echo- Unix, Linux Command


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NAME

echo - display a line of text.

SYNOPSIS

echo [SHORT-OPTION]... [STRING]...
echo LONG-OPTION

DESCRIPTION

echo is a fundamental command found in most operating systems that offer a command line. It is frequently used in scripts, batch files, and as part of individual commands; anywhere you may need to insert text. Many command shells such as bash, ksh and csh implement echo as a built-in command.

Options

Tag Description
-n Do not output a trailing newline.
-e Enable interpretation of backslash escape sequences (see below for a list of these).
-E Disable interpretation of backslash escape sequences (this is the default).
--help Display a help message and exit.
--version Output version information and exit.
\\ A literal backslash character ("\").
\a An alert (The BELL character).
\b Backspace
\c Produce no further output after this.
\e The escape character; equivalent to pressing the escape key.
\f A form feed.
\n A newline.
\r A carriage return
\t A horizontal tab.
\v A vertical tab.
\0NNN byte with octal value NNN (which can be 1 to 3 digits).
\xHH byte with hexadecimal value HH (which can be either 1 or 2 digits)

EXAMPLES

Example-1:

To print string "Hello, World!" on console

$ echo "Hello, World!"

output:
Hello, World!

Example-2:

To print value of x, where x=10.

$ echo $x

output:
10

Example-3:

Use option ‘\b‘ – backspace with backslash interpretor ‘-e‘ removes all the spaces in between.

$ echo -e 'Here \bthe \bspaces \bare \bbackspaced.'

output:
Herethespacesarebackspaced.

Example-4:

Use option ‘\n‘ – New line with backspace interpretor ‘-e‘ treats new line from where it is used.

$  echo -e 'Here \nthe \nspaces \nare \nnewlined.'

output:
Here
the
spaces
are
newlined.

Example-5:

Use option ‘\t‘ – horizontal tab with backspace interpretor ‘-e‘ to have horizontal tab spaces.

$  echo -e 'Here \tthe \tspaces \thave \thorizontal \ttab \tspaces.'

output:
Here    the     spaces  have    horizontal     tab   spaces.

Example-6:

Use option ‘\v‘ – vertical tab with backspace interpretor ‘-e‘ to have vertical tab spaces.

$  echo -e 'Here \vthe \vspaces \vhave \vvertical \vtab \vspaces.'

output:
Here
     the
         spaces
                have
                     vertical
                              tab
                                  spaces.

Example-7:

Use option ‘\r‘ – carriage return with backspace interpretor ‘-e‘ to have specified carriage return in output

$  echo -e 'Here the \rcontent before this is removed.'  

output:
content before this is removed.

Example-8:

Use option ‘\c‘ – suppress trailing new line with backspace interpretor ‘-e‘ to continue without emitting new line.

$  echo -e "Here the content after "," is not printed , \c This is not printed on console"

output:
Here the content after , is not printed ,

Example-9:

To print all the files/folder using echo command (ls command alternative).

ubuntu@ubuntu:/usr$ echo *

output:
bin games include lib local sbin share src

Example-10:

To echo output to a file and not standard output. in below example output is redirected to test file.

$ echo "Hello World!" > test

output:
$ cat test
Hello World!



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