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tree - Unix, Linux Command


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NAME

tree - list contents of directories in a tree-like format.

SYNOPSIS

tree [-adfgilnopqrstuxACDFNS] [-L level [-R]] [-H baseHREF] [-T title] [-o filename] [--nolinks] [-P pattern] [-I pattern] [--inodes] [--device] [--noreport] [--dirsfirst] [--version] [--help] [directory ...]

DESCRIPTION

Tree is a recursive directory listing program that produces a depth indented listing of files. Color is supported ala dircolors if the LS_COLORS environment variable is set, output is to a tty, and the -C flag is used. With no arguments, tree lists the files in the current directory. When directory arguments are given, tree lists all the files and/or directories found in the given directories each in turn. Upon completion of listing all files/directories found, tree returns the total number of files and/or directories listed.

By default, when a symbolic link is encountered, the path that the symbolic link refers to is printed after the name of the link in the format:

name -> real-path

If the ‘-l’ option is given and the symbolic link refers to an actual directory, then tree will follow the path of the symbolic link as if it were a real directory.

OPTIONS

Tree understands the following command line switches:

TagDescription
--help Outputs a verbose usage listing.
--version
  Outputs the version of tree.
-a All files are printed. By default tree does not print hidden files (those beginning with a dot ‘.’). In no event does tree print the file system constructs ‘.’ (current directory) and ‘..’ (previous directory).
-d List directories only.
-f Prints the full path prefix for each file.
-i Makes tree not print the indentation lines, useful when used in conjunction with the -f option.
-l Follows symbolic links if they point to directories, as if they were directories. Symbolic links that will result in recursion are avoided when detected.
-x Stay on the current file-system only. Ala find -xdev.
-P pattern
  List only those files that match the wild-card pattern. Note: you must use the -a option to also consider those files beginning with a dot ‘.’ for matching. Valid wildcard operators are ‘*’ (any zero or more characters), ‘?’ (any single character), ‘[...]’ (any single character listed between brackets (optional - (dash) for character range may be used: ex: [A-Z]), and ‘[^...]’ (any single character not listed in brackets) and ‘|’ separates alternate patterns.
-I pattern
  Do not list those files that match the wild-card pattern.
--noreport
  Omits printing of the file and directory report at the end of the tree listing.
-p Print the protections for each file (as per ls -l).
-s Print the size of each file along with the name.
-u Print the username, or UID # if no username is available, of the file.
-g Print the group name, or GID # if no group name is available, of the file.
-D Print the date of the last modification time for the file listed.
--inodes
  Prints the inode number of the file or directory
--device
  Prints the device number to which the file or directory belongs
-F Append a ‘/’ for directories, a ‘=’ for socket files, a ‘*’ for executable files and a ‘|’ for FIFO’s, as per ls -F
-q Print non-printable characters in filenames as question marks instead of the default caret notation.
-N Print non-printable characters as is instead of the default caret notation.
-r Sort the output in reverse alphabetic order.
-t Sort the output by last modification time instead of alphabetically.
--dirsfirst
  List directories before files.
-n Turn colorization off always, over-ridden by the -C option.
-C Turn colorization on always, using built-in color defaults if the LS_COLORS environment variable is not set. Useful to colorize output to a pipe.
-A Turn on ANSI line graphics hack when printing the indentation lines.
-S Turn on ASCII line graphics (useful when using linux console mode fonts). This option is now equivalent to ‘--charset=IBM437’ and will eventually be depreciated.
-L level
  Max display depth of the directory tree.
-R Recursively cross down the tree each level directories (see -L option), and at each of them execute tree again adding ‘-o 00Tree.html’ as a new option.
-H baseHREF
  Turn on HTML output, including HTTP references. Useful for ftp sites. baseHREF gives the base ftp location when using HTML output. That is, the local directory may be ‘/local/ftp/pub’, but it must be referenced as ‘ftp://hostname.organization.domain/pub’ (baseHREF should be ‘ftp://hostname.organization.domain’). Hint: don’t use ANSI lines with this option, and don’t give more than one directory in the directory list. If you wish to use colors via CCS stylesheet, use the -C option in addition to this option to force color output.
-T title
  Sets the title and H1 header string in HTML output mode.
--charset charset
  Set the character set to use when outputting HTML and for line drawing.
--nolinks
  Turns off hyperlinks in HTML output.
-o filename
  Send output to filename.

FILES

/etc/DIR_COLORS         System color database.
~/.dircolors                    Users color database.

ENVIRONMENT

LS_COLORS               Color information created by dircolors
TREE_CHARSET    Character set for tree to use in HTML mode.
LC_CTYPE                Locale for filename output.

AUTHOR

Steve Baker (ice@mama.indstate.edu)
HTML output hacked by Francesc Rocher (rocher@econ.udg.es)
Charsets and OS/2 support by Kyosuke Tokoro (NBG01720@nifty.ne.jp)

BUGS

Tree does not prune "empty" directories when the -P and -I options are used. Tree prints directories as it comes to them, so cannot accumulate information on files and directories beneath the directory it is printing. Probably more.

SEE ALSO



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