What are different database models? Explain their differences

The types of database models are explained below −

Hierarchy Database

It is almost the first good database we used to organize the data. It is developed by computer software development company IBM for IMS (Information Management system).

The design of this model is very simple as we arrange the data in the tree-like structure.

This tree model has nodes and branches which represent fields and different areas of data.

This model is good if we have to store data in a linear fashion and the whole main directory of data is present at the root node.

This model shows the parent-child relationship as we have one root node and many child branches and leaves.

We didn't use this model now as we have advanced models.

Network Database

You can understand the network model as a Graph in data structures as follows −

  • We store the data in a graph-like manner which means it can have more than 1 root node.

  • This is the reason we said this model as an advanced Hierarchy model and known it as a modified version of the Hierarchical database.

  • In this model, the storing of data is easy as it is easy to design.

  • This model comes up with one more functionality as it can handle many to many relationships while the Hierarchical database can't.

Object-oriented database (OOB)

OOB is totally based on object-oriented programming as it can show our data in the form of objects.

This database comes up with functionality as similar to OOP as Polymorphism, Encapsulation, Inheritance, Abstraction.

In this model, we have the capability to handle different type of data as you can't do this in any other model

It model comes up with functionalities like Reusability, more flexibility etc which gives this model an upper hand above others


Now, we will discuss some main differences between these databases.

  • In the hierarchy database, structure is like a tree while in the Network It is like Graph, while in OOB we deal with objects.

  • Hierarchy having One to many relationships while in the network relationship is many to many and in OOB relationship is both i.e., one to many as well as many to many.

  • Data access in hierarchy is hard while in network it is moderate and in OOB it is pretty easy.

  • Talking in terms of flexibility, OOB is more flexible than any other.

  • So, we can summarise this as an Object-oriented database is best among all 3 listed above as it provides speed and many functionalities as compared to the other two.