NumPy Tutorial

NumPy Tutorial

NumPy, which stands for Numerical Python, is an open-source Python library consisting of multidimensional and single-dimensional array elements. It's a standard that computes numerical data in Python. NumPy is most widely used in almost every domain where numerical computation is required, like science and engineering; hence, the NumPy API functionalities are highly utilized in data science and scientific Python packages, including Pandas, SciPy, Matplotlib, scikit-learn, scikit-image, and many more.

This NumPy tutorial explains the basics of NumPy, such as its architecture and environment. It also discusses array functions, types of indexing, etc., and then extends to learn Matplotlib, Pandas, SciPy, and other important Python libraries. All this is explained with the help of examples for better understanding.

Why NumPy - Need of NumPy

NumPy is a fundamental package for numerical computation in Python. It provides mathematical functions to compute data as well as functions to operate multi-dimensional arrays and matrices efficiently. Here are some reasons why NumPy is essential:

  • NumPy includes a wide range of mathematical functions for basic arithmetic, linear algebra, Fourier analysis, and more.
  • NumPy performs numerical operations on large datasets efficiently.
  • NumPy supports multi-dimensional arrays, allowing for the representation of complex data structures such as images, sound waves, and tensors in machine learning models.
  • It supports the writing of concise and readable code for complex mathematical computations.
  • NumPy integrates with other libraries to do scientific computation; these are SciPy (for scientific computing), Pandas (for data manipulation and analysis), and scikit-learn (for machine learning).
  • Many scientific and numerical computing libraries and tools are built on top of NumPy.
  • Its widespread adoption and stability make it a standard choice for numerical computing tasks.

Overall, NumPy plays a crucial role in the Python ecosystem for scientific computing, data analysis, machine learning, and more. Its efficient array operations and extensive mathematical functions make it an indispensable tool for working with numerical data in Python.

NumPy Applications - Uses of NumPy

The NumPy API in Python is used primarily for numerical computing. It provides support for a wide range of mathematical functions to operate on data efficiently. The following are some common application areas where NumPy is extensively used:

  1. Data Analysis: NumPy offers rapid and effective array operations, rendering it well-suited for tasks like data cleansing, filtering, and transformation. It is predominantly used in the analysis and scientific handling of data, particularly when working with extensive, large datasets.
  2. Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence: Different machine learning and deep learning frameworks in Python, such as TensorFlow, and PyTorch, rely on NumPy arrays for handling input data, model parameters, and outputs.
  3. Scientific Computing: NumPy is widely used in scientific computing applications such as physics, chemistry, biology, and astronomy for data manipulation, numerical simulations, and analysis. NumPy is often used in numerical simulations and computational modelling for solving differential equations, optimisation problems, and other mathematical problems.
  4. Array manipulation: NumPy provides an assortment of methods for manipulating arrays, such as resizing, slicing, indexing, stacking, splitting, and concatenating arrays. These techniques are essential for preparing and manipulating data in diverse scientific computing jobs.
  5. Finance and Economics: The NumP API is also widely used in financial data analysis and economics to do portfolio optimisation, risk analysis, time series analysis, and statistical modelling.
  6. Engineering and Robotics: NumPy is used in engineering disciplines such as mechanical, civil, and electrical engineering for tasks like finite element analysis, control system design, and robotics simulations.
  7. Image and Signal Processing: NumPy is extensively used in processing and analysing images and signals.
  8. Data Visualisation: NumPy doesn't provide data visualisation but supports Matplotlib and Seaborn libraries to generate plots and visualisations from numerical data.

Overall, NumPy's versatility and efficiency make it an essential Python package across a wide range of application areas in scientific computing, data analysis, and beyond.

NumPy Example

The following is an example of Python NumPy:

# Importing NumPy Array
import numpy as np

# Creating an array using np.array() method
arr = np.array([10, 20, 30, 40, 50])

# Printing
print(arr) # Prints [10 20 30 40 50]

NumPy Compiler

To practice the NumPy example, we provided an online compiler. Practice your NumPy programs here:


This NumPy tutorial has been prepared for those who want to learn about the basics and functions of NumPy. It is specifically useful in data science, engineering, agriculture science, management, statistics, research, and other related domains where numerical computation is required. After completing this tutorial, you will find yourself at a moderate level of expertise from where you can take yourself to higher levels of expertise.


You should have a basic understanding of computer programming terminologies. A basic understanding of Python and any of the programming languages is a plus.

NumPy Codebase

NumPy's source code can be found at this github repository:

NumPy Documentation

NumPy's documentation, reference manuals, and user guide can be found at these links: