master - Unix, Linux Command

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master - Postfix master process


master [-Ddtv] [-c config_dir] [-e exit_time]


The master(8) daemon is the resident process that runs Postfix daemons on demand: daemons to send or receive messages via the network, daemons to deliver mail locally, etc. These daemons are created on demand up to a configurable maximum number per service.

Postfix daemons terminate voluntarily, either after being idle for a configurable amount of time, or after having serviced a configurable number of requests. Exceptions to this rule are the resident queue manager, address verification server, and the TLS session cache and pseudo-random number server.

The behavior of the master(8) daemon is controlled by the configuration file, as described in master(5).


-c config_dir Read the and configuration files in the named directory instead of the default configuration directory. This also overrides the configuration files for other Postfix daemon processes.
-D After initialization, run a debugger on the master process. The debugging command is specified with the debugger_command in the global configuration file.
-d Do not redirect stdin, stdout or stderr to /dev/null, and do not discard the controlling terminal. This must be used for debugging only.
-e exit_time Terminate the master process after exit_time seconds. Child processes terminate at their convenience.
-t Test mode. Return a zero exit status when the lock file does not exist or when that file is not locked. This is evidence that the master(8) daemon is not running.
-v Enable verbose logging for debugging purposes. This option is passed on to child processes. Multiple -v options make the software increasingly verbose.
SIGHUP Upon receipt of a HUP signal (e.g., after "postfix reload"), the master process re-reads its configuration files. If a service has been removed from the file, its running processes are terminated immediately. Otherwise, running processes are allowed to terminate as soon as is convenient, so that changes in configuration settings affect only new service requests.
SIGTERM Upon receipt of a TERM signal (e.g., after "postfix abort"), the master process passes the signal on to its child processes and terminates. This is useful for an emergency shutdown. Normally one would terminate only the master ("postfix stop") and allow running processes to finish what they are doing.


Problems are reported to syslogd(8).


MAIL_DEBUG After initialization, start a debugger as specified with the debugger_command configuration parameter in the configuration file.
MAIL_CONFIG Directory with Postfix configuration files.


Unlike most Postfix daemon processes, the master(8) server does not automatically pick up changes to Changes to are never picked up automatically. Use the "postfix reload" command after a configuration change.


default_process_limit (100) The default maximal number of Postfix child processes that provide a given service.
max_idle (100s) The maximum amount of time that an idle Postfix daemon process waits for the next service request before exiting.
max_use (100) The maximal number of connection requests before a Postfix daemon process terminates.
service_throttle_time (60s) How long the Postfix master(8) waits before forking a server that appears to be malfunctioning.


config_directory (see ’postconf -d’ output) The default location of the Postfix and configuration files.
daemon_directory (see ’postconf -d’ output) The directory with Postfix support programs and daemon programs.
debugger_command (empty) The external command to execute when a Postfix daemon program is invoked with the -D option.
inet_interfaces (all) The network interface addresses that this mail system receives mail on.
inet_protocols (ipv4) The Internet protocols Postfix will attempt to use when making or accepting connections.
import_environment (see ’postconf -d’ output) The list of environment parameters that a Postfix process will import from a non-Postfix parent process.
mail_owner (postfix) The UNIX system account that owns the Postfix queue and most Postfix daemon processes.
process_id (read-only) The process ID of a Postfix command or daemon process.
process_name (read-only) The process name of a Postfix command or daemon process.
queue_directory (see ’postconf -d’ output) The location of the Postfix top-level queue directory.
syslog_facility (mail) The syslog facility of Postfix logging.
syslog_name (postfix) The mail system name that is prepended to the process name in syslog records, so that "smtpd" becomes, for example, "postfix/smtpd".


/etc/postfix/, global configuration file.
/etc/postfix/, master server configuration file.
/var/spool/postfix/pid/, master lock file.


qmgr(8), queue manager
verify(8), address verification
master(5), configuration file syntax
postconf(5), configuration parameter syntax
syslogd(8), system logging


The Secure Mailer license must be distributed with this software.


Wietse Venema
IBM T.J. Watson Research
P.O. Box 704
Yorktown Heights, NY 10598, USA

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