Found 158 Articles for Chemistry

Difference Between Brinell and Rockwell Hardness

Vineet Nanda
Updated on 21-Aug-2023 17:33:54


Hardness is a measure of a material's ability to resist indentation or deformation. It is a crucial property in engineering and manufacturing applications, as it determines a material's suitability for specific tasks. There are many methods to measure the hardness of a material, including Brinell and Rockwell hardness tests. In this essay, we will explore the differences between these two methods. What is Brinell Hardness? Brinell hardness (HBW) is the ratio between the applied force and the surface of the print. Indenter is a hard metal ball, with a diameter D that is imprinted by force F into the surface ... Read More

Difference Between Benzyl and Phenyl

Vineet Nanda
Updated on 21-Aug-2023 17:27:10


Benzyl and phenyl are two common organic compounds that are often confused with each other. Both compounds contain a benzene ring, but there are important differences between them in terms of their chemical structure and properties. In this essay, we will explore the difference between benzyl and phenyl in detail. What is Benzyl? Benzyl is a functional group, consisting of a benzene ring, attached to a CH2 group. Its chemical formula is C6H5CH2–. Benzyl is a monovalent radical derived from toluene. The abbreviation "Bn" is used to represent the benzyl group. For example, the benzyl alcohol can be marked ... Read More

Difference Between Cis and Trans

Vineet Nanda
Updated on 02-Jun-2023 11:48:03


The terms "cis" and "trans" are used in various fields of science and social studies to describe different aspects of objects, molecules, and people. In chemistry, these terms are used to describe the orientation of atoms or groups of atoms in a molecule, while in social studies, they are used to describe the gender identity of individuals. In this essay, we will discuss the difference between cis and trans in both chemistry and social studies. What is Cis? The prefix “cis” is derived from Latin. It means “on the same side”. In the cis isomer, the substituent groups are placed ... Read More

Crystal Field Theory

Bitopi Kaashyap
Updated on 23-Aug-2023 09:58:16


Introduction In this tutorial let’s learn about the Crystal field theory. Before moving into the definition of Crystal field theory lets have an overall understanding of certain terminologies which will help us in better understanding of this concept. Degenerate Energy Levels If the same energy level is obtained by more than one quantum mechanical state, then the energy levels are said to be degenerate. Transition Metals Transition metals have an empty d orbital. The d orbital split into two energy sublevels, the electron moving between these gives them their properties. Few examples of transaction metals are Copper, Iron, Manganese, etc. ... Read More

Bond Parameters

Bitopi Kaashyap
Updated on 26-Apr-2023 11:45:48


Introduction A variety of factors are used to evaluate covalent bonding. Bond length, bond strength, bond polarity, and bond multiplicity are only a few of them. Let's have a look at what these characteristics signify and how they affect us. Let's start with the bond length. Bond Length The equilibrium distance between the nuclei of two bound atoms in a molecule is defined as bond length. The bond length is determined by each atom in the bonded pair. Each atom of the bonded pair participates in the bond length of a covalent bond. The contribution of each atom is referred ... Read More

Experiments On Properties Of Acids And Bases

Praveen Varghese Thomas
Updated on 26-Apr-2023 09:44:23


Introduction Experiments on properties of acids and bases are one of the most vital topics in chemistry. It is discussed that the sour chemicals usually turns blue litmus into red are called acids. In a similar fashion, bases that are bitter tasting convert red litmus into blue. And acids and bases on reaction with one another give salt and water. This indicates neutralizing i.e, both the base and acid neutralize into the pH of water. These facts will only remain assumptions if not tested and experimented with. Therefore, this article will consist of Experiments on Properties of Acids and ... Read More

Examples of Bases

Praveen Varghese Thomas
Updated on 26-Apr-2023 09:33:32

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Introduction Examples of bases with its properties are as follows − Bases have pH value more than 7. Aqueous solution of basic compounds undergoes ionization and can conduct electricity. On reacting base with acids can produce salts. The concentrated base or strong base is known as Caustic. If base added to alkaline solution it has bitter taste. Base get identify easily due to the presence of OH- ions. On applying red litmus paper to basic solution it changes the colour into blue. On adding to acids compounds base can react vigorously. On adding base to water it can conduct ... Read More

Fe3o4 Iron Oxide

Praveen Varghese Thomas
Updated on 25-Apr-2023 18:26:43


Introduction $\mathrm{Fe_3O_4}$ (Iron oxide) is one of the easily synthesized compounds occurring in nature are iron oxides. The iron oxides are better known as magnetic oxides have been in use by humans for ages now. A very common example of magnetic oxides being used are the nanoparticles of iron oxide (IONPS). For around 50 years, they have been used for diagnosis conducted in vitro as a contrast agent. Iron oxides have the formula as $\mathrm{Fe_3O_4}$. They are also simply seen as rust. What is Iron Oxide? Laboratory-easy synthesized compounds, also commonly found in nature are Iron oxides. The ... Read More

Fenton's Reaction

Praveen Varghese Thomas
Updated on 25-Apr-2023 18:16:56


Introduction Fenton’s reaction was first discovered by H.J.H Fenton when he first observed the oxidative properties in various metals which could further improve the usage of already discarded, unstable, and poisonous hydrogen peroxide. This discovery in the chemical field not only explored the benefits of hydrogen peroxide but also attracted attention to the strong catalytic power of some metals which could generate highly reactive hydroxyl radicals. Presently iron-catalyzed hydrogen peroxide reactions are called Fenton's reactions and they have many applications in various chemical industries. Fenton’s Reagent Before discussing the mechanism of Fenton's reaction it is important to discuss the commonly ... Read More

Evaporation Causes Cooling

Praveen Varghese Thomas
Updated on 25-Apr-2023 18:04:33


Introduction Evaporation causes cooling which is based on evaporation of a liquid from any surface leaving a cooling effect. The degree of cooling effect are left by the evaporating liquid can vary based on the liquid. It is exemplified by evaporating alcohol or water that leaves a cooling effect on the surface. The variation in degree of cooling is also very clear between alcohol and water. Where, alcohol has a higher degree of evaporation of cooling effect than water. This variation depends on the nature of molecules of the liquid. What is Evaporation? A very common definition for evaporation ... Read More

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