Found 521 Articles for Physics

Basic Properties of Electrical Charge

Praveen Varghese Thomas
Updated on 02-May-2023 10:27:03


Introduction Basis properties of electric charge characterise the matter made of particles when put in either an electric field or a magnetic field. The charges are represented by two sign conventions i.e., Positive and negative. It is produced when two bodies are rubbed with each other. Here the charges are transferred from one body to another body. This phenomenon is also known as static electricity because there is no flow of charge. In our day-to-day life, we also produce charges when walking on the carpet, there is friction between shoes and the carpet. Electric charge is a simple form ... Read More

Bernoulli’s Principle

Praveen Varghese Thomas
Updated on 28-Apr-2023 18:12:11


Introduction Bernoulli’s principle can be underst ood it with a simple explanation that when fluid goes from a high-diameter pipe to a low-diameter duct, the speed of the fluid increases many times. Yes, it is true, but is it that simple? Not at all. This principle is quite complex, with many formulas and factors controlling it. There are many applications worldwide utilizing this beautiful principle. One of the common examples explaining Bernoulli's principle is that the pull you feel towards the train in a railway station when a train passes through the platform, and if you are waiting near the ... Read More

Coefficient of Performance

Praveen Varghese Thomas
Updated on 28-Apr-2023 18:04:55


Introduction Coefficient of performance, or COP, is a number that indicates how efficient the heat pump, air conditioning system, or refrigerator is. Heat pumps (heating systems) are characterized by a coefficient of performance that is defined as a ratio between energy delivered to the hot reservoir and work input. As a result, it is known as a performance heating coefficient. The greater the value of a device's coefficient of performance, the greater its efficiency. The coefficient of performance is typically greater than one because, in the case of these appliances, work is not simply converted to heat, but additional heat ... Read More

Bipolar Junction Transistor: Definitions, Construction, Types

Praveen Varghese Thomas
Updated on 28-Apr-2023 17:56:49

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Introduction  Bipolar junction transistor is a semiconducting device. Silicon or Germanium are the two semiconductors used in Bipolar junction transistors. Three layers formed in between the two P-N junctions. They are named emitter, base, and collector. Emitter layer represented as E Collector layer represented as C Base layer represented as B The middle part of the transistor is known as Base layer (B). The base layer is the thin layer. The thickness of the base layer is 25 microns. The left side layer of the transistor is the Emitter layer (E). The right-side layer of the transistor ... Read More

Biogas Energy - Definition, Advantages

Praveen Varghese Thomas
Updated on 28-Apr-2023 17:24:31


Introduction Biogas energy is obtained from biomass through physical and chemical process. The Law of energy conservation says that - Total energy during any chemical or physical process for an isolated system is always conserved. It means it doesn’t increase or reduce but merely changes its form. But we often hear that the world is going to face an energy crisis very soon. It is because, in certain processes, energy gets converted in such a form that is unusable for us. There are various forms of energy, for example -Light, Sound, thermal, etc. We can reuse certain forms and ... Read More

Chromatic Aberration

Praveen Varghese Thomas
Updated on 28-Apr-2023 17:17:20


Introduction Chromatic aberration is an optical lens related problem. Light is electromagnetic radiation and is the only part of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to the human eye. A lens is an optical device designed in such a way that the light that falls on it bends while it passes through it. The light rays that reach the lens may converge to a point or diverge from a point. It is decided by the shape of the lens. A transmissive optical device that is used to focus or disperse the light beam which falls on it is called a ... Read More

Conditions for Interference

Praveen Varghese Thomas
Updated on 28-Apr-2023 17:12:27


Introduction Conditions for interference are one of the most important concepts of wave optics. The phenomena of light, reflection, and refraction can be explained only on the basis of wave optics. The direction in which the light propagates in the form of a wave is indicated by the light screen itself. When a stone is dropped on a motionless surface of the water, ripples spread around the area where the stone falls. This event is a perfect example of a wave spreading. As the ripple passes a particular point, the water molecules or particles at that point move up and ... Read More

Compound Microscope

Praveen Varghese Thomas
Updated on 28-Apr-2023 17:01:11


Introduction Compound microscope is an optical instrument used to observe microscopic objects. The scientific study of microscopic objects is called microscopy. Early microscopes had only one lens. Hence, they are now called ordinary microscopes. Compound microscopes contain at least two lenses. In 1590 Hans Janssen and his son Zacharias Janssen developed the first compound microscope in the Netherlands. Galileo Galilei between 1609 and 1624 developed the compound microscope using concave and convex lenses and studied the compound eyes of insects. In 1625, the name microscope was given by the German physician Giovanni Faber. Robert Hooke, an English microscopist, examined ... Read More

Conductors in Electrostatic Equilibrium

Praveen Varghese Thomas
Updated on 28-Apr-2023 16:37:17


Introduction Conductors in electrostatic equilibrium places a major role in shielding objects electrostatically. The movement of protons, electrons, as well as other subatomic particles within material results in the transfer of electric charge from one place to the next, thereby creating an electric current that flows through the substance. The interaction that is produced by the electrostatic forces between the particles facilitates the charges to move around inside materials easily. Thus, Conductors are substances that allow flow of charge with a minimum resistance i. e. substances with free electrons that are not bonded to the atoms. What is Electrostatic ... Read More

Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS)

Praveen Varghese Thomas
Updated on 28-Apr-2023 16:29:47


Introduction Complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) is an Integrated circuit (IC). In the 1970s, an integrated circuit (IC) chip could only contain up to 10, 000 transistors, and transistor feature lengths were over 1 m. For instance, the Motorola 6800 CPU has just 4100 transistors and a 6.0 m feature length. But the IC industries have seen a profound upheaval in less than 50 years. Today's chips may have more than 10 billion transistors, while their feature lengths may only be 10 nm. More functions can now be placed in a chip because of the huge rise in transistor density. ... Read More

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