religious doctrine
Theriogenology Study of animals' reproductive systems
Thermodynamics Study of relation of heat to motion
Thermokinematics Study of motion of heat
Thermology Study of heat
Therology Study of wild mammals
Thremmatology Science of breeding domestic animals and plants
Threpsology Science of nutrition
Tonetics Study of pronunciation
Topology Study of places and their natural features
Toxicology Study of poisons
Traumatology Study of wounds and their effects
Trichology Study of hair and its disorders
Trophology Study of nutrition
Tsiganology Study of gypsies
Typhlology Study of blindness and the blind
Uranography Descriptive astronomy and mapping
Uranology Study of the heavens; astronomy
Urenology Study of rust molds
Urology Study of urine; urinary tract
Venereology Study of venereal disease
Vermeology Study of worms
Vexillology Study of flags
Victimology Study of victims
Vinology Scientific study of vines and winemaking
Virology Study of viruses
Vulcanology Study of volcanoes
Xylography Art of engraving on wood
Zenography Study of the planet Jupiter
Zoogeography Study of geographic distribution of animals
Zoogeology Study of fossil animal remains
Zoology Study of Fauna (animals)
Zoonosology Study of animal diseases
Zoophytology Study of plant-like animals
Zoosemiotics Study of animal communication

General Knowledge - Scientific Instruments

The following table explains name and definitation of scientific instruments −

Instrument Use
Accelerometer Measures acceleration
Altimeter Measures altitude (height)
Ammeter Measures electric charges
Anemometer Measures wind speed
Barometer Measures atmospheric pressure
Bolometer Measures electromagnetic radiation
Calipers Measures the distance between two opposite sides of an object
Calorimeter Measures the heat of chemical reactions or physical changes as well as heat capacity
Cardiograph Measures heart rate
Cryometer Measures freezing temperature
Dynamometer Measures the power output of an engine
Electrometer Measures electric charges
Galvanometer Measures electric current
Hydrometer Measures density of liquids
Hygrometer Measures moisture content (Humidity) in the atmosphere
Hypsometer Measures height (altitude)
Lactometer Measures milk purity
Magnetometer Measures magnetic property of a substance
Nephelometer Measures suspended particulates in a liquid or gas colloid
Ohmmeter Measures resistance in different applications of electrical testing
Ondometer Measures the frequency of electromagnetic waves
Photometer Measures the intensity of light
Pyknometer Measures density of substance
Pyrometer Measures high temperature
Radar Determines the range, angle, or velocity of objects
Refractometer Measures refractive index
Sextant Measures the angle between any two visible objects
Sphygmomanometer Measures blood pressure
Stethoscope Used to listen heart beats
Telemeter Measures distances to remote objects
Thermometer Measures temperature
Tonometer Measure the internal pressure of the eye
Venturimeter Measures the rate of a flow of a fluid flowing through a pipe
Voltmeter Measures electrical potential difference between two points in an electric circuit

General Knowledge - Measurements

The following table explains the metric units and their measurements −

Term Symbol value
yotta Y 1024
zetta Z 1021
exa E 1018
peta P 1015
tera T 1012
giga G 109
mega M 106
kilo k 103
hecto h 102
deka da 101
deci d 10-1
centi c 10-2
milli m 10-3
micro μ 10-4
nano n 10-9
pico p 10-12
femto f 10-15
atto a 10-18
zepto z 10-21
yocto y 10-24

Units of Length

Units Measurement
10 millimeters (mm) = 1 centimeter (cm)
10 centimeters = 1 decimeter (dm)
10 decimeters = 1 meter (m)
10 meters = 1 dekameter
10 dekameters = 1 hectometer
10 hectometers = 1 kilometer

Units of Area

Units Measurement
100 square millimeters (mm2) = 1 square centimeter (cm2)
100 square centimeters = square decimeter (dm2)
100 square decimeters = quare meter (m2)
100 square meters = 1 square dekameter (dam2)
100 square dekameters = 1 square hectometer (hm2)
100 square hectometers = 1 square kilometer (km2)

Units of Liquid Volume

Units Measurement
10 milliliters (mL) = 1 centiliter (cL)
10 centiliters = 1 deciliter (dL) = 100 milliliters
10 deciliters = 1 liter1 = 1000 milliliters
10 liters = 1 dekaliter (daL)
10 dekaliters = 1 hectoliter (hL) = 100 liters
10 hectoliters = 1 kiloliter (kL) = 1000 liters

Units of Volume

Units Measurement
1000 cubic millimeters (mm3) = 1 cubic centimeter (cm3)
1000 cubic centimeters = 1 cubic decimeter (dm3)
1000 cubic decimeters = 1 cubic meter (m3)

Units of Mass

Units Measurement
10 milligrams (mg) = 1 centigram (cg)
10 centigrams = 1 decigram (dg)
10 decigrams = 1 gram (g)
10 grams = 1 dekagram (dag)
10 dekagrams = 1 hectogram (hg)
10 hectograms = 1 kilogram (kg)
1000 kilograms = 1 megagram (Mg) or 1 metric ton(t)

Units of Length (Area)

Units Measurement
12 inches (in) = 1 foot (ft)
3 feet = 1 yard (yd)
16½ feet = 1 rod (rd), pole, or perch
40 rods = 1 furlong (fur) = 660 feet
8 furlongs = 1 U.S. statute mile (mi) = 5280 feet
1852 meters (m) = 1 international nautical mile

International System of Units

Unit Name Symbol Quantity
meter m Length
kilogram kg Mass
second s Time
ampere A Electric Current
kelvin K Thermodynamic temperature
mole mol Amount of substance
candela cd Luminous intensity
radian rad Angle
steradian sr Solid Angle
hertz Hz Frequency
newton N Force, weight
pascal Pa pressure, stress
joule J energy, work, heat
watt W Power, radiant, flux
coulomb C Electric charge
volt V Voltage, electromotive force
farad F Electric capacitance
ohm Electric resistance
tesla T Magnetic flux density
degree Celsius 0C Temperature
becquerel Bq radioactivity
henry H Magnetic induction
Angstrom Å Wave length

Conversion of Units

Unit I Value in another unit
1 Inch 2.54 centimeter
1 Foot 0.3048 meter
1 Foot 30.48 centimeter
1 Yard 0.9144 meter
1 Mile 1609.34 meter
1 Chain 20.1168 meter
1 Nautical mile 1.852 kilometer
1 Angstrom 10-10 meter
1 Square inch 6.4516 square centimeter
1 Acre 4046.86 square meter
1 grain 64.8 milligram
1 dram 1.77 gm
1 ounce 28.35 gm
1 pound 453.592 gram
1 horse power 735.499 Watt

General Knowledge - Scientific Abbreviations

The following table describes the major scientific terms −

Abbreviation Explanation
ADH Antidiuretic Hormone
AIDS Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
AMU Atomic Mass Unit
AWACS Airborne Warning and Control System
BASIC Beginner's All Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code
BCG Bacillus Calmette-Guerin
BTU British Thermal Unit
CCTV Closed-Circuit Television
CFC Chloro Fluoro Carbon
CNG Compressed Natural Gas
CNS Central Nervous System
CRO Cathode-Ray Oscilloscope
CRT Cathode Ray Tube
DDT Dichloro Diphenyl Trichloroethane
DNA Deoxyribonucleic Acid
EMF Electromotive Force
FBTR Fast Breeder Test Reactor
ICU Intensive Care Unit
LASER Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation
LCD Liquid Crystal Display
LED Liquid Emitting Diode
LNG Liquefied Natural Gas
LORAN Long Range Navigation
LPG Liquefied Petroleum Gas
MASER Microwave Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation
PVC Polyvinyl Chloride
RADAR Radio Detection and Ranging
RNA Ribose Nucleic Acid
SARS Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome
SONAR Sound Navigation and Ranging
STAR Satellite for Telecommunication Applications and Research
STP Standard Temperature and Pressure
TB Tuberculosis
TFT Thin Film Transistor
TNT Tri Nitro Toulene

Computer Science Abbreviation

Abbreviation Explanation
AGP Accelerated Graphic Port
ALU Arithmetic and Logic Unit
ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange
BASIC Beginner All Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code
BIOS Basic Input and Output System
CAN Campus Area Network
CCNA Cisco Certified Network Associate
CD Compact Disk
CEH Certified Ethical Hacking
CMD Command
CMOS Complimentary Metaoxide Semi-Conductor
COBOL Common Basic Oriented Language
CPU Central Processing Unit
CSS Cascading Style Sheets
DBMS Database Management System
DDOS Distribution Denial of Service
DIR Directory
DOC Document
DVD Digital Versatile Disc
EDSAC Electronic Dialog Storage Automatic Computer
FTP File Transfer Protocol
GHZ Gigahertz
GUI Graphic User Interface
HDD Harddisk Drive
HTML Hypertext Markup Language
HTTP Hypertext Transfer Protocol
HTTPS Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure
IC Integrated Circuit
ICT Infomation Communication Technology
IDE Integrated Drive Electronics
IP Internet Protocol
ISP Internet Service Provider
LAN Local Area Network
LSIC Large Scale Integrated Circuit
MAC Media Access Control
MAN Metropolitan Area Network
MHZ Megahertz
MICR Magnetic-Ink Character Recongnition
MOS Metaoxide Semi-Conductor
OS Operating System
PAN Personal Area Network
PC Personal Computer
PDF Portable Document Format
PDT Parallel Data Transmission
PHP PHP Hypertext Preprocessor
PROM Programmable Read Only Memory
RAM Random Access Memory
RFI Remote File Inclusion
ROM Read only Memory
RW Re-writeable
SDT Serial Data Transmission
SEO Search Engine Optimization
SIM Subscriber Identification Module
SIMMs Single in-line Memory Module
SQL Structured Query Language
TCP Transmission Control Protocol
UNIVAC Universal Automatic Computer
URL Universal Resource Locator
USB Universal Serial Board
USSD Unstructured Supplementary Service Data
VDU Visual Display Unit
VGA Visual Graphic Adaptor
VPN Virtual Private Network
WAN Wide Area Network
WLAN Wide Area Network
WLAN Wireless Local Area Network
WWW World Wide Web
XML Extensible Mark-up Language
XXS Cross Site Scripting

General Knowledge - Scientific Laws

The following table enlists major laws of science −

Scientist Name Law Field
Niels Henrik Abel Abel's theorem Calculus
Gene Amdahl Amdahl's law Computer science
Gus Archie Archie's law Geology
Archimedes Archimedes' principle Physics
Amedeo Avogadro Avogadro's law Thermodynamics
John Stewart Bell Bell's theorem Quantum mechanics
Frank Benford Benford's law Mathematics
Daniel Bernoulli Bernoulli's principle Physical sciences
Jean Baptiste Biot and Félix Savart Biot–Savart law Electromagnetics, fluid dynamics
Robert Boyle Boyle's law Thermodynamics
Samuel C. Bradford Bradford's law Computer science
C.H.D. Buys Ballot Buys Ballot's law Meteorology
Arthur Cayley and William Hamilton Cayley–Hamilton theorem Linear algebra
Jacques Charles Charles's law Thermodynamics
Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar Chandrasekhar limit Astrophysics
Charles Augustin de Coulomb Coulomb's law Physics
Pierre Curie Curie's law Physics
Jean le Rond d'Alembert D'Alembert's paradox Fluid dynamics, Physics
John Dalton Dalton's law of partial pressure Thermodynamics
Henry Darcy Darcy's law Fluid mechanics
Christian Doppler Doppler effect Physics
Paul Ehrenfest Ehrenfest's theorem Quantum mechanics
Albert Einstein Einstein's general theory of relativity Physics
Paul Erdős and József Beck Erdős–Beck theorem Mathematics
Michael Faraday Faraday's law of induction Electromagnetism
Faraday's law of electrolysis Chemistry
Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss Gauss's law Mathematics, Physics
Gauss's law for magnetism Mathematics, Physics
Gauss's digamma theorem Mathematics, Physics
Gauss's hypergeometric theorem Mathematics, Physics
Gaussian function Mathematics, Physics
Thomas Graham Graham's law Thermodynamics
Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm Grimm's law Linguistics
John L. Gustafson Gustafson's law Computer science
Heinrich Hertz Hertz observations Electromagnetism
Germain Henri Hess Hess's law Thermodynamics
David Hilbert Hilbert's basis theorem Mathematics
Robert Hooke Hooke's law Physics
John Hopkinson Hopkinson's law Electromagnetism
Edwin Hubble Hubble's law Cosmology
Friedrich Hund Hund's rules Atomic physics
James Joule Joule's laws Physics
Michael Kasha Kasha's rule Photochemistry
Johannes Kepler Kepler's laws of planetary motion Astrophysics
Gustav Kirchhoff Kirchhoff's laws Electronics, thermodynamics
Hermann Franz Moritz Kopp Kopp's law Thermodynamics
Irving Langmuir Langmuir equation Surface Chemistry
Pierre-Simon Laplace Laplace transform Mathematics
Laplace's equation Physics
Laplace operator Probability Theory
Laplace distribution Statistical mechanics
Henri Louis le Chatelier Le Chatelier's principle Chemistry
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Leibniz's law Ontology
Heinrich Lenz Lenz's law Physics
Guglielmo Marconi Marconi's law Radio technology
Vladimir Markovnikov Markovnikov's rule Organic chemistry
Pierre Louis Maupertuis Maupertuis' principle Mathematics
James Clerk Maxwell Maxwell's equations Electrodynamics
Gregor Mendel Mendelian inheritance/Mendel's laws Genetics
Robert Metcalfe Metcalfe's law Network theory
Hermann Minkowski Minkowski's theorem Number theory
Eilhard Mitscherlich Mitscherlich's law Crystallography
Gordon Moore Moore's law Computing
John Forbes Nash Nash embedding theorem Topology
Walther Nernst Nernst equation Electrochemistry
Isaac Newton Newton's law of cooling Thermodynamics
Newton's law of universal gravitation Astrophysics
Newton's laws of motion Mechanics
Georg Ohm Ohm's law ElectronicsElectronics
Blaise Pascal Pascal's law Physics
Pascal's theorem Geometry
Max Planck Planck's law Electromagnetism
Ptolemy Ptolemy's theorem Geometry
Pythagoras Pythagorean theorem Geometry
Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman Raman scattering Physics
Richard Rado Rado's theorem Discrete mathematics
Srinivasa Ramanujan and Trygve Nagell Ramanujan–Nagell equation Mathematics
Thales Thales' theorem Geometry
Johann Daniel Titius and Johann Elert Bode Titius–Bode law Astrophysics
Evangelista Torricelli Torricelli's law Physics
Steven Weinberg and Edward Witten Weinberg–Witten theorem Quantum Gravity
Hermann Weyl Weyl character formula Mathematics
Wilhelm Wien Wien's law Physics
Thomas Young and Pierre-Simon Laplace Young–Laplace equation Fluid dynamics

General Knowledge - Scientific Fields

The following table illustrates the major scientific fields and their founders −

Subject Founder/Father Description (if any)
Biogeography Alfred Russel Wallace Wallace worked on the impact of human activity on the natural world
Biology Aristotle
Botany Theophrastus
Evolution Charles Darwin On the Origin of Species (1859)
Genetics Gregor Mendel Studied the inheritance of traits in pea plants (forms the basis for Mendelian inheritance)
Microbiology Antonie van Leeuwenhoek The first to microscopically observe micro-organisms in water and the first to see bacteria
Molecular biology Linus Pauling
Molecular biophysics Gopalasamudram Narayana Iyer Ramachandran Founded the molecular biophysics unit (1970)
Paleontology Leonardo da Vinci
Parasitology Francesco Redi The founder of experimental biology. He was the first person who challenged the theory of spontaneous generation by demonstrating that maggots come from eggs of flies
Protozoology Antonie van Leeuwenhoek First to produce precise, correct descriptions of protozoa.
Atomic theory (early) Democritus Founder of atomism in cosmology
Atomic theory (modern) Father Roger Boscovich & First coherent description of atomic theory
John Dalton First scientific description of the atom as a building block for more complex structures.
Chemistry (early) Jabir First introduced the experimental method to Islamic alchemy
Chemistry (modern) Antoine Lavoisier Elements of Chemistry (1787)
Jöns Berzelius Development of chemical nomenclature (1800s)
John Dalton Revival of atomic theory (1803)
Nuclear chemistry Otto Hahn Applied Radiochemistry (1936)
Periodic table Dmitri Mendeleev He arranged the sixty-six elements known at the time in order of atomic weight by periodic intervals (1869)
Physical chemistry Mikhail Lomonosov The first person to read lectures in physical chemistry and coin the term in 1752
Geodesy (mathematical geography) Eratosthenes
Plate tectonics Alfred Wegener
Speleology Édouard-Alfred Martel
Cognitive therapy Aaron T. Beck
Electrophysiology Emil du Bois-Reymond
Gynaecology J. Marion Sims
Histology Marcello Malpighi
Medicine Charaka Wrote the Charaka Samhitā and founded the Ayurveda system of medicine
Psychology (experimental) Wilhelm Wundt Founded the first laboratory for psychological research
Plastic surgery Sushruta & Wrote the Sushruta Samhita
Harold Gillies
Psychoanalysis Sigmund Freud
Surgery (early) Sushruta Wrote the Sushruta Samhita
Atomic bomb Enrico Fermi
J. Robert Oppenheimer
Leslie Groves
Edward Teller
Classical mechanics Isaac Newton
Electricity William Gilbert & Wrote ‘De Magnete’ (1600)
Michael Faraday Discovered electromagnetic induction (1831)
Modern astronomy Nicolaus Copernicus Developed the first heliocentric model in De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (1543)
Nuclear physics Ernest Rutherford
Nuclear science Marie Curie & Pierre Curie
Optics Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen)
Quantum mechanics Max Planck
Relativity Albert Einstein
Thermodynamics Sadi Carnot
Algebra Brahmagupta
Muhammad Al-Khwarizmi (Algorismi)
Calculus Isaac Newton &
Gottfried Leibniz
Computer science George Boole &
Alan Turing
Geometry Euclid
Number theory Pythagoras
Trigonometry Aryabhata & Hipparchus
Fuzzy logic Lotfi Asker Zadeh
Anthropology Herodotus
Geography Eratosthenes
Demography Ibn Khaldun
History Herodotus He also coined the term 'History'
International law Alberico Gentili
Francisco de Vitoria
Hugo Grotius
Linguistics (early) Panini
Sociology Ibn Khaldun
Auguste Comte (also coined the term) Father of modern sociology
Accounting and Bookkeeping Luca Pacioli
Economics (early) Chanakya / Kautilya
Mathematical economics Daniel Bernoulli
Microcredit Muhammad Yunus Founded Grameen Bank

General Knowledge - Chemicals

The following table describes the major chemicals used in everyday life −

Chemical Name Chemical Formula Common Name Source
Acetic acid CH3COOH + H2O 5% Solution: White vinegar grocery store, photo store
Acetone CH3COCH3 Acetone, nail polish remover drug store, paint store
Acetylsalicylic acid C9H8O4 Aspirin drug store
drug store Al Aluminum foil, aluminum wire and sheet grocery store, hardware store
Aluminum hydroxide Al(OH)3 General; "antacid tablets "lumina hydrate blended with magnesium hydroxide drug store
Ammonia NH3(aq) Ammonia drug store
Ammonium phosphate (NH4)3PO4 Fertilizer garden/Agricultural supply
Ammonium sulfate (NH4)2SO4 Fertilizer garden/Agricultural supply
Ascorbic acid C6H8O6 Vitamin C drug store
Boric acid H3BO3 Ant/Roach Killer drug store, hardware store
Butane C4H10 lighter fuel grocery store
Caffeine C8H10N4O2 No-Doz drug store, grocery store
Calcium carbonate CaCO3 Limestone,Carbonate of Lime garden store & others
Calcium chloride CaCl2 Ice melter, road salt/deicer hardware store
Calcium hypochlorite Ca(ClO)2 Bleaching powder, chlorinating powder grocery store, hardware store
Calcium phosphate Ca(H2PO4)2 Superphosphate garden supply
Calcium sulfate CaSO4 Gypsum, Plaster of Paris hardware store
Camphor C10H16O grocery store
Carbonic acid H2CO3 soda water (seltzer) grocery store
Citric acid C6H8O7 Sour salt grocery store
Ethanol CH3CH2OH Ethyl alcohol, alcohol liquor store
Fructose C6H12O6 Fruit sugar grocery store
Glucose C6H12O6 Dextrose, corn syrup grocery store, drug store
grocery store, drug store C3H8O3 Propanetriol grocery store, drug store
Hydrochloric acid HCl Muriatic acid, Masonry cleaner hardware store
Kerosene CnH2n+2 Lamp oil home store
Lactic acid CH3COHCOOH Milk acid grocery store
Magnesium silicate Mg3Si4O10(OH)2 Talc grocery store
Nitrous oxide N2O Whipping gas, Laughing gas grocery store, drug store
Oxalic acid C2H2O4 rust remover grocery store, drug store
Potassium carbonate K2CO3 Potash garden supply
Sodium bicarbonate NaHCO3 Baking soda, grocery store, drug store
Sodium carbonate Na2CO3 Washing soda grocery store, drug store
Sodium chlorate NaClO3 grocery store, drug store
Sodium chloride NaCl Salt grocery store
Sodium hydroxide NaOH Caustic soda grocery store
Sodium hypochlorite NaClO Bleach grocery store
Sodium thiosulfate Na2S2O3 Hypo photography supply stores
Sucrose C12H22O11 Sugar grocery store
Sulfuric acid H2SO4 Vitriol hardware store
Urea H2NCONH2 Ice melter, fertilizer garden supply stores

General Knowledge - Diseases

Vitamin Deficiency Diseases

Vitamin Name Chemical Name/s Deficiency Disease Food Sources
Vitamin K Phylloquinone, Menaquinones Bleeding diathesis Leafy green vegetables e.g. spinach, egg yolks, liver
Vitamin E Tocopherols, Tocotrienols Sterility in males and abortions in females, mild hemolytic anemia in newborn infants Fruits and vegetables, nuts and seeds
Vitamin D Cholecalciferol (D3), Ergocalciferol (D2) Rickets and osteomalacia Fish, eggs, liver, mushrooms
Vitamin C Ascorbic acid Scurvy Fruits and vegetables
Vitamin B9 Folic acid, Folinic acid Megaloblastic anemia and deficiency during pregnancy is associated with birth defects, such as neural tube defects Leafy vegetables, pasta, bread, cereal, liver
Vitamin B7 Biotin Dermatitis, enteritis Raw egg yolk, liver, peanuts, leafy green vegetables
Vitamin B6 Pyridoxine, Pyridoxamine, Pyridoxal Anemia peripheral neuropathy Meat, vegetables, tree nuts, bananas
Vitamin B5 Pantothenic acid Paresthesia Meat, broccoli, avocados
Vitamin B3 Niacin, Niacinamide Pellagra Meat, fish, eggs, many vegetables,mushrooms, tree nuts
Vitamin B2 Riboflavin Ariboflavinosis, glossitis, angular stomatitis Dairy products, bananas, popcorn, green beans, asparagus
Vitamin B12 Cyanocobalamin, Hydroxocobalamin, Methylcobalamin Megaloblastic anemia Meat, poultry, fish, eggs, milk
Vitamin B1 Thiamine Beriberi, Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome Pork, oatmeal, brown rice, vegetables, potatoes, liver, eggs
Vitamin A Retinol Night blindness, hyperkeratosis, and keratomalacia Orange, ripe yellow fruits, leafy vegetables, carrots, pumpkin, squash, spinach, fish, soya milk, milk

Diseases Caused by Bacteria

Disease Name Bacteria Pathogen Affected Organs Transmission Through
Anthrax Bacillus Anthracis Skin & Lung Infected environment e.g. infected animals
Chlamydial urethritis Chlamydia trachomatis Cervix, Eye, Urethra Sexual
Cholera Vibrio cholerae Intestine Food & water
Diphtheria Corynebacterium diphtheria Nose, throat Infected person
Gonorrhoea Neisseria gonorrhoeae Urinary tract Sexual
Leprosy (or Hansen's disease (HD)) Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium lepromatosis Skin, bone, nerves Contact
Plague Yersinia pestis Lymph Infected fleas
Pneumonia Bacterial pneumonia (also from virus) Lung Environment
Pertussis (also whooping cough) Bordetella pertussis Lung Infected environment
Salmonellosis Salmonella Intestine Food
Syphilis Treponema pallidum Skin, Cardiovascular organs Sexual
Tetanus Clostridium tetani Muscle (spasms) Infected environment
Tuberculosis (TB) Mycobacterium tuberculosis Lung Infected air
Typhus Rickettsia bacteria Skin Bugs or by other means of contact

Diseases Caused by Virus

Disease Name Virus Affected Organs Transmission Through
Adenovirus Infections Adenovirus (DNA) Lungs, Eyes Contact
AIDS Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) T-lymphocytes Sexual or by other fluid contact
Arbovirus encephalitis RNA viruses Brain Mosquito, tick or another arthropod
Chicken pox (Varicella) Varicella zoster virus (VZV) Skin, Nervous System Contact
Cytomegalovirus Disease Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Blood, Lungs Contact
Dengue Fever (Dengue virus) RNA Blood, Muscles Mosquito
Ebola Ebola viruses whole body bodily fluids
German Measles (Rubella) (Rubella virus) RNA Skin Contact
Hepatitis A (Hepatovirus A) RNA Liver Contaminated Food, Water
Hepatitis B (Hepatitis B virus (HBV)) DNA Liver Contact with body Fluids
Herpes Simplex (Herpes simplex virus(HSV)) DNA Skin, Pharynx, Genital organs Contact
Influenza (Influenza virus) RNA Respiratory Tract Droplets
Measles (Rubeola) (Measles virus (MeV)) RNA Respiratory Tract, Skin Contact
Mumps (Epidemic Parotitis) (Mumps virus) RNA Salivary Glands, Blood Contact
Polio (Poliomyelitis) (Poliovirus) RNA Intestine, Brain, Spinal Cord Food, Water, Contact
Rabies (Lyssaviruses, Rabies virus) RNA Brain, Spinal cord Contact with body Fluids
Smallpox (Variola) (Variola major and Variola minor) DNA Skin, Blood Contact, Droplets
Yellow Fever (Yellow fever virus) RNA Liver, Blood Mosquito (Aedes Aegypti)

Diseased Caused by Fungus

Disease Name Causing Fungi Organs Affected
Athlete's foot (Tinea Pedis) Fungi Foot, skin
Ringworm Fungi Skin
Fungal Meningitis Fungi Blood, immune system
Psoriasis Fungi Skin
Onychomycosis Fungi Nail

General Knowledge - Blood Group

The following table illustrates bool groups of parents and determinations the blood group of their offsprings −

Father's Blood Type
Mother's Blood Type A A or O A, B, AB, or O A, B, or AB A or O Possibility-ty of Child's Blood type
B A, B, AB, or O B or O A, B, or AB B or O
AB A, B, or AB A, B, or AB A, B, or AB A or B
O A or O B or O A or B O

General Knowledge - Indian Space

The following table illustrates the major Indian space research organizations along with their location and salient features −

Organization Location Features
Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre Thiruvananthapuram It is the largest ISRO base and the main technical center and the venue of development of the SLV-3, ASLV, and PSLV series. The base supports India's Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station and the Rohini Sounding Rocket programme.
Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre (LPSC) Thiruvananthapuram & Bengaluru The LPSC is responsible for design, development, testing, and implementation of liquid propulsion control packages, liquid stages and liquid engines for launch vehicles and satellites.
Physical Research Laboratory Ahmedabad It is the study and research center of solar planetary physics, infrared astronomy, geo-cosmo physics, plasma physics, astrophysics, archaeology, and hydrology
Semi-Conductor Laboratory Chandigarh Research & Development in the field of semiconductor technology, micro-electromechanical systems and process technologies relating to semiconductor processing.
National Atmospheric Research Laboratory Chittoor It is the study and research center of fundamental and applied research in Atmospheric and Space Sciences.
Space Applications Centre (SAC) Ahmedabad The SAC deals with the various aspects of practical use of space technology including geodesy, satellite based telecommunications, surveying, remote sensing, meteorology, environment monitoring, etc.
North-Eastern Space Applications Centre Shillong It provides developmental support to North East by undertaking specific application projects using remote sensing, GIS, satellite communication and conducting space science research.
ISRO Propulsion Complex Mahendragiri It handles testing and assembly of liquid propulsion control packages, liquid engines, and stages for launch vehicles and satellites.
ISRO Satellite Centre Bengaluru The satellites Ayrabhata, Bhaskara, APPLE, and IRS-1A were constructed at this site, and the IRS and INSAT satellite series are presently under development here.
Satish Dhawan Space Centre Sriharikota The Sriharikota (an island) acts as a launching site for India's satellites.
Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station Thiruvananthapuram It is used to launch sounding rockets.
Indian Deep Space Network (IDSN) Bengaluru It is responsible to receive, process, archive, and distribute the spacecraft health data and payload data in real time.
National Remote Sensing Centre Hyderabad It applies remote sensing technology to manage natural resources and study aerial surveying.
Master Control Facility Bhopal and Hassan It has earth stations and Satellite Control Centre (SCC) for controlling satellites
Indian Institute of Remote Sensing (IIRS) Dehradun It is an independent unit of the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO), Department of Space, Govt. of India that provides training and education to develop trained professionals.
Balasore Rocket Launching Station (BRLS) Balasore, Odisha
Antrix Corporation Bengaluru The marketing arm of ISRO.

General Knowledge - Nation's Sport

The following table illustrates the countries with their National Sports −

Country National Sport Picture
Afghanistan Buzkashi Afghanistan
Argentina Pato Argentina
Australia Cricket/Australian Rules Football Australia
Bangladesh Kabaddi Bangladesh
Bhutan Archery Bhutan
Brazil Capoeira Brazil
Canada Lacrosse (summer), Ice hockey (winter) Canada
India Hockey India
Indonesia Badminton Indonesia
Japan Sumo Japan
Pakistan Hockey Pakistan
Russia Bandy/Chess Russia
Sri Lanka Volleyball Sri lanka
UK Cricket UK
United States Baseball United States

General Knowledge - Sport's Playground

The following table illustrates sports with their respective playgrounds −

Playground Sport/s Picture
Arena Horse riding, Polo Arena
Board Table Tennis Board
Course Golf course
Court Tennis, Badminton, Net Ball, Handball, Volleyball, Squash Court
Diamond Baseball Diamond
Field Football, Hockey Field
Mat Judo, Karate, Taikwondo Mat
Pitch Cricket Pitch
Pool Swimming Pool
Ring Skating, Boxing Ring
Rink Curling, Ice Hockey Rink
Track Athletics Track
Velodrome Cycling Velodrome

General Knowledge - Number of Players

The following table illustrates name of the sports with the number of players −

Sport No. of player (in one Team)
Badminton In Single - 1 player & In Double - 2 players
Baseball 9
Basketball 5
Billiards/Snooker 1
Boxing 1
Chess 1
Cricket 11
Croquet 3 or 6
Football (Soccer) 11
Golf Not fixed
Hockey 11
Kabaddi 7
Kho Kho 9
Lacrosse 10
Netball 7
Polo 4
Rugby football 15
Table Tennis In Single - 1 player & In Double - 2 players
Tennis In Single - 1 player & In Double - 2 players
Volleyball 6
Water Polo 7

General Knowledge - Stadiums

Stadiums of World

The following table illustrates the major stadiums (of the world) with their geographic location −

Stadium Purpose Location
Rungrado 1st of May Stadium Multi-purpose stadium Pyongyang, North Korea
Michigan Stadium American Football Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States
Beaver Stadium American Football State College, Pennsylvania, United States
Soccer City Multi-purpose stadium Johannesburg, South Africa
Wembley Multi-purpose stadium London, England
Camp Nou Multi-purpose stadium Barcelona, Spain
Estadio Azteca Football Mexico City
Allianz Arena Football Bayern Munich
Estadio Do Maracana Multi-purpose stadium Brazil

List of Stadiums (India)

The following table illustrates the major stadiums (of India) with their geographic location −

Stadium Purpose Location
Indira Gandhi Arena or Indira Gandhi Indoor Stadium Indoor Stadium Delhi
Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium Multipurpose sports Delhi
Feroz Shah Kotla Ground Cricket Delhi
Ambedkar Stadium Football Delhi
Shivaji Hockey Stadium Hockey Delhi
Major Dhyan Chand National Stadium or National Stadium Hockey Delhi
Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel Indoor Stadium Multipurpose sports Mumbai
Wankhede Stadium Cricket Mumbai
Brabourne Stadium Cricket Mumbai
Eden Gardens Cricket Kolkata
Green Park Stadium Multi-purpose stadium Kanpur
Keenan Stadium Multi-purpose stadium Jamshedpur
Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium Multi-purpose stadium Chennai
Barabati Stadium Multi-purpose stadium Cuttack, Odisha

General Knowledge - Sportpersons

Sportpersons of World

The following table enlists the popular sportsperson (of the World) −

Name Sports Country Photograph
Cristiano Ronaldo Soccer Portugal Cristiano Ronaldo
Lionel Messi Soccer Argentina Lionel Messi
LeBron James Basketball USA LeBron James
Roger Federer Tennis Switzerland Roger Federer
Kevin Durant Basketball USA Kevin Durant
Novak Djokovic Tennis Serbia Novak Djokovic
Cam Newton American football USA Cam Newton
Phil Mickelson Golf USA Phil Mickelson
Jordan Spieth Golf USA Jordan Spieth
Kobe Bean Bryant Basketball USA Kobe Bean Bryant
Lewis Hamilton Formula One racing United Kingdom Lewis Hamilton
Tiger Woods Golf USA Tiger Woods
Rafael Nadal Tennis Spain Rafael Nadal
Manny Pacquiao Boxer Philippines Manny Pacquiao
Serena Williams Tennis USA Serena Williams
Maria Sharapova Tennis Russian Maria Sharapova
Caroline Wozniacki Tennis Denmark Caroline Wozniacki
Danica Sue Patrick Car racing USA Danica Sue Patrick
Stacy Lewis Golf USA Stacy Lewis
Usain Bolt Runner (100 m) Jamaica Usain Bolt
Florence Griffith-Joyner Runner (100 m) USA Florence Griffith-Joyner

Greatest Sportsmen (India)

The following table enlists the greast sportsmen (of India) −

Name Sports Country Photograph
Sachin Tendulkar Cricket Maharashtra Sachin Tendulkar
Dhyan Chand Hockey Uttar Pradesh Dhyan Chand
Abhinav Bindra Shooting Uttarakhand Abhinav Bindra
Milkha Singh Runner Chandigarh Milkha Singh
Kapil Dev Cricket Chandigarh Kapil Dev
Sushil Kumar Freestyle Wrestler Delhi Sushil Kumar
Mahendra Singh Dhoni Cricket Jharkhand Mahendra Singh Dhoni
Viswanathan Anand Chess Tamil Nadu
Leander Paes Tennis West Bengal Leander Paes
Prakash Padukone Badminton Karnataka Prakash Padukone
Geet Sethi Billiards & Snooker Delhi Geet Sethi
Mahesh Bhupathi Tennis Tamil Nadu Mahesh Bhupathi
Pankaj Advani Billiards & Snooker Maharashtra Pankaj Advani
Vikas Gowda Discus throw Karnataka Vikas Gowda
Saurav Ghosal Squash West Bengal Saurav Ghosal
Dhanraj Pillay Hockey Maharashtra Dhanraj Pillay
Jeev Milkha Singh Golf Chandigarh Jeev Milkha Singh
Balbir Singh Sr. Hockey Punjab Balbir Singh Sr.
Sunil Gavaskar Cricket Maharashtra Sunil Gavaskar

Greatest Sportswomen (India)

The following table enlists the greast sportswomen (of India) −

Name Sports Country Photograph
Deepika Kumari Archery Jharkhand Deepika Kumari
PT Usha Runner Kerala PT Usha
Anjum Chopra Cricket New Delhi Anjum Chopra
Anju Bobby George Athletics Kerala Anju Bobby George
Dipika Pallikal Squash Tamil Nadu Dipika Pallikal
Karnam Malleswari Weightlifting Andhra Pradesh Karnam Malleswari
Mithali Raj (Lady Sachin) Cricket Rajasthan Mithali Raj
Sania Mirza Tennis Maharashtra Sania Mirza
Saina Nehwal Badminton Haryana
MC Mary Kom Boxing Manipur MC Mary Koom

GK - First in Independent India

First (Male) in Independent India

The following table enlists First in India (in male category) after independence −

The First (Male) of Independent India Name Tenure/Time Picture
Who was the First President Dr. Rajendra Prasad Jan. 26, 1950 to May 14, 1962 Dr. Rajendra Prasad
Who was the First Prime Minister Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru Aug. 15, 1947 to May 27, 1964 Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru
Who was the First (& last) Indian Governor General C. Rajagopalachari June 21, 1948 to Jan. 26 1950 C. Rajagopalachari
The First Indian who went in Space Rakesh Sharma 1984 Mission: Soyuz T-11 Rakesh Sharma
Who was the First Commander-in-Chief Kodandera Madappa Cariappa Jan. 16, 1949 to Jan. 14, 1953 Kodandera Madappa Cariappa
Who was the First President who died while in office Zakir Husain May 13, 1967 to May 3, 1969 Zakir Husain
Who was the First Prime Minister who did not face the Parliament Charan Singh July, 28 1979 to January 14, 1980 Charan Singh
Who was the First Field Marshal of India S.H.F. Jamshedji Manekshaw June 8, 1969 to Jan. 15, 1973 S.H.F. Jamshedji Manekshaw
Who was the First Indian who crossed the English Channel Mihir Sen 1958 Mihir Sen
Who did receive the First Jnanpith Award G. Sankara Kurup 1965 G. Sankara Kurup
Who was the First Speaker of Lok Sabha Ganesh Vasudev Mavalankar May 15, 1952 to Jan. 13 1956 Ganesh Vasudev Mavalankar
Who was the First Air Chief Marshal Subroto Mukerjee April 1954 to Nov. 1960 Subroto Mukerjee
Who was the First Education Minister Abul Kalam Azad Aug. 15, 1947 to Feb. 2, 1958 Abul Kalam Azad
Who was the First Home Minister (& First Deputy Prime Minister) Vallabhbhai Jhaverbhai Patel Aug. 15, 1947 to Dec. 15, 1950 Vallabhbhai Jhaverbhai Patel
Who was the First Vice-President Dr. S. Radhakrishnan Jan. 26 1952 to May 12, 1962 Dr. S. Radhakrishnan
Who was the First Naval Chief Vice Admiral Ram Dass Katari April 22, 1958 to June 4, 1962 Vice Admiral Ram Dass Katari
Who was the First (Indian) President of the International Court of Justice (Hague) Dr. Nagendra Singh 1985 to 1988 Dr. Nagendra Singh
Who did First receive Param Vir Chakra Major Som Nath Sharma Major Som Nath Sharma
Who did First receive Ramon Magsaysay Award Acharya Vinoba Bhave 1958 Acharya Vinoba Bhave
Who was the First Indian who received Nobel Prize in Medicine Har Gobind Khorana 1968 Har Gobind Khorana
The First Indian who received Stalin (now Lenin) Peace Prize Saifuddin Kitchlew 1952 Saifuddin Kitchlew
Who was the First Chief Justice of Supreme Court Justice Hirala J. Kania Jan. 26, 1950 to Nov. 6, 1951 Justice Hirala J. Kania
The First person (Indian) who received Nobel Prize in Economics Amartya Sen 1998 Amartya Sen
Who was the First person resigned from the Central Cabinet Shyama Prasad Mukherjee April 6, 1950 Shyama Prasad Mukherjee
Who was the First Chief Justice of Supreme Court Acted as the President of India (Acting President) Justice M. Hidayatullah July 20, 1969 to Aug. 24, 1969 Justice M. Hidayatullah
Who was the First Finance Minister Shanmukham Chetty 1947 to 1949 Shanmukham Chetty
Who was the First Prime Minister resigned without completing his tenure Morarji Desai March 24, 1977 to July 28, 1979 Resigned in - 1979 Morarji Desai
Who was the First Defence Minister Baldev Singh 1947–1952 Baldev Singh
Who was the First Law Minister Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar Aug. 15, 1947 to Sep. 1951 Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar
Who was the First Chief Minister died during his tenure C. N. Annadurai Feb. 1967 to Feb. 3, 1969 Died in Feb. 3, 1969 C. N. Annadurai

First (Female) in Independent India

The following table enlists First in India (in female category) after independence −

The First (Female) of Independent India Female Tenure/Time Picture
The First Woman who became Cabinet Minister (She was Health Minister) Rajkumari Amrit Kaur 1947 to 1957 Rajkumari Amrit Kaur
Who was the First Woman Governor (of a state)(She served as governor of the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh) Mrs. Sarojini Naidu 1947 to 1949 Mrs. Sarojini Naidu
Who was the First (& only) Woman Prime Minister Mrs. Indira Gandhi Jan. 24, 1966 to March 24, 1977 & Jan. 14, 1980 to Oct. 31, 1984 Mrs. Indira Gandhi
Who was the First Woman Judge of Supreme Court Justice M. Fathima Beevi Oct. 6, 1989 to April 29, 1992 Justice M. Fathima Beevi
Who was the First Woman Ambassador (First woman who cleared Indian Civil Services Exam and first woman who joined Indian Foreign Service) Miss C. B. Muthamma Joined IFS in 1949 Miss C. B. Muthamma
Who was the First Woman President of the United Nations General Assembly Vijaya Lakshmi Pandit 1953 Vijaya Lakshmi Pandit
Who was the First Woman Chief Minister of state Sucheta Kriplani Oct. 2, 1963 to March 13, 1967 Sucheta Kriplani
Who was the First Woman Speaker of Lok Sabha Meira Kumar June 4, 2009 to May 18, 2014 Meira Kumar
Who was the First woman crossed the English Channel (She is first Indian female sportsperson who received Padma Shri in 1960) Arati Saha 1959 Arati Saha
Who was the First woman cosmonaut (from India) Kalpana Chawla In 1997, first flew on Space Shuttle Columbia Kalpana Chawla
Who was the First Indian woman received Academy Award (for Best Costume Design) Bhanu Athaiya 1982 (for movie Gandhi) Bhanu Athaiya
The first Indian female gymnast who won Medal at Commonwealth Games Dipa Karmakar 2014 Dipa Karmakar
Who did receive the First title of Miss World Reita Faria 1966 Reita Faria
Who did receive the First title of Miss Universe Sushmita Sen 1994 Sushmita Sen
Who was the First Woman President Pratibha Devisingh Patil July 25, 2007 to July 25, 2012 Pratibha Devisingh Patil
Who was the First (female) train driver Surekha Yadav 1988 Surekha Yadav
Who was the First woman commercial Pilot Durba Banerjee 1956 Durba Banerjee
The first Indian woman who received the ‘Légion d'honneur’ Dr. Asha Pande 2010 Dr. Asha Pande
The youngest woman who achieved the title of grandmaster (Chess) Humpy Koneru 2001 Humpy Koneru
Who is the first 100% visually challenged Indian Foreign Service Officer NL Beno Zephine 2015 NL Beno Zephine
The First woman who received Jnanpith Award Ashapoorna Devi 1976 Ashapoorna Devi
The First woman who received the ‘Bharat Ratna’ award Indira Gandhi 1971 Indira Gandhi
The first woman (in the world) who climbed Mount Everest twice Santosh Yadav First in – 1992 & Second time in 1993 Santosh Yadav

First in India Before Independence

The following table enlists First in India before independence −

The First in India (Before Independence) Name Tenure/Time Picture
Who was the First President of Indian National Congress Womesh Chandra Bonnerjee 1885 Womesh Chandra Bonnerjee
The First person who cleared the Indian Civil Service Exam (ICS) Satyendranath Tagore 1863 Satyendranath Tagore
The First person who received a Nobel Prize (in literature) Rabindra Nath Tagore 1913 Rabindra Nath Tagore
The First person who received a Nobel Prize (in Physics) C. V. Raman 1930 C. V. Raman
The First Indian who became a pilot (of solo air flight) Jehangir Ratanji Dadabhoy Tata (JRD Tata) 1929 Jehangir Ratanji Dadabhoy Tata
The First Indian leader who visited England Raja Ram Mohan Roy 1832 Raja Ram Mohan Roy
The first Indian who was appointed as member of the British House of Lords Satyendra Prasanno Sinha 1919 Satyendra Prasanno Sinha
Who were the first (two) female graduates Kadambini Ganguly Passed in 1882 & degree received in 1883 Kadambini Ganguly
Who were the first (two) female graduates Chandramukhi Basu Passed in 1882 & degree received in 1883 Chandramukhi Basu
Who was the First woman honors graduate Kamini Roy 1886 Kamini Roy
Who the first woman to read law at Oxford University (She was the first female advocate) Cornelia Sorabji 1889 Cornelia Sorabji

General Knowledge - First in World

First (Male) in World

The following table enlists First in the world (in male category) −

The First (Man) in the World Name Tenure/Time Picture
The first person who reached North Pole.(However, there is a contradiction that probably it was Robert Edwin Peary reached first) Frederick Cook 1908 Frederick Cook
The first person who reached South Pole Roald Engelbregt Gravning Amundsen 1911 Roald Engelbregt Gravning Amundsen
The first person who climbed Mount Everest Sir Edmund Hillary & Tenzing Norgay 1953 Sir Edmund Hillary & Tenzing Norgay
Who was the first President of U.S.A. George Washington 1789 to 1797 George Washington
Who was the first Prime Minister of Great Britain Robert Walpole 1721 to 1742 Robert Walpole
Who was the first Secretary General of the United Nations Trygve Lie 1946 to 1952 Sushil Kumar
The first man who did drew the map of the earth Anaximander N/A Anaximander
The first male (tourist) who traveled space Dennis Anthony Tito 2001
Who was the first human to journey into outer space Yuri Alekseyevich Gagarin (Russian) 1961 Leander Paes
The First Chinese Pilgrim who traveled India Faxian Between A.D. 399 & 412 Faxian
The First European who visited China Marco Polo Marco Polo
The person who first circumnavigated the Earth (Journey around the world through sea) Ferdinand Magellan 1519 to 1522 Ferdinand Magellan
The First US President who visited India Dwight D. Eisenhower 1959 Pankaj Advani
The First person who landed on Moon Neil Alden Armstrong 1969 Neil Alden Armstrong

First (Woman) in World

The following table enlists First in the world (in female category) −

The First (Woman) in the World Name Tenure/Time Picture
Who was the first woman Prime Minister of England Margaret Hilda Thatcher 1979 to 1990 Margaret Hilda Thatcher
Who was the first woman Prime Minister of a country Sirima Ratwatte Dias Bandaranaike (of Sri Lanka) 1960–65, 1970–77, and 1994–2000 (3 times) Sirima Ratwatte Dias Bandaranaike
The first woman who climb Mt. Everest Junko Tabei (from Japan) 1975 Junko Tabei
The first woman who reached Antarctica Caroline Mikkelsen (Denmark) 1935 Caroline Mikkelsen
Who was the first female space tourist Anousheh Ansari (Iranian-American) 2006 Anousheh Ansari
The First woman who swam across sea channels off five continents Bula Choudhury (India) 2005 Bula Choudhury
The first (Indian) woman who is appointed as a Civilian Police Advisor of the U.N. Kiran Bedi 2003 Kiran Bedi
The first woman who received a Nobel Prize (She received Nobel Prize two times and her daughter Irène Joliot-Curie also won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1935) Marie Curie (Poland) 1903 (in Physics) & 1911 (in Chemistry) Marie Curie

GK - Largest, Longest, Tallest

Largest in India

The following table enlists the Largest, Longest, Tallest, Highest, Biggest, & Smallest in India −

What/Which is Name/Location Numeric Value Image
The Largest Lake (Fresh Water Lake) Wular Lake (Jammu & Kashmir) Surface Area -30 to 260 km2 Wular Lake
The Longest River Ganga Length – 2,525 km Ganga
The Tallest Statue (Dedicated to Vallabhbhai Patel) Statue of Unity (Gujarat) Height - 182 meters (Under construction) Statue of Unity
The Highest Mt. Peak Mount Godwin-Austen (or K2) (Jammu & Kashmir) Height - 8,611 metres Mount Godwin-Austen
The Biggest Stadium Yuva Bharati Krirangan Stadium (or Salt Lake Stadium) (Kolkata) Field size - 105 × 70 metres Yuva Bharati Krirangan Stadium
The Smallest State Goa (South-West India) Area - 3,702 sq. km. Goa
The Largest Mosque Jama Masjid (Delhi) Capacity 25,000 Person Jama Masjid
The Largest Cave Temple (Largest rock-cut ancient Hindu temples) Kailasa Temple, (Cave 16) Ellora, Maharashtra Kailasa Temple
The Largest zoological garden Arignar Anna Zoological Park (Chennai, Tamil Nadu) Area - 602 hectares Arignar Anna
The Longest Bridge (on water) Dhola–Sadiya Bridge (On Lohit River) Length - 9.15 km (Connect Assam & Arunachal Pradesh) Dhola–Sadiya Bridge
The Largest saline water Lake Chilika Lake (Odisha) Surface Area - 1,165 sq. km (about) Chilika Lake
The Largest artificial Lake Dhebar Lake (also known as Jaisamand Lake) (Rajasthan) Surface Area - 87 sq. km Dhebar Lake
The Biggest Planetarium (also biggest in Asia & second biggest in the world) Birla Planetarium (Kolkata, West Bengal) Birla Planetarium
The Tallest Dam Tehri Dam on Bhagirathi River Uttarakhand Height - 260.5 m Tehri Dam
The Highest gravity dam (It is one of the largest dams in the world) Bhakra Dam on Sutlej River (Himachal Pradesh) Height - 225.55 Meters. (or 741 feet) Bhakra Dam
The Highest Plunge Waterfall Nohkalikai Falls (Meghalaya) Height - 340 Meters (or 1,115 Feet) Nohkalikai Falls
The Tallest Waterfall Thoseghar waterfalls (Maharashtra) Height- 500 Meters Thoseghar waterfalls
The Highest Lake Tso Lhamo Lake or Chho Lhamo (Sikkim) Altitude - 5,330 Meters Tso Lhamo Lake or Chho Lhamo
The Highest Road Leh-Manali Highway (Khardung La Pass), Jammu & Kashmir Altitude - 5,610 Meters Leh-Manali Highway
The Longest Glacier Siachen Glacier (Jammu & Kashmir) Length - 76 km Siachen Glacier
The Highest Airport Kushok Bakula Rimpochee Airport (Leh, Jammu & Kashmir) Altitude - 3,256 Meters Kushok Bakula Rimpochee Airport
The Longest Rail Tunnel Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel (Jammu & Kashmir) Length - 11,215 m Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel
The Longest Railway Platform Gorakhpur Railway Station (Uttar Pradesh) Length - 1.35 Km Gorakhpur Railway Station
The Longest Sea Beach Marina Beach (Coramandel coast on the Bay of Bengal) Length – 13 Km Marina Beach
The Longest National Highway National Highway 44 From Srinagar to Kanyakumari Length - 3,745 Km National Highway 44
The Biggest river Island Mājuli or Majoli (In the Brahmaputra River, Assam) Area - 1,250 sq. km Mājuli or Majoli
The Longest Tributary River Yamuna Length - 1,376 km Yamuna
The Largest National Park Hemis National Park (Jammu & Kashmir) Area - 4,400 sq. km Hemis National Park
The Longest Canal Indira Gandhi Canal (Punjab, Haryana, & Rajasthan) Length – 640 Km (about) Indira Gandhi Canal
The Coldest Place (also known as the gateway to Ladakh) Dras (Jammu & Kashmir) Ave. Minimum Temp. -22 Dras
The Lowest Region Kuttanadu (Kerala) Altitude: −2.2 Meters (Below Sea Level) Kuttanadu
Extreme South Point (of Mainland) Cape Comorin (Kanyakumari, Tamil Nadu) Cape Comorin
Extreme South Point Indira Point (Nicobar Islands) Indira Point
The Tallest Building Imperial Tower (1 & 2) Mumbai Height – 254 Meters Imperial Tower

Largest in World

The following table enlists the Largest, Longest, Tallest, Highest, Biggest, & Smallest in the world −

What/Which is Name/Location Numeric Value Image
The Biggest Airport King Khalid International Airport (Saudi Arabia) Total built up Area – 315 sq. km King Khalid International Airport
The Busiest Airport (by passenger traffic) Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport (Georgia, USA) Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta
The Largest Creature Blue Whale Average Mass – 110 Tons & Average Length – 24 Meter Blue Whale
The Largest (Hot) Desert Sahara Desert (North Africa) Area - 9,400,000 sq. km Sahara Desert
The Tallest Dam Jinping-I Dam (China) Height – 305 Meters Jinping-I Dam
The Largest Island Greenland Area - 2,130,800 sq. km Greenland
The Largest Temple Angkor Wat(Angkor, Cambodia) Area - 1,626,000 sq. meters Angkor Wat
The Highest Railway Station Tanggula Railway Station (Amdo County, Tibet) Altitude - 5,068 Meters Tanggula Railway Station
The Busiest (passenger) Railway Station Shinjuku R. Station(Tokyo, Japan) Shinjuku R.
The Largest Railway Station (by platforms) Grand Central Terminal (New York City, USA) No. of Platforms - 44 Grand Central Terminal
The Tallest Railway Station (Building) Nagoya Station (Japan) Nagoya Station
The Largest Stadium Rungrado 1st of May Stadium (Pyongyang, North Korea) Capacity – 150,000 (people) (Earlier it was Czech Republic’s Great Strahov Stadium, but no more in use) Rungrado
The Longest Epic Mahabharata Mahabharata
The Longest Mountain Range Andres (S. America) Length - 7,000 km Andres
The Longest (Road) Highway Pan-American Highway (Covering North, Central, & South America) Length - 30,000 Km Pan-American Highway
The Heaviest Terrestrial (on land) Animal African Bush Elephant Max. Mass - 12.3 Tons African Bush Elephant
The Heaviest Living Reptile (also the largest living reptile) Saltwater Crocodile Max. Mass – 200 kg Saltwater Crocodile
The Heaviest Living Bird Common Ostrich Max Mass - 156.8 kg Common Ostrich
The Tallest Animal Giraffe Height - 5.5 Meters (Male) Giraffe
The fastest flying bird Peregrine Falcon Max. Air speed - 400 km/h Peregrine Falcon
The Tallest Building Burj Khalifa (Dubai, UAE) Height – 829.8 Meters Burj Khalifa
The Highest Settlement La Rinconada (Peru) Altitude – 5,100 Meters La Rinconada
The Northernmost City (with more than 100,000 inhabitants) Norilsk (Russia) Coordinates - 69°20′N 88°13′E Norilsk
The southernmost City Ushuaia (Argentina) Coordinates -54°48′S 68°18′W Ushuaia
The Highest Mt. Peak Mount Everest (Himalayan Range)(Nepal) Height – 8848 Meters Mount Everest
The Highest (navigable) Lake Lake Titicaca (on the border of Bolivia and Peru) Altitude - 3,812 Meters Lake Titicaca
The Lowest Lake Dead Sea (on the border of West Bank, Israel and Jordan 427 Meters Below Sea Level Dead Sea
Deepest Lake Baikal (Russia) Depth – 1,642 Meters Baikal
The Largest Fresh Water Lake (by surface area) Lake Superior (on the border of the USA & Canada) Surface Area - 82,100 km Lake Superior
The Largest Gulf Mexico Gulf (Atlantic Ocean) Surface Area - 1,550,000 sq. km Mexico Gulf
The Deepest River Gorge Kali Gandaki Gorge or Andha Galchi (Nepal) Depth - 5,571 Meter Kali Gandaki Gorge
The Longest River Nile (North Africa) Length - 6,853 km Nile
The Longest River (by volume water) Amazon River (South America) Length - 6,400 km Amazon River
The Highest Waterfall Angel Falls (Venezuela) Height - 979 m Angel Falls

GK - Discovery and Invention

The following table enlists the major discoveries/inventions and their discoverers/inventors −

Discovery/Invention Discoverer/Inventor Time/Period Image
Magnifying Glass Roger Bacon (Great Britain) 13th Century Roger Bacon
Printing Press Johannes Gutenberg (German) 1440 (About) Johannes Gutenberg
Watch (Portable Clocks) Peter Henlein (Germany) 1509 (About) Peter Henlein
Optical Microscope (& also the Compound Microscope) Zacharias Janssen (Dutch) End of 16th Century Zacharias Janssen
Telescope Galileo (Italian) (however, in 1608, three inventors namely Hans Lippershey, Zacharias Janssen, & Jacob Metius invented that Galileo improved) 1609 Galileo
Barometer Evangelista Torricelli (Italian) 1643 Evangelista Torricell
Piano Bartolomeo Cristofori di Francesco (Italian) In the very beginning of 18th Century Bartolomeo Cristofori di Francesco
Steam Boat Denis Papin (French) 1704 Denis Papin
Steam Engine Thomas Newcomen (British) 1712 Thomas Newcomen
Watt Steam Engine James Watt (Scottish) 1776 James Watt
Mercury Thermometer Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit(Polish-German) 1714 Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit
Achromatic Lens John Dollond (British) 1758 John Dollond
Submarine David Bushnell (American) 1775 David Bushnell
Bifocal Lens Benjamin Franklin 1770s Benjamin Franklin
Power Loom Edmund Cartwright (British) 1784 Edmund Cartwright
Gas Turbine John Barber (British) 1791 John Barber
Electric Battery Alessandro Volta (Italian) 1800 Alessandro Volta
(Railway) Steam Locomotive Richard Trevithick (British) 1804 Richard Trevithick
Stethoscope René Laennec 1819 René Laennec
Hygrometer (Crude hygrometer was invented by Leonardo da Vinci in 1480) Johann Heinrich Lambert (French) 1755 Johann Heinrich Lambert
Electric Motor Michael Faraday (British) 1821 Michael Faraday
Typewriter William Austin Burt (American) 1829 William Austin Burt
Sewing Machine Barthélemy Thimonnier (French) 1829 Barthélemy Thimonnier
Dynamo Michael Faraday (British) 1831 Michael Faraday
Telegraph Samuel Morse (American) 1832-33 Samuel Morse
Revolver (However, the first Flintlock Revolver patented by Elisha Collier in 1814) Samuel Colt (American) 1835 Samuel Colt
Pedal Driven Bicycle Kirkpatrick Macmillan (Scottish) 1839 Kirkpatrick Macmillan
Pneumatic Tire Robert William Thomson (Scottish) 1845 Robert William Thomson
Francis Turbine James Bicheno Francis (British American) & Uriah A. Boyden (American) 1848 James Bicheno Francis
Refrigerator (In 1805, an American inventor Oliver Evans experimented a closed vapor-compression refrigeration cycle for the production of ice) Alexander Twining & James Harrison (However, in 1859, Ferdinand Carré of France developed the first gas absorption refrigeration system) 1850 Alexander Twining
Elevator/Lift (for the building) Elisha Otis (American) 1852 Elisha Otis
Machine Gun Richard Jordan Gatling (American) 1861 Richard Jordan Gatling
Dynamite Alfred Bernhard Nobel (Swedish) 1867 Alfred Bernhard Nobel
Air Brake George Westinghouse (American) 1872 George Westinghouse
Telephone Alexander Graham Bell (Scottish) 1875 Alexander Graham Bell
Phonograph/ Gramophone 1877 Phonograph
Film/Movie Camera (However, movie camera was invented by Francis Ronalds in 1845) Louis Le Thomas Alva Edison (American)Prince (French) 1888 Louis Le Thomas Alva Edison
Electric Lamp/Bulb (by using "a carbon filament”) Thomas Alva Edison (American) 1879 Thomas Alva Edison
The First Steam-powered Automobile Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot (French) 1768 N/A
The First Car Powered by an internal combustion Engine fueled by Hydrogen François Isaac de Rivaz (French) 1807 N/A
The First Petrol or Gasoline-powered Automobile Karl Benz German 1886 Karl Benz German
Inflatable Tire John Boyd Dunlop (Scottish) 1887 John Boyd Dunlop
X-Ray Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen (German) 1895 Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen
Radio Telegraph Guglielmo Marconi (Italian) 1890s Guglielmo Marconi
Nuclear Reactor (namely Chicago Pile-1) Enrico Fermi (Italian) 1942 Enrico Fermi
The first general-purpose Electronic Digital Computer John Presper Eckert, Jr. & John William Mauchly (Americans) 1945 John Presper Eckert, Jr. & John William Mauchly
Transistor William Shockley, John Bardeen & Walter Brattain (Americans) 1947 William Shockley, John Bardeen & Walter Brattain
Fiber Optics Narinder Singh Kapany (Indians) 1960 Narinder Singh Kapany
ARPANET, (the precursor to the Internet) Leonard Kleinrock (American) 1969 N/A
Radio Guglielmo Marconi (Italian) N/A N/A

Gk - Color Revolutions in India

The following table enlists the color revolutions in India −

Revolutions Related to Initiator
Black Power Revolution Petroleum N/A
Blue Revolution Fish Hiralal Chaudhuri
Brown Revolution Leather, Cocoa N/A
Grey Revolution Fertilizer N/A
Green Revolution Agriculture Norman Borlaugm (in Mexico – first in the world & M.S. Swaminathan (in India)
White Revolution Milk (Dairy Farming) Verghese Kurien
Silver Revolution Eggs N/A
Pink Revolution Drugs & Pharmaceuticals N/A
Golden Revolution Horticulture & Honey N/A
Golden Fiber Revolution Jute N/A
Red Revolution Meat and Tomato N/A
Yellow Revolution Oil Seeds N/A
Silver Fiber Revolution Cotton N/A
Round Revolution Potato N/A

General Knowledge - Seven Wonders

Seven Wonders of India

The following table enlists the seven wonders of India (aased on NDTV along with the Ministry of Tourism, Government of India) −

Wonder Location Image
Meenakshi Amman Temple (Devoted to Parvati/Minakshi and Shiva) Madurai, Tamil Nadu Meenakshi Amman Temple
Dholavira (Ancient Civilization) Kutch District, Gujarat Dholavira
Red Fort (Built by Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan in 1648) Delhi (UNESCO World Heritage Site) Red Fort
Jaisalmer Fort (Built by the Rajput ruler Rawal Jaisal in in 1156 AD) Jaisalmer, Rajasthan (UNESCO World Heritage Site) Jaisalmer Fort
Konark Sun Temple (Built by king Narasimhadeva I of Eastern Ganga Dynasty in 1255 AD) Konark, Odisha (UNESCO World Heritage Site) Konark Sun Temple
Nalanda (Was Buddhist monastery and great education center during the ancient kingdom of Magadha) Bihar Bihar
Khajuraho Group of Monuments (famous for their nagara-style architectural symbolism, it was built between 950 and 1050 by the Chandela dynasty) Chhatarpur District, Madhya Pradesh (UNESCO World Heritage Site) Khajuraho Group of Monuments

Seven Wonders of Industrial World

The following table enlists the seven wonders of the Industrial World −

Wonder Description Image
SS Great Eastern It was an iron sailing steam ship designed by Isambard Kingdom Brunel, and built by J. Scott Russell & Co. at Millwall. Location - River Thames, London, UK SS Great Eastern
Bell Rock Lighthouse Built between 1807 and 1810 by Robert Stevenson on the Bell Rock in the North Sea, it is the world's oldest surviving sea-washed lighthouse. (Location - off the coast of Angus, Scotland) Bell Rock Lighthouse
Brooklyn Bridge Built in 1883, the Brooklyn Bridge is a hybrid cable-stayed/suspension bridge in New York City, USA. Brooklyn Bridge
London Sewerage System Constructed in late 19th Century, the London sewerage system is part of the water infrastructure serving London, England. London Sewerage
First Transcontinental Railroad (Pacific Railroad) Built between 1863 and 1869, the Pacific Railroad was a 3,069 km contiguous railroad line of the United States. First Transcontinental Railroad
Panamá Canal Constructed in 1914, Panamá Canal is a man-made 77 km waterway in Panama that connects the Atlantic Ocean (via the Caribbean Sea) with the Pacific Ocean. Panamá Canal
Hoover Dam Constructed in 1930s, Hoover dam is a concrete arch-gravity dam in the Black Canyon of the Colorado River. It is located on the border of Nevada and Arizona (in the USA). Hoover Dam

Seven Wonders of Underwater World

The following table enlists the seven wonders of the Underwater World −

Wonder Description Image
Palau Palau is an island country located in the western Pacific Ocean. Palau
Belize Barrier Reef The Belize Barrier Reef is a series of coral reefs straddling the coast of Belize. Belize Barrier Reef
Great Barrier Reef The Great Barrier Reef is the world's largest coral reef system along the East of Australian Coast. Great Barrier Reef
Deep-Sea Vents It is a fissure in a planet's surface from which geothermally heated water released. Deep-Sea Vents
Galápagos Islands It is an archipelago of volcanic islands located on either side of the Equator (in the Pacific Ocean). Galápagos Islands
Lake Baikal It is a rift lake, located in southern Siberia, Russia. Lake Baikal
Red Sea Lying between Africa and Asia, the Red Sea is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean. Red Sea

New Seven Wonders of Nature

The following table enlists the New seven wonders of the Nature −

Wonder Description Image
Iguazu Falls It is fall of the Iguazu River (located on the border of the Argentine and Brazil). Iguazu Falls
Jeju Island It is the largest island off the coast of the Korean Peninsula. Jeju Island
Komodo Island It is one of the islands of the Republic of Indonesia. Komodo Island
Puerto Princesa Underground River Located about 80 km north of the city center of Puerto Princesa, Puerto Princesa is a protected area in Philippines. Puerto Princesa
Table Mountain It is a flat-topped mountain located in the city of Cape Town in South Africa. Table Mountain
Halong Bay It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site located in Vietnam. Halong Bay
Amazon Rainforest Located in South America, it is a moist broadleaf forest that covers most of the Amazon basin. Amazon Rainforest

New Seven Wonders of World

The following table enlists the New seven wonders of the world −

Wonder Description Image
Great Wall of China Located in China, the Great Wall is a series of fortifications made of stone, brick, tamped earth, wood, and other materials. Great Wall of China
Petra It is a historical and archaeological city in the southern Jordan. Petra
Christ the Redeemer It is an Art Deco statue of Jesus Christ located in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It was created by Polish-French sculptor Paul Landowski and built by the Brazilian engineer Heitor da Silva Costa. Christ the Redeemer
Machu Picchu Located in Peru, it is the most familiar icon of Inca civilization. Machu Picchu
Chichen Itza Built by the Maya people of the Terminal Classic period, it was a large pre-Columbian city in Mexico. Chichen Itza
Colosseum Located in Rome, Italy, it is an oval amphitheater (built in Ancient period). Colosseum
Taj Mahal Located on the south bank of the Yamuna river, Agra, India, it is an ivory-white marble mausoleum. Taj Mahal
Great Pyramid of Giza (Honorary included) Located in the Giza pyramid complex bordering (in El Giza, Egypt), it is the oldest and largest of the three pyramids. Great Pyramid of Giza

Seven Wonders of Ancient World

The following table enlists the seven wonders of the Ancient World −

Wonder Description Image
Great Pyramid of Giza Located in the Giza pyramid complex bordering (in El Giza, Egypt), it is the oldest and largest of the three pyramids. Great Pyramid of Giza
Hanging Gardens of Babylon Probably, built by King Nebuchadnezzar II (in 600 BC), it was a distinctive feature of ancient Babylon. Hanging Gardens of Babylon
Statue of Zeus at Olympia It was a giant seated statue (about 13 m tall) located in Greece. It was made by the Greek sculptor Phidias around 435 BC. Statue of Zeus
Temple of Artemis Dedicated to the goddess Artemis, temple of Artemis was a Greek temple. Temple of Artemis
Mausoleum at Halicarnassus It was a tomb built between 353 and 350 BC at Halicarnassus, Turkey. Mausoleum at Halicarnassus
Colossus of Rhodes Erected in the city of Rhodes, Greece, Colossus was a statue of the Greek titan-god of the sun Helios. Colossus of Rhodes
Lighthouse of Alexandria (or Pharos of Alexandria) Built by the Ptolemaic Kingdom between 280 and 247 BC in Egypt, it was ancient lighthouse. Lighthouse of Alexandria

General Knowledge - Important Dates

The following table enlists the important dates of India −

Date Known for
January 09 Pravasi Bhartiya Divas/Non Resident Indian (NRI) Day
January 12 National Youth Day
January 15 Indian Army Day
January 24 National Girl Child Day/Balika Divas
January 25 National Voters’ Day (also National Tourism Day)
January 26 Republic Day
January 30 Martyr’s Day
February 24 Central Excise Tax Day
February 28 National Science Day
March 03 National Safety Day
March 12 Central Industrial Security Force (CISF) Foundation Day
March 18 Ordnance Factories’ Day
May 21 Anti-Terrorism Day
July 01 National Doctors’ Day
July 26 Kargil Vija Divas
August 15 Independence Day
August 20 Sadbhavna Divas
August 29 National Sports Day
September 05 Teacher’s Day
September 14 Hindi Divas
September 15 Engineers’ Day
October 2 Gandhi Jayanthi
October 20 National Solidarity Day
November 26 National Law Day
December 02 National Pollution Control Day
December 04 Navy Day
December 23 Kisan Divas

General Knowledge - Old and New Name

Changed Name (in India)

The following table enlists the changed name of the Indian Cities −

Old Name New Name Image
Bangalore Bengaluru Bangalore
Madras Chennai Madras
Calcutta Kolkata Calcutta
Bombay Mumbai Bombay
Mangalore Mangaluru Mangalore
Mysore Mysuru Mysore
Cawnpore Kanpur Cawnpore
Baroda Vadodra Baroda
Pataliputra Patna Pataliputra
Pondicherry Puducherry Pondicherry
Poona Pune Poona
Trivandrum Thiruvananthapuram Trivandrum
Quilon Kollam Quilon
Aleppey Alappuzha Aleppey
Cochin Kochi Cochin
Calicut Kozhikode Calicut
Palghat Palakkad Palghat
Trichur Thrissur Trichur
Cannanore Kannur Cannanore
Saket Ayodhya Saket
Umravti Amravati Umravti
Tanjore Thanjavur Tanjore
Lakhnau Lucknow Lakhnau
Trichy Tiruchirappalli Trichy
Jeypore Jaipur Jeypore
Orissa Odisha Orissa
Ootacamund Udhagamandalam Ootacamund
Panjim Panaji Panjim
Vizagapatam Visakhapatnam Vizagapatam
Belgaum Belagavi Belgaum
Hubli Hubballi Hubli
Gulbarga Kalburgi Gulbarga
Bijapur Vijayapura Bijapur
Banaras Varanasi Banaras

Old Name & New Name

The following table enlists the old and respective new name of the Indian Cities −

Old Name New/Modern Name
Prayag Allahabad
Patliputra Patna
Bhagyanagar Hyderabad
Calcutta Kolkata
Calicut Kozhikode
Madras Chennai
Bombay Mumbai
Baroda Vadodara
Cochin Kochi
Benares Varanasi
Tuticorin Thoothukudi
Cape Comorin Kanya Kumari
Gulbarga Kalaburagi
Belgaum Belagavi
Bangalore Bengaluru
Mysore Mysuru
Tumkur Tumakuru

Changed Name (World)

The following table enlists changed name of the major countries of the world −

Old Name New Name Image
Abyssinia Ethiopia (East Africa) Abyssinia
Angora Ankara (Turkey) Angora
Basutoland Lesotho (South Africa) Basutoland
Batavia Jakarta (Indonesia) Batavia
Burma Myanmar (Asia) Burma
Ceylon Sri Lanka (South Asia) Ceylon
Christina Oslo (Norway) Christina
Congo Zaire (Central Africa) Congo
Constantinople Istanbul (Turkey) Constantinople
Dacca Dhaka (Bangladesh) Dacca
Dutch East Indies Indonesia (South-East Asia) Dutch East Indies
Dutch Guyana Surinam (South America) Dutch Guyana
Edo Tokyo Edo
Ellice Islands Tuvalu (South Pacific Ocean) Ellice Islands
Formosa Taiwan (East Asia) Formosa
Gold Coast Ghana (West Africa) Gold Coast
Greenland Kalaallit Nunaat Greenland
Holland The Netherlands (West Europe) Holland
Kampuchea Cambodia (Asia) Kampuchea
Leopoldville Kinshasa (Democratic Republic of the Congo) Leopoldville
Mesopotamia Iraq (South-West Asia) Mesopotamia
Mahmoodpur Lahore (Pakistan) Mahmoodpur
New Hebrides Vanuatu (South Pacific Ocean) New Hebrides
Nippon Japan (East Asia) Nippon
Northern Rhodesia Zambia (South-Central Africa) Northern Rhodesia
Nyasaland Malawi (South-Central Africa) Nyasaland
Oea Tripoli (North Africa) Oea
Peking Beijing (China) Peking
Persia Iran (South-West Asia) Persia
Rangoon Yangon (Myanmar) Rangoon
Raj Shahi Islamabad (Pakistan) Raj Shahi
Rhodesia Zimbabwe (South-Central Africa) Rhodesia
Saigon Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnam) Saigon
Salisbury Harare (Zimbabwe) Salisbury
Sandwich Wands Hawaiian Islands (The United States) Sandwich Wands
Siam Thailand (Asia) Siam
South West Africa Namibia (South-West) South West Africa
Spanish Guinea Equatorial Guinea (West Africa) Spanish Guinea
Stalingrad Volgograd (Russia) Stalingrad
Tanganyika & Zanzibar Tanzania (South-East Africa) Tanganyika & Zanzibar
Turicum Zürich (Switzerland) Turicum

General Knowledge - Sobriquet

Sobriquet of Indian Cities

The following table enlists the major cities (of India) and their Sobriquet −

Sobriquet (Nickname) New Name Image
City of Taj Agra (Uttar Pradesh) City of Taj
Boston/Manchester of India Ahmedabad (Gujarat) Boston
Sangam City Allahabad (Uttar Pradesh) Sangam City
Land of Black Diamond Asansol (West Bengal) Land of Black Diamond
City of Peace Bardhaman (West Bengal) City of Peace
Temple City of India Bhubaneswar (Odisha) Temple City of India
The Venice of the East Alappuzha (Kerala) The Venice of the East

Garden City of India

Silicon Valley of India

Space City of India

Science City of India

IT Capital of India

Pensioners Paradise

Bengaluru (Karnataka) Garden City of Indi

Detroit of Asia

Automobile Capital of India

HealthCare Capital of India

Chennai (Tamil Nadu) Detroit of Asia

Textile City of India

Manchester of South India

Coimbatore (Tamil Nadu) Textile City of India
Scotland of India Coorg (Karnataka) Scotland of India
School Capital of India Dehradun (Uttarakhand) School Capital of India
Queen of the Hills Darjeeling (West Bengal) Queen of the Hills
Tea City of India Dibrugarh (Assam) Tea City of India
Ruhr of India Durgapur (West Bengal) Ruhr of India
Gateway of North East India Guwahati (Assam) Gateway of North East Indi
Switzerland of the East Haflong (Assam) Switzerland of the East
City of Pearls Hyderabad (Telangana) City of Pearls
Pink City Jaipur (Rajasthan) Pink City
Golden City of India Jaisalmer (Rajasthan) Golden City
Steel City of India Pittsburgh of India Jamshedpur (Jharkhand) Steel City
Perfume Capital of India Kannauj (Uttar Pradesh) Perfume Capital of India
Land of looms and lores Kannur (Kerala) Land of looms and lores
Leather City of the World Manchester of The East Kanpur (Uttar Pradesh) Leather City
Queen of the Arabian Sea Kochi (Kerala)
City of Wrestlers Kolhapur (Maharashtra) City of Wrestlers
City of Joy Kolkata (West Bengal) City of Joy

City of Letters

City of Latex

City of Mural

Kottayam (Kerala) City of Letters

Prince of Arabian sea

Cashew Capital of the World

Kollam (Kerala) Prince of Arabian sea


Constantinople of the East

City of Nawabs

Lucknow (Uttar Pradesh) Shiraz-e-Hind

Athens of the East

City of Festivals

Temple City

Jasmine City

City of Divine Nectar

Madurai (Tamil Nadu) Athens of the East
Mango City of Bengal Malda (West Bengal) Mango City of Bengal

Rome of The East

City of Delicacies

Cradle of Indian Banking

Gateway of Karnataka

Mangalore (Karnataka) Rome of The East

City of Seven Islands

Financial Capital of India

City of Dreams

City of Slums and Skyscrapers

Gateway of India

Hollywood of India

Mumbai (Maharashtra) City of Seven Islands
Queen of the Mountains Mussoorie (Uttarakhand) Queen of the Mountains
Orange City Nagpur (Maharashtra) Orange City
Royal City Patiala (Punjab) Royal City
City of Weavers Panipat (Haryana) City of Weavers

City of Rallies

World Cultural Capital

Food Capital of Asia

Fashion Capital of India

New Delhi City of Rallies
Paris of the East Pondicherry (Puducherry) Paris of the East
Oxford of the East Queen of Deccan Pune (Maharashtra) Oxford of the East
Yoga City Rishikesh (Uttarakhand) Yoga City
Scotland of the East Shillong (Meghalaya) Scotland of the East
City of Blood Tezpur (Assam) City of Blood

White City

City of Lakes

Venice of the East

Udaipur (Rajasthan) White City
Spiritual capital of India Oldest city (in the world) Varanasi (Uttar Pradesh) Spiritual capital

Blue City

Sun City

Jodhpur (Rajasthan) Blue City

Wine capital of India

Grape city of India

California of India

Nashik (Maharashtra) Wine capital

Diamond City of India

City of Diamonds

Textile city of India

Surat (Gujarat) Diamond City
Evergreen City of India Trivandrum (Kerala) Evergreen City of India
City of Destiny Visakhapatnam (Andhra Pradesh) City of Destiny
Land of Warriors Zunheboto (Nagaland) Land of Warriors
All Seasons State Himachal Pradesh All Seasons State
Blue Mountains Nilgiri (South India) Blue Mountains
Sorrow of Bengal Damodar River Sorrow of Bengal
Sorrow of Assam Brahmaputra River Sorrow of Assam
Spice Garden of India Kerala Spice Garden
Land of Sunrise in India Arunachal Pradesh (North-east India) Land of Sunrise
House of Clouds Meghalaya (North-east India) House of Clouds
God’s Own Land of India Kerala (South India) God’s Own Land

Sobriquet (in the World)

The following table enlists the major countries with their sobriquet (in the world) −

Sobriquet (Nickname) New Name Image
Britain of the East Japan (East Asia) Britain of the East
Battle field of Europe Belgium (West Europe) Battle field of Europe
City of Cycles Beijing (China) City of Cycles
City of Dreaming Spires Oxford (UK) City of Dreaming Spires
City of Eternal Springs Quito (Ecuador) City of Eternal Springs
City of Sky Scrappers New York (USA) City of Sky Scrappers
City of Magnificent Distances Washington DC (USA) City of Magnificent Distances
City of Golden Gate San Francisco (USA) City of Golden Gate
City of Seven Hills Rome (Italy) City of Seven Hills
Forbidden City Lhasa (Tibet) Forbidden City
Gateway of Tears Strait of Bab-el Mandeb Gateway of Tears
George Cross Island Malta (Mediterranean Sea) George Cross Island
Granite City Aberdeen (Scotland) Granite City
Herring Pond Atlantic Ocean Herring Pond
Holy Land Palestine (West Asia) Holy Land
Hermit Kingdom Korea (East Asia) Hermit Kingdom
Island of Cloves Madagascar (Indian Ocean) Island of Cloves
Land of Eagles Albania (East Europe) Land of Eagles
Land of Golden Fleece Australia Land of Golden Fleece
Land of Lilies Canada (North America) Land of Lilies
Land of Golden Pagoda Myanmar (Asia) Land of Golden Pagoda
Land of Maple Canada (North America) Land of Maple
Land of Thousand Lakes Finland Land of Thousand Lakes
Land of Morning Calm Korea (East Asia) Land of Morning Calm
Land of Rising Sun Japan (East Asia) Land of Rising Sun
Land of Setting Sun UK (West Europe) Land of Setting Sun
Land of Midnight Sun Norway (North-west Europe) Land of Midnight Sun
Land of Tulips Netherlands (West Europe) Land of Tulips
Land of White Elephant Thailand (Asia) Land of White Elephant
Land of Thunder Bolt Bhutan (Asia) Land of Thunder Bolt
Land of Thousand Elephants Laos (Asia) Land of Thousand Elephants
Manchester of the Orient Osaka (Japan) Manchester of the Orient
Land of Thunder Dragon China (Asia) Land of Thunder Dragon
Nation of Thousand Hills Rwanda (Africa) Nation of Thousand Hills
Pearl of Arabia Bahrain (South-west Asia) Pearl of Arabia
Pillars of Hercules Strait of Gibraltar (Europe) Pillars of Hercules
Roof of the World Pamirs (Plateau) (Asia) Roof of the World
Sorrow of China Huang Ho River Sorrow of China
Sick Man of Europe Turkey (Asia) Sick Man of Europe
Sugar Bowl of World Cuba (Caribbean Sea) Sugar Bowl of World
White City Belgrade (Serbia) White City
Windy City Chicago (USA) Windy City
World's Bread Basket Prairies of North America World's Bread Basket
Island of Fire Iceland (West Europe) Island of Fire
Land of Windmills Holland (West Europe) Land of Windmills
World Loneliest Islands Tristan Da Cunha World Loneliest Islands
Workshop of Europe Belgium (West Europe) Workshop of Europe
White Man’s Grave Guinea Coast (West Africa) White Man’s Grave
Store House of the World Mexico (Central America) Store House of the World
Modern Babylon London (UK) Modern Babylo
Sea of the Mountains British Columbia (West Canada) Sea of the Mountains
Saw Mill of Europe Sweden (North Europe) Saw Mill of Europe
The Eye of Greece Athens (South-east Europe) The Eye of Greece
Rich Port Puerto Rico (Caribbean Sea) Rich Port
Rich Coast Costa Rica (Central America) Rich Coast
Playground of Europe Switzerland (Central Europe) Playground of Europe
Pearl of Orient Hong Kong (China) Pearl of Orient
Mother-in-Law of Europe Denmark (West Europe) Mother-in-Law
Land of the Humming Bird Trinidad (Caribbean Sea) Humming Bird
Land of the Flying Fish Barbados (Caribbean Sea) Flying Fish
Land of Kangaroos Australia Kangaroos
Gift of the Nile Egypt (North-east Africa) Gift of the Nile
Dark Continent Africa Dark Continent
Cockpit of Europe Belgium (West Europe) Cockpit
City of Popes Rome (Italy) Popes
City of Arabian Nights Baghdad (Iraq) Arabian Nights

General Knowledge - Popular Cities of India

The following table enlists major cities with their significance/specializations −

Name Known for Located in
Agra Taj Mahal Uttar Pradesh
Ambala Air Force Training Center Haryana
Ahmedabad Cotton Textile Gujarat
Aligarh Aligarh University & lock industry Uttar Pradesh
Allahabad Kumbh Mela (Hindu Pilgrimage Center) Uttar Pradesh
Alleppy Known as 'Venice of the East' because of the canal network Kerala
Alwaye Rare Earth Factory Kerala
Amarnath Ice Cave, Lord Shiva temple Jammu & Kashmir
Amritsar Golden Temple Punjab
Anand Amul Dairy Gujarat
Asansol Coal Mining West Bengal
Auroville An experimental township (founded by Mirra Alfassa in 1968 and designed by architect Roger Anger) Tamil Nadu and Puducherry
Avadi Tank Industry Tamil Nadu
Badrinath Hindu Pilgrimage Center Uttarakhand
Bengaluru Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd. Karnataka
Barauni Oil Refinery Bihar
Bareilly Furniture Uttar Pradesh
Bhilai Steel Plant Chhattisgarh
Bhopal Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd. Madhya Pradesh
Bhubaneshwar Lingaraja Temple Odisha
Bikaner Camel Hair Products Rajasthan
Bokaro Steel Plant Jharkhand
Burnpur Steel Plant West Bengal
Cambay Petroleum Gujarat
Cherrapunji Heavy Rainfall Meghalaya
Chittaranjan Locomotive Industry West Bengal
Kochi Ship Building Kerala
Dehradun Indian Military Academy & Forest Research Institute Uttarakhand
Delhi Red Fort, Lotus Temple, Jama Masjid, etc. Delhi
Dhanbad Mines Institute, Coal Mining Jharkhand
Dhariwal Woolen Industries Punjab
Digboi Oil Fields Assam
Durgapur Steel Plant West Bengal
Fatehpur Sikri Buland Darwaza Uttar Pradesh
Firozabad Glass Industry Uttar Pradesh
Gwalior Artificial silk, rayon, fort, etc. Madhya Pradesh
Haldia Oil Refinery West Bengal
Hyderabad Charminar, Cigarette factory, etc. Telangana
Haridwar Hindu Pilgrimage Center (Kumbh Mela) Uttarakhand
Indore Artificial silk Madhya Pradesh
Jabalpur Marbles, handlooms, lens, pottery Madhya Pradesh
Jaipur Hawa Mahal (known as 'Pink City') Rajasthan
Jamshedpur Steel Plant Jharkhand
Jharia Coal Mining Jharkhand
Kanpur Leather industry, Aircraft, etc. Uttar Pradesh
Karnal National Dairy Research Institute Haryana
Katni Pottery, Handloom, Kattha (catechu), etc. Madhya Pradesh
Khetri Copper Mines Rajasthan
Kolkata Grand Colonial Architecture, Art Galleries, and Cultural Festivals West Bengal
Kolar Gold Mines Karnataka
Ludhiana Hosieries, cycle, etc. Punjab
Madurai Meenakshi Temple, Handloom silk sarees Tamil Nadu
Meerut Sport Goods, Scissors, etc. Uttar Pradesh
Moradabad Brassware Uttar Pradesh
Mumbai Film City Maharashtra
Mysore Sandal Wood Karnataka
Nagpur National Environmental Engineering Research Institute, Orange Maharashtra
Nashik Kumbh Mela (Hindu Pilgrimage Center) Maharashtra
Nepanagar Newsprint factory Madhya Pradesh
Neyveli Lignite Mining (Coal) Tamil Nadu
Panna Diamond Mining Madhya Pradesh
Perambur Integral Coach Factory Tamil Nadu
Pimpri Penicillin Factory Maharashtra
Pinjore HMT Factory Haryana
Pune Film & TV Institute Maharashtra
Renukoot Aluminum Industry Uttar Pradesh
Rishikesh Antibiotics Plant Uttarakhand
Roorkee Engineering University Uttarakhand
Rourkela Cable Factory Odisha
Saharanpur Institute of Paper Technology Uttar Pradesh
Salem Bauxite Tamil Nadu
Sambalpur Coal Mining Odisha
Sarnath Buddhist Stupa Uttar Pradesh
Sholapur Cotton Textile Maharashtra
Shriharikota Satellite launching station Andhra Pradesh
Singhbhum Copper and Iron Mines Jharkhand
Surat Cotton Textile Gujarat
Tarapur First Atomic Power Station of India Maharashtra
Thumba First Rocket Launching Station of India Kerala
Titagarh Paper Industry West Bengal
Trombay Atomic Energy Maharashtra
Tuticorin Port City Tamil Nadu
Ujjain Kumbh Mela (Hindu Pilgrimage Center) Madhya Pradesh
Varanasi Hindu Pilgrimage Center, Banarsi Sarees Uttar Pradesh
Visakhapatnam Ship Building Andhra Pradesh
Warangal Carpets Telangana
Zawar Zinc Mines Rajasthan

General Knowledge - Cities and Founders

The following table enlists the major Indian Cities with their Founders/Architects −

City Founder/Architect
Delhi Tomara (Tanwar Rajput ruler)
Ajmer Ajayraj Singh Chauhan
Jaunpur Feroz Shah Tughlaq
Agra Sikandar Lodi
Fatehpur Sikri Mughal Emperor Akbar
Kolkata Job Charnock
Bhopal Dost Mohammad Khan
Jaipur Sawai Jai Singh
Hyderabad Quli Qutub Shah
Amritsar Guru Ram Das
Nagpur Bhakt Buland
Chandigarh Le Corbusier
Bhubaneswar Otto Königsberger
Pataliputra Ajatashatru
Bengaluru (earlier Bangalore) Kempe Gowda I

General Knowledge - Indian Dances

The following table enlists the major Indian dances with their respective geographic regions (states) −

State Dances
Andhra Pradesh Kuchipudi
Arunachal Pradesh Bardo Chham
Assam Bihu dance
Jhumur Naach
Ali Ai Ligang
Bihar Kathaputli
Jat-Jatni Bidpada
Jharkhand Karma/Munda
Chhattisgarh Panthi
Raut Nacha
Gaur Maria Dance
Goa Dashavatara
Gujarat Garba
Dandiya Raas
Tippani Dance
Himachal Pradesh Kinnauri Nati
Haryana Saang
Ras Leela
Jhumar Dance
Gugga Dance
Khoria Dance
Karnataka Yakshagana
Dollu Kunitha
Veeragaase dance
Jammu and Kashmir Kud
Kerala Mohiniyattam
Duffmuttu or Aravanmuttu
Kaikottikali or Thiruvathirakali
Thitambu Nritham
Chakyar Koothu
Chavittu Nadakam
Madhya Pradesh Tertali
Matki Dance
Phulpati Dance
Grida Dance
Maharashtra Pavri Nach
Manipur Thang Ta
Dhol Cholom
Mizoram Cheraw Dance
Nagaland Chang Lo or Sua Lua
Odisha Ghumura Dance
Ruk Mar Nacha (& Chhau dance)
Goti Pua
Baagh Naach or Tiger Dance
Karma Naach
Puducherry Garadi
Punjab Bhangra
Malwai Giddha
Rajasthan Ghoomar
Kachchhi Ghodi
Sikkim Singhi Chham
Tamil Nadu Bharatanatyam
Kamandi or Kaman Pandigai
Karagattam or Karagam
Mayil Attam or Peacock dance
Paampu attam or Snake Dance
Poikal Kudirai Attam
Theru Koothu
Tripura Hojagiri
Telangana Bathukamma
West Bengal Gambhira
Uttrakhand Chholiya
North India Kathak (Basically in Uttar Pradesh)

GK - International Organizations

The following table enlists the major International Organizations, establishment year, and the location of their Headquarters −

Organization Abbreviation Headquarters Year of Establishment
United Nations Organization UNO New York (USA) 1945
United Nations Children’s’ Fund UNICEF New York (USA) 1946
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development UNCTAD Geneva (Switzerland) 1964
World Health Organization WHO Geneva (Switzerland) 1948
International Labor Organization ILO Geneva (Switzerland) 1919
International Committee of the Red Cross ICRC Geneva (Switzerland) 1863
World Trade Organization WTO Geneva (Switzerland) 1995
United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization UNESCO Paris (France) 1945
World Meteorological Organization WMO Geneva (Switzerland) 1950
World Intellectual Property Organization WIPO Geneva (Switzerland) 1967
International Organization for Standardization IOS Geneva (Switzerland) 1947
International Atomic Energy Agency IAEA Vienna (Austria) 1957
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries OPEC Vienna (Austria) 1960
International Monetary Fund IMF Washington DC (USA) 1945
World Bank WB Washington DC (USA) 1945
International Maritime Organization IMO London (UK) 1959
Amnesty International AI London (UK) 1961
International Court of Justice ICJ The Hague (Netherlands) 1945
Food and Agricultural Organization FAO Rome (Italy) 1945
North Atlantic Treaty Organization NATO Brussels (Belgium) 1949
International Renewable Energy Agency IRENA Abu Dhabi (UAE) 2009
South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation SAARC Kathmandu (Nepal) 1985
Association of South East Asian Nations ASEAN Jakarta (Indonesia) 1967
Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation APEC Singapore 1989
Organization of Islamic Cooperation OIC Jeddah (Saudi Arabia) 1969
Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons OPCW The Hague, (Netherlands) 1997
Worldwide Fund for Nature WWF Gland, Vaud (Switzerland) 1961
World Economic Forum WEF Cologny, (Switzerland) 1971
International Hydrographic Organization IHO Monaco 1921
International Cricket Council ICC Dubai, (UAE) 1909
International Union for Conservation of Nature IUCN Gland, (Switzerland) 1948
International Council on Monuments and Sites ICOMOS Paris, (France) 1965
United Nations World Tourism Organization UNWTO Madrid, (Spain) 1974

General Knowledge - Books and Authors

The following table enlists the major books and their authors −

Book Author
Tolerance Mamata Banerjee
The Z Factor Subhash Chandra
The Turbulent Years – 1980-1996 – Vol II Pranab mukherjee
MARU BHARAT SARU BHARAT“ (My India Noble India) Jain Acharya Ratnasundersuri swarji Mahara
Objective Railway Engineering-Track, Works & Others M M Agarwal
Anything But Khamosh Shatrughan Sinha
The Kiss of Life How a Superhero and my son defeated cancer Bilal Siddiqui & Emraan Hashmi
The Making of India: The Untold Story of British Enterprise Kartar Lalvani
A State in Denial – Pakistan’s Misguided and Dangerous Crusade B G Verghese
Endurance: My Year in Space and Our Journey to Mars Scott Kelly
Transendence Apj Abdul Kalam
A Kingdom for his Love Vani Mahesh and Shinie Antony
Two Year Eight Months and Twenty –Eight Night Salman Rushddi
The Red Sari Javier Moro
Enoch, I am a British Indian Sarinder Joshua
Duroch ModiNomics Sameer Kochar
Who was Shivaji ? Sri Govind Pansare
Indian Paper Money Razack
Gandhi: An Illustrated Biography Pramod Kapoor
The Culture Heritage of Trans Himalayas-Kinnaur P S Nagi Loktus
Neither a Hawk nor a Dove Khurshid M Kasuari
God of Antarctica Yashwardhan Shukla (13 year old )
Indian Parliamentary Diplomacy Meira Kumar
Super Economies Raghav Bahal
China: Confucius in the Shadow Poonam Surie
My Years with Rajiv and Sonia R D Pradhan
My country My Life L K Advani
Khushwantnama ‐The Lessons of My Life Khushwant singh
Syntheism – Creating God in The Internet Age Alexander Bard
Joseph Anton (Autobiography) Sulman Rushdie
Narendra Modi: A Political Biography Andy Marino
One Life is Not Enough Natwar Singh
My Unforgettable Memories Mamata Banerjee
Rationalised Roman for Kashmiri Dr R L Bhat
The Wrong Enemy: America in Afghanistan, 2001 - 2014 Carlotta Gall
Strictly Personal, Manmohan and Gursharan Daman Singh
Lal Bahadur Shastri: Lessons in Leadership Pavan Choudary
The Accidental Prime Minister: the making and unmaking of Manmohan Singh Sanjaya Baru
Crusader or Conspirator? Coalgate and other Truths PC Parakh
Walking With Giants G. Ramachandran
Unbreakable (Autobiography of Mary Kom) Mary Kom
Playing It My Way Sachin Tendulkar and Boria Mazumder
Truth Always Prevails Sadruddin Hashwani
Lowland Jhumpa Lahiri
Unaccustomed Earth Jhumpa Lahiri
Interpreter of Maladies Jhumpa Lahiri
The God of Small Things Arundhati Roy
And then One Day: A Memoir Nasiruddin Shah (Autobiography)
Assassination of Rajiv Gandhi: An Inside Job? Faraz Ahmad
True Colours Adam Gilchrist
A Man and A Motorcycle, How Hamid Karzai Came to Power Bette Dam
I am Malala Malala Yousufzai and Christina Lamb
My Music My Life Pt Ravi Shankar
The Lives of Others Neel Mukherjee
Why I Assassinated Gandhi Nathuram Godse and Gopal Godse
Black Tornado: The Three Sieges of Mumbai 26/11 Sandeep Unnithan
The Red Sari (On Sonia Gandhi) Javier Moro
Dramatic Decade: The Indira Gandhi Years - Pranab Mukherjee 2014: The Election That Changed India Rajdeep Sardesai
Fragile Frontiers: The Secret History of Mumbai Terror Attacks SK Rath
Born Again on the Mountain Arunima Sinha
Kiran Bedi — Kaise Bani Top Cop Kiran Bedi
Flood of Fire Amitav Ghosh
Family Life Akhil Sharma
30 Women in Power: Their Voices, Their Stories Naina Lal Kidwai
Food for All Uma Lele
To the Brink and Back: India’s 1991 Story Jairam Ramesh
Unbelievable – Delhi to Islamabad Prof Bhim Singh
Globalisation, Democratization and Distributive Justice Dr. Mool Chand Sharma
Complete Story of Indian Reforms: 2G, Power & Private Enterprise Pradeep Baijal
Mrs Funny Bones Twinkle Khanna
Sourav Ganguly: Cricket, Captaincy and Controversy Saptarshi Sarkar
The Kumbh Mela: Mapping the Ephemeral Megacity Tarun Khanna
Ghosts of Calcutta Sebastian Ortiz
R D Burman: The Prince of Music Khagesh Dev Burman
Transcendence: My Spiritual Experiences with Pramukh Swamiji Abdul Kalam
Green Signals: Ecology, Growth, and Democracy in India Jairam Ramesh
Beyond Doubt: A Dossier on Gandhi’s Assassination Teesta Setalvad
Modi – Incredible emergence of a star (in Chinese language) Tarun Vijay
Education of Muslims Professor J S Rajput
Runs in Ruins Sunil Gavaskar
Akbar – The Aesthete Dr Indu Anand
India at Risk Jaswant Singh
The Narrow Road to the Deep North Richard Flanagan
Untold Story of the Indian Public Sector Dr U D Choubey
50 years of man in space Garik Israelien, Brian May and David J Eicher
My Name is Abu Salem Hussain Zaidi
Dark Star: The Loneliness of Being Rajesh Khanna Gautam Chintamani
Final Test: Exit Sachin Tendulkar Dilip D’Souza
A Bend in the River V S Naipaul
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