- Matlab Tutorial
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In MATLAB environment, every variable is an array or matrix.

You can assign variables in a simple way. For example,

x = 3 % defining x and initializing it with a value

MATLAB will execute the above statement and return the following result −

x = 3

It creates a 1-by-1 matrix named *x* and stores the value 3 in its element. Let us check another example,

x = sqrt(16) % defining x and initializing it with an expression

MATLAB will execute the above statement and return the following result −

x = 4

Please note that −

Once a variable is entered into the system, you can refer to it later.

Variables must have values before they are used.

When an expression returns a result that is not assigned to any variable, the system assigns it to a variable named ans, which can be used later.

For example,

sqrt(78)

MATLAB will execute the above statement and return the following result −

ans = 8.8318

You can use this variable **ans** −

sqrt(78); 9876/ans

MATLAB will execute the above statement and return the following result −

ans = 1118.2

Let's look at another example −

x = 7 * 8; y = x * 7.89

MATLAB will execute the above statement and return the following result −

y = 441.84

You can have multiple assignments on the same line. For example,

a = 2; b = 7; c = a * b

MATLAB will execute the above statement and return the following result −

c = 14

The **who** command displays all the variable names you have used.

who

MATLAB will execute the above statement and return the following result −

Your variables are: a ans b c

The **whos** command displays little more about the variables −

- Variables currently in memory
- Type of each variables
- Memory allocated to each variable
- Whether they are complex variables or not

whos

MATLAB will execute the above statement and return the following result −

Attr Name Size Bytes Class ==== ==== ==== ==== ===== a 1x1 8 double ans 1x70 757 cell b 1x1 8 double c 1x1 8 double Total is 73 elements using 781 bytes

The **clear** command deletes all (or the specified) variable(s) from the memory.

clear x % it will delete x, won't display anything clear % it will delete all variables in the workspace % peacefully and unobtrusively

Long assignments can be extended to another line by using an ellipses (...). For example,

initial_velocity = 0; acceleration = 9.8; time = 20; final_velocity = initial_velocity + acceleration * time

MATLAB will execute the above statement and return the following result −

final_velocity = 196

By default, MATLAB displays numbers with four decimal place values. This is known as **short format**.

However, if you want more precision, you need to use the **format** command.

The **format long** command displays 16 digits after decimal.

For example −

format long x = 7 + 10/3 + 5 ^ 1.2

MATLAB will execute the above statement and return the following result−

x = 17.2319816406394

Another example,

format short x = 7 + 10/3 + 5 ^ 1.2

MATLAB will execute the above statement and return the following result −

x = 17.232

The **format bank** command rounds numbers to two decimal places. For example,

format bank daily_wage = 177.45; weekly_wage = daily_wage * 6

MATLAB will execute the above statement and return the following result −

weekly_wage = 1064.70

MATLAB displays large numbers using exponential notation.

The **format short e** command allows displaying in exponential form with four decimal places plus the exponent.

For example,

format short e 4.678 * 4.9

MATLAB will execute the above statement and return the following result −

ans = 2.2922e+01

The **format long e** command allows displaying in exponential form with four decimal places plus the exponent. For example,

format long e x = pi

MATLAB will execute the above statement and return the following result −

x = 3.141592653589793e+00

The **format rat** command gives the closest rational expression resulting from a calculation. For example,

format rat 4.678 * 4.9

MATLAB will execute the above statement and return the following result −

ans = 34177/1491

A vector is a one-dimensional array of numbers. MATLAB allows creating two types of vectors −

- Row vectors
- Column vectors

**Row vectors** are created by enclosing the set of elements in square brackets, using space or comma to delimit the elements.

For example,

r = [7 8 9 10 11]

MATLAB will execute the above statement and return the following result −

r = 7 8 9 10 11

Another example,

r = [7 8 9 10 11]; t = [2, 3, 4, 5, 6]; res = r + t

MATLAB will execute the above statement and return the following result −

res = 9 11 13 15 17

**Column vectors** are created by enclosing the set of elements in square brackets, using semicolon(;) to delimit the elements.

c = [7; 8; 9; 10; 11]

MATLAB will execute the above statement and return the following result −

c = 7 8 9 10 11

A matrix is a two-dimensional array of numbers.

In MATLAB, a matrix is created by entering each row as a sequence of space or comma separated elements, and end of a row is demarcated by a semicolon. For example, let us create a 3-by-3 matrix as −

m = [1 2 3; 4 5 6; 7 8 9]

MATLAB will execute the above statement and return the following result −

m = 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

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