Bootstrap Modal Plugin

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A modal is a child window that is layered over its parent window. Typically, the purpose is to display content from a separate source that can have some interaction without leaving the parent window. Child windows can provide information, interaction, or more.

If you want to include this plugin functionality individually, then you will need modal.js. Else, as mentioned in the chapter Bootstrap Plugins Overview, you can include bootstrap.js or the minified bootstrap.min.js.

Usage

You can toggle the modal plugin's hidden content:

  • Via data attributes: Set attribute data-toggle="modal" on a controller element, like a button or link, along with a data-target="#identifier" or href="#identifier" to target a specific modal (with the id="identifier") to toggle.

  • Via JavaScript: Using this technique you can call a modal with id="identifier" with a single line of JavaScript:

    $('#identifier').modal(options)
    

Example

A static modal window example is as shown in the following example:

<h2>Example of creating Modals with Twitter Bootstrap</h2>
<!-- Button trigger modal -->
<button class="btn btn-primary btn-lg" data-toggle="modal" 
   data-target="#myModal">
   Launch demo modal
</button>

<!-- Modal -->
<div class="modal fade" id="myModal" tabindex="-1" role="dialog" 
   aria-labelledby="myModalLabel" aria-hidden="true">
   <div class="modal-dialog">
      <div class="modal-content">
         <div class="modal-header">
            <button type="button" class="close" 
               data-dismiss="modal" aria-hidden="true">
                  &times;
            </button>
            <h4 class="modal-title" id="myModalLabel">
               This Modal title
            </h4>
         </div>
         <div class="modal-body">
            Add some text here
         </div>
         <div class="modal-footer">
            <button type="button" class="btn btn-default" 
               data-dismiss="modal">Close
            </button>
            <button type="button" class="btn btn-primary">
               Submit changes
            </button>
         </div>
      </div><!-- /.modal-content -->
</div><!-- /.modal -->
Details of the preceding code:
  • To invoke the modal window, you need to have some kind of a trigger. You can use a button or a link. Here we have used button.

  • If you look in the code above, you will see that in the <button> tag, the data-target="#myModal" is the target of the modal that you want to load on the page. This code allows you to create multiple modals on the page and then have different triggers for each of them. Now, to be clear, you don’t load multiple modals at the same time, but you can create many on the page to be loaded at different times.

  • There are two classes to take note of in the modal:

    • The first is .modal, which is simply identifying the content of the <div> as a modal.

    • And second is the .fade class. When the modal is toggled, it will cause the content to fade in and out.

  • aria-labelledby="myModalLabel", attribute reference the modal title.

  • The attribute aria-hidden="true" is used to keep the Modal Window invisible till a trigger comes (like a click on the associated button).

  • <div class="modal-header">, modal-header is the class to define style for the header of the modal window.

  • class="close", is a CSS class close that sets style for the Close button of the modal window.

  • data-dismiss="modal", is a custom HTML5 data attribute. Here it is used to close the modal window.

  • class="modal-body", is a CSS class of Bootstrap CSS to set style for body of the modal window.

  • class="modal-footer", is a CSS class of Bootstrap CSS to set style for footer of the modal window.

  • data-toggle="modal", HTML5 custom data attribute data-toggle is used to open the modal window.

Modal Plugin Demo

Options

There are certain options which can be passed via data attributes or JavaScript to customize the look and feel of the Modal Window. Following table lists the options:

Option NameType/Default ValueData attribute nameDescription
backdropboolean or the string 'static'
Default: true
data-backdrop specify static for a backdrop, if you don’t want the modal to be closed when the user clicks outside of the modal.
keyboardboolean
Default: true
data-keyboardCloses the modal when escape key is pressed; set to false to disable.
showboolean
Default: true
data-showShows the modal when initialized.
remotepath
Default: false
data-remoteUsing the jQuery .load method, inject content into the modal body. If an href with a valid URL is added, it will load that content. An example of this is shown below:
<a data-toggle="modal" href="remote.html" data-target="#modal">Click me</a>

Methods

The following are some useful methods which can be used with modal().

MethodDescriptionExample
Options: .modal(options)Activates your content as a modal. Accepts an optional options object.
$('#identifier').modal({
keyboard: false
})
Toggle: .modal('toggle')Manually toggles a modal
$('#identifier').modal('toggle')
Show: .modal('show')Manually opens a modal
$('#identifier').modal('show')
Hide: .modal('hide')Manually hides a modal
$('#identifier').modal('hide')

Example

The following example demonstrates the usage of methods:

<h2>Example of using methods of Modal Plugin</h2>

<!-- Button trigger modal -->
<button class="btn btn-primary btn-lg" data-toggle="modal" data-target="#myModal">
   Launch demo modal
</button>

<!-- Modal -->
<div class="modal fade" id="myModal" tabindex="-1" role="dialog" 
   aria-labelledby="myModalLabel" aria-hidden="true">
   <div class="modal-dialog">
      <div class="modal-content">
         <div class="modal-header">
            <button type="button" class="close" data-dismiss="modal" 
               aria-hidden="true">×
            </button>
            <h4 class="modal-title" id="myModalLabel">
               This Modal title
            </h4>
         </div>
         <div class="modal-body">
            Press ESC button to exit.
         </div>
         <div class="modal-footer">
            <button type="button" class="btn btn-default" 
               data-dismiss="modal">Close
            </button>
            <button type="button" class="btn btn-primary">
               Submit changes
            </button>
         </div>
      </div><!-- /.modal-content -->
   </div><!-- /.modal-dialog -->
</div><!-- /.modal -->
<script>
   $(function () { $('#myModal').modal({
      keyboard: true
   })});
</script>
Modal Plugin Methods Demo

Just click the Esc button and the modal window exits.

Events

Following table lists the events to work with modal. These events may be used to hook into the function.

EventDescriptionExample
show.bs.modalFired after the show method is called.
$('#identifier').on('show.bs.modal', function () {
  // do something…
})
shown.bs.modalFired when the modal has been made visible to the user (will wait for CSS transitions to complete).
$('#identifier').on('shown.bs.modal', function () {
  // do something…
})
hide.bs.modalFired when the hide instance method has been called.
$('#identifier').on('hide.bs.modal', function () {
  // do something…
})
hidden.bs.modalFired when the modal has finished being hidden from the user.
$('#identifier').on('hidden.bs.modal', function () {
  // do something…
})

Example

The following example demonstrates the usage of events:

<h2>Example of using events of Modal Plugin</h2>

<!-- Button trigger modal -->
<button class="btn btn-primary btn-lg" data-toggle="modal" data-target="#myModal">
   Launch demo modal
</button>

<!-- Modal -->
<div class="modal fade" id="myModal" tabindex="-1" role="dialog" 
   aria-labelledby="myModalLabel" aria-hidden="true">
   <div class="modal-dialog">
      <div class="modal-content">
         <div class="modal-header">
            <button type="button" class="close" data-dismiss="modal" 
               aria-hidden="true">×
            </button>
            <h4 class="modal-title" id="myModalLabel">
               This Modal title
            </h4>
         </div>
         <div class="modal-body">
            Click on close button to check Event functionality.
         </div>
         <div class="modal-footer">
            <button type="button" class="btn btn-default" 
               data-dismiss="modal">
               Close
            </button>
            <button type="button" class="btn btn-primary">
               Submit changes
            </button>
         </div>
      </div><!-- /.modal-content -->
   </div><!-- /.modal-dialog -->
</div><!-- /.modal -->
<script>
   $(function () { $('#myModal').modal('hide')})});
</script>
<script>
   $(function () { $('#myModal').on('hide.bs.modal', function () {
      alert('Hey, I heard you like modals...');})
   });
</script>
Modal Plugin Events Demo

As seen in the above screen, if you click on the Close button i.e hide event, an alert message is displayed.



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