General Knowledge - Diseases


Vitamin Deficiency Diseases

Vitamin Name Chemical Name/s Deficiency Disease Food Sources
Vitamin K Phylloquinone, Menaquinones Bleeding diathesis Leafy green vegetables e.g. spinach, egg yolks, liver
Vitamin E Tocopherols, Tocotrienols Sterility in males and abortions in females, mild hemolytic anemia in newborn infants Fruits and vegetables, nuts and seeds
Vitamin D Cholecalciferol (D3), Ergocalciferol (D2) Rickets and osteomalacia Fish, eggs, liver, mushrooms
Vitamin C Ascorbic acid Scurvy Fruits and vegetables
Vitamin B9 Folic acid, Folinic acid Megaloblastic anemia and deficiency during pregnancy is associated with birth defects, such as neural tube defects Leafy vegetables, pasta, bread, cereal, liver
Vitamin B7 Biotin Dermatitis, enteritis Raw egg yolk, liver, peanuts, leafy green vegetables
Vitamin B6 Pyridoxine, Pyridoxamine, Pyridoxal Anemia peripheral neuropathy Meat, vegetables, tree nuts, bananas
Vitamin B5 Pantothenic acid Paresthesia Meat, broccoli, avocados
Vitamin B3 Niacin, Niacinamide Pellagra Meat, fish, eggs, many vegetables,mushrooms, tree nuts
Vitamin B2 Riboflavin Ariboflavinosis, glossitis, angular stomatitis Dairy products, bananas, popcorn, green beans, asparagus
Vitamin B12 Cyanocobalamin, Hydroxocobalamin, Methylcobalamin Megaloblastic anemia Meat, poultry, fish, eggs, milk
Vitamin B1 Thiamine Beriberi, Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome Pork, oatmeal, brown rice, vegetables, potatoes, liver, eggs
Vitamin A Retinol Night blindness, hyperkeratosis, and keratomalacia Orange, ripe yellow fruits, leafy vegetables, carrots, pumpkin, squash, spinach, fish, soya milk, milk

Diseases Caused by Bacteria

Disease Name Bacteria Pathogen Affected Organs Transmission Through
Anthrax Bacillus Anthracis Skin & Lung Infected environment e.g. infected animals
Chlamydial urethritis Chlamydia trachomatis Cervix, Eye, Urethra Sexual
Cholera Vibrio cholerae Intestine Food & water
Diphtheria Corynebacterium diphtheria Nose, throat Infected person
Gonorrhoea Neisseria gonorrhoeae Urinary tract Sexual
Leprosy (or Hansen's disease (HD)) Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium lepromatosis Skin, bone, nerves Contact
Plague Yersinia pestis Lymph Infected fleas
Pneumonia Bacterial pneumonia (also from virus) Lung Environment
Pertussis (also whooping cough) Bordetella pertussis Lung Infected environment
Salmonellosis Salmonella Intestine Food
Syphilis Treponema pallidum Skin, Cardiovascular organs Sexual
Tetanus Clostridium tetani Muscle (spasms) Infected environment
Tuberculosis (TB) Mycobacterium tuberculosis Lung Infected air
Typhus Rickettsia bacteria Skin Bugs or by other means of contact

Diseases Caused by Virus

Disease Name Virus Affected Organs Transmission Through
Adenovirus Infections Adenovirus (DNA) Lungs, Eyes Contact
AIDS Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) T-lymphocytes Sexual or by other fluid contact
Arbovirus encephalitis RNA viruses Brain Mosquito, tick or another arthropod
Chicken pox (Varicella) Varicella zoster virus (VZV) Skin, Nervous System Contact
Cytomegalovirus Disease Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Blood, Lungs Contact
Dengue Fever (Dengue virus) RNA Blood, Muscles Mosquito
Ebola Ebola viruses whole body bodily fluids
German Measles (Rubella) (Rubella virus) RNA Skin Contact
Hepatitis A (Hepatovirus A) RNA Liver Contaminated Food, Water
Hepatitis B (Hepatitis B virus (HBV)) DNA Liver Contact with body Fluids
Herpes Simplex (Herpes simplex virus(HSV)) DNA Skin, Pharynx, Genital organs Contact
Influenza (Influenza virus) RNA Respiratory Tract Droplets
Measles (Rubeola) (Measles virus (MeV)) RNA Respiratory Tract, Skin Contact
Mumps (Epidemic Parotitis) (Mumps virus) RNA Salivary Glands, Blood Contact
Polio (Poliomyelitis) (Poliovirus) RNA Intestine, Brain, Spinal Cord Food, Water, Contact
Rabies (Lyssaviruses, Rabies virus) RNA Brain, Spinal cord Contact with body Fluids
Smallpox (Variola) (Variola major and Variola minor) DNA Skin, Blood Contact, Droplets
Yellow Fever (Yellow fever virus) RNA Liver, Blood Mosquito (Aedes Aegypti)

Diseased Caused by Fungus

Disease Name Causing Fungi Organs Affected
Athlete's foot (Tinea Pedis) Fungi Foot, skin
Ringworm Fungi Skin
Fungal Meningitis Fungi Blood, immune system
Psoriasis Fungi Skin
Onychomycosis Fungi Nail