Bootstrap Forms

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In this chapter we will study how to create forms with ease using Bootstrap. Bootstrap makes it easy with the simple HTML markup and extended classes for different styles of forms.

Form Layout

Bootstrap provides you with following types of form layouts:

  • Vertical (default) form

  • Inline form

  • Horizontal form

Vertical or basic form

The basic form structure comes with Bootstrap; individual form controls automatically receive some global styling. To create a basic form do the following:

  • Add a role form to the parent <form> element.

  • Wrap labels and controls in a <div> with class .form-group. This is needed for optimum spacing.

  • Add a class of .form-control to all textual <input>, <textarea>, and <select> elements.

<form role="form">
   <div class="form-group">
      <label for="name">Name</label>
      <input type="text" class="form-control" id="name" 
         placeholder="Enter Name">
   </div>
   <div class="form-group">
      <label for="inputfile">File input</label>
      <input type="file" id="inputfile">
      <p class="help-block">Example block-level help text here.</p>
   </div>
   <div class="checkbox">
      <label>
      <input type="checkbox"> Check me out
      </label>
   </div>
   <button type="submit" class="btn btn-default">Submit</button>
</form>
Basic Form Demo

Inline form

To create a form where all of the elements are inline, left aligned and labels are alongside, add the class .form-inline to the <form> tag.

<form class="form-inline" role="form">
   <div class="form-group">
      <label class="sr-only" for="name">Name</label>
      <input type="text" class="form-control" id="name" 
         placeholder="Enter Name">
   </div>
   <div class="form-group">
      <label class="sr-only" for="inputfile">File input</label>
      <input type="file" id="inputfile">
   </div>
   <div class="checkbox">
      <label>
      <input type="checkbox"> Check me out
      </label>
   </div>
   <button type="submit" class="btn btn-default">Submit</button>
</form>
Inline Form Demo
  • By default Inputs, selects, and textareas have 100% width in Bootstrap. You need to set a width on the form controls when using inline form.

  • Using the class .sr-only you can hide the labels of the inline forms.

Horizontal form

Horizontal forms stands apart from the others not only in the amount of markup, but also in the presentation of the form. To create a form that uses the horizontal layout, do the following:

  • Add a class of .form-horizontal to the parent <form> element.

  • Wrap labels and controls in a <div> with class .form-group.

  • Add a class of .control-label to the labels.

<form class="form-horizontal" role="form">
   <div class="form-group">
      <label for="firstname" class="col-sm-2 control-label">First Name</label>
      <div class="col-sm-10">
         <input type="text" class="form-control" id="firstname" 
            placeholder="Enter First Name">
      </div>
   </div>
   <div class="form-group">
      <label for="lastname" class="col-sm-2 control-label">Last Name</label>
      <div class="col-sm-10">
         <input type="text" class="form-control" id="lastname" 
            placeholder="Enter Last Name">
      </div>
   </div>
   <div class="form-group">
      <div class="col-sm-offset-2 col-sm-10">
         <div class="checkbox">
            <label>
               <input type="checkbox"> Remember me
            </label>
         </div>
      </div>
   </div>
   <div class="form-group">
      <div class="col-sm-offset-2 col-sm-10">
         <button type="submit" class="btn btn-default">Sign in</button>
      </div>
   </div>
</form>
Horizontal Form Demo

Supported Form Controls

Bootstrap natively supports the most common form controls mainly input, textarea, checkbox, radio, and select.

Inputs

The most common form text field is the input—this is where users will enter most of the essential form data. Bootstrap offers support for all native HTML5 input types: text, password, datetime, datetime-local, date, month, time, week, number, email, url, search, tel, and color. Proper type declaration is required to make Inputs fully styled.

<form role="form">
  <div class="form-group">
    <label for="name">Label</label>
    <input type="text" class="form-control" placeholder="Text input">
  </div>
 </form>
Inputs Demo

Textarea

The textarea is used when you need multiple lines of input. Change rows attribute as necessary (fewer rows = smaller box, more rows = bigger box).

<form role="form">
  <div class="form-group">
    <label for="name">Text Area</label>
    <textarea class="form-control" rows="3"></textarea>
  </div>
</form>
Textarea Demo

CheckBoxes and Radios

Checkboxes and radio buttons are great when you want users to choose from a list of preset options.

  • When building a form, use checkbox if you want the user to select any number of options from a list. Use radio if you want to limit the user to just one selection.

  • Use .checkbox-inline or .radio-inline class to a series of checkboxes or radios for controls appear on the same line.

The following example demonstrates both (default and inline) types:

<label for="name">Example of Default Checkbox and radio button </label>
<div class="checkbox">
   <label><input type="checkbox" value="">Option 1</label>
</div>
<div class="checkbox">
   <label><input type="checkbox" value="">Option 2</label>
</div>

<div class="radio">
   <label>
      <input type="radio" name="optionsRadios" id="optionsRadios1" 
         value="option1" checked> Option 1
   </label>
</div>
<div class="radio">
   <label>
      <input type="radio" name="optionsRadios" id="optionsRadios2" 
         value="option2">
         Option 2 - selecting it will deselect option 1
   </label>
</div>
<label for="name">Example of Inline Checkbox and radio button </label>
<div>
   <label class="checkbox-inline">
      <input type="checkbox" id="inlineCheckbox1" value="option1"> Option 1
   </label>
   <label class="checkbox-inline">
      <input type="checkbox" id="inlineCheckbox2" value="option2"> Option 2
   </label>
   <label class="checkbox-inline">
      <input type="checkbox" id="inlineCheckbox3" value="option3"> Option 3
   </label>
   <label class="checkbox-inline">
      <input type="radio" name="optionsRadiosinline" id="optionsRadios3" 
         value="option1" checked> Option 1
   </label>
   <label class="checkbox-inline">
      <input type="radio" name="optionsRadiosinline" id="optionsRadios4" 
         value="option2"> Option 2
   </label>
</div>
Checkbox Demo

Selects

A select is used when you want to allow the user to pick from multiple options, but by default it only allows one.

  • Use <select> for list options with which the user is familiar, such as states or numbers.

  • Use multiple="multiple" to allow the user to select more than one option.

The following example demonstrates both (select and multiple) types:

<form role="form">
   <div class="form-group">
      <label for="name">Select list</label>
      <select class="form-control">
         <option>1</option>
         <option>2</option>
         <option>3</option>
         <option>4</option>
         <option>5</option>
      </select>

      <label for="name">Mutiple Select list</label>
      <select multiple class="form-control">
         <option>1</option>
         <option>2</option>
         <option>3</option>
         <option>4</option>
         <option>5</option>
      </select>
   </div>
</form>
Select Demo

Static control

Use the class .form-control-static on a <p>, when you need to place plain text next to a form label within a horizontal form.

<form class="form-horizontal" role="form">
  <div class="form-group">
    <label class="col-sm-2 control-label">Email</label>
    <div class="col-sm-10">
      <p class="form-control-static">email@example.com</p>
    </div>
  </div>
  <div class="form-group">
    <label for="inputPassword" class="col-sm-2 control-label">Password</label>
    <div class="col-sm-10">
      <input type="password" class="form-control" id="inputPassword" 
         placeholder="Password">
    </div>
  </div>
</form>
Static Control Demo

Form Control States

In addition to the :focus (i.e., a user clicks into the input or tabs onto it) state, Bootstrap offers styling for disabled inputs and classes for form validation.

Input focus

When an input receives :focus, the outline of the input is removed and a box-shadow is applied.

Disabled inputs

If you need to disable an input, simply adding the disabled attribute will not only disable it; it will also change the styling and the mouse cursor when the cursor hovers over the element.

Disabled fieldsets

Add the disabled attribute to a <fieldset> to disable all the controls within the <fieldset> at once.

Validation states

Bootstrap includes validation styles for error, warning, and success messages. To use, simply add the appropriate class (.has-warning, .has-error, or .has-success) to the parent element.

Following example demonstrates all the form control states:

<form class="form-horizontal" role="form">
   <div class="form-group">
      <label class="col-sm-2 control-label">Focused</label>
      <div class="col-sm-10">
         <input class="form-control" id="focusedInput" type="text" 
            value="This is focused...">
      </div>
   </div>
   <div class="form-group">
      <label for="inputPassword" class="col-sm-2 control-label">
         Disabled
      </label>
      <div class="col-sm-10">
         <input class="form-control" id="disabledInput" type="text" 
            placeholder="Disabled input here..." disabled>
      </div>
   </div>
   <fieldset disabled>
      <div class="form-group">
         <label for="disabledTextInput"  class="col-sm-2 control-label">
            Disabled input (Fieldset disabled)
         </label>
         <div class="col-sm-10">
            <input type="text" id="disabledTextInput" class="form-control" 
               placeholder="Disabled input">
         </div>
      </div>
      <div class="form-group">
         <label for="disabledSelect"  class="col-sm-2 control-label">
            Disabled select menu (Fieldset disabled)
         </label>
         <div class="col-sm-10">
            <select id="disabledSelect" class="form-control">
               <option>Disabled select</option>
            </select>
         </div>
      </div>
   </fieldset>
   <div class="form-group has-success">
      <label class="col-sm-2 control-label" for="inputSuccess">
         Input with success
      </label>
      <div class="col-sm-10">
         <input type="text" class="form-control" id="inputSuccess">
      </div>
   </div>
   <div class="form-group has-warning">
      <label class="col-sm-2 control-label" for="inputWarning">
         Input with warning
      </label>
      <div class="col-sm-10">
         <input type="text" class="form-control" id="inputWarning">
      </div>
   </div>
   <div class="form-group has-error">
      <label class="col-sm-2 control-label" for="inputError">
         Input with error
      </label>
      <div class="col-sm-10">
         <input type="text" class="form-control" id="inputError">
      </div>
   </div>
</form>
Form Control States Demo

Form Control Sizing

You can set heights and widths of forms using classes like .input-lg and .col-lg-* respectively. Following example demonstrates this:

<form role="form">
   <div class="form-group">
      <input class="form-control input-lg" type="text" 
         placeholder=".input-lg">
   </div>

   <div class="form-group">
      <input class="form-control" type="text" placeholder="Default input">
   </div>

   <div class="form-group">
      <input class="form-control input-sm" type="text" 
         placeholder=".input-sm">
   </div>
   <div class="form-group">
   </div>
   <div class="form-group">
      <select class="form-control input-lg">
         <option value="">.input-lg</option>
      </select>
   </div>
   <div class="form-group">
      <select class="form-control">
         <option value="">Default select</option>
      </select>
   </div>
   <div class="form-group">
      <select class="form-control input-sm">
         <option value="">.input-sm</option>
      </select>
   </div>

   <div class="row">
      <div class="col-lg-2">
         <input type="text" class="form-control" placeholder=".col-lg-2">
      </div>
      <div class="col-lg-3">
         <input type="text" class="form-control" placeholder=".col-lg-3">
      </div>
      <div class="col-lg-4">
         <input type="text" class="form-control" placeholder=".col-lg-4">
      </div>
   </div>
</form>
Form Control size Demo

Help Text

Bootstrap form controls can have a block level help text that flows with the inputs. To add a full width block of content, use the .help-block after the <input>. Following example demonstrates this:

<form role="form">
   <span>Example of Help Text</span>
   <input class="form-control" type="text" placeholder="">
   <span class="help-block">A longer block of help text that
   breaks onto a new line and may extend beyond one line.</span>
</form>
Form Help text Demo


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