GATE Textile Engineering and Fibre Science Syllabus


Subject Code: TF

Course Structure

Sections/Units Topics
Section A Engineering Mathematics
Unit 1 Linear Algebra
Unit 2 Calculus
Unit 3 Vector Calculus
Unit 4 Differential Equations
Unit 5 Probability and Statistics
Unit 6 Numerical Methods
Section B Textile Fibers
Section C Yarn manufacture, Yarn structure and Properties
Section D Fabric manufacture, Structure and Properties
Section E Textile Testing
Section F Chemical processing

Course Syllabus

Section A: Engineering Mathematics

Unit 1: Linear Algebra

  • Matrices and Determinants
  • Systems of linear equations
  • Eigen values
  • Eigen vectors

Unit 2: Calculus

  • Limit, continuity and differentiability
  • Partial Derivatives
  • Maxima and minima
  • Sequences and series
  • Test for convergence
  • Fourier series

Unit 3: Vector Calculus

  • Gradient
  • Divergence and Curl
  • Line
  • Surface and volume integrals
  • Stokes, Gauss and Green’s theorems

Unit 4: Differential Equations

  • Linear and non-linear first order ODEs
  • Higher order linear ODEs with constant coefficients
  • Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations
  • Laplace transforms
  • PDEs –Laplace, heat and wave equations

Unit 5: Probability and Statistics

  • Mean, median, mode and standard deviation

  • Random variables

  • Poisson, normal and binomial distributions; Correlation and regression analysis

Unit 6: Numerical Methods

  • Solutions of linear and non-linear algebraic equations
  • Integration of trapezoidal and Simpson’s rule
  • Single and multi-step methods for differential equations

Section B: Textile Fibers

  • Classification of textile fibers

  • Essential requirements of fiber forming polymers

  • Gross and fine structure of natural fibers like cotton, wool, silk, Introduction to important bast fibres

  • Properties and uses of natural and man- made fibres including carbon, aramid and ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fibers

  • Physical and chemical methods of fiber and blend identification and blend analysis

  • Molecular architecture, amorphous and crystalline phases, glass transition, plasticization, crystallization, melting, factors affecting Tg and Tm

  • Production process of viscose and other regenerated cellulosic fibres such as polynosic, lyocell

  • Polymerization of nylon-6, nylon-66, poly (ethylene terephthalate), polyacrylonitrile and polypropylene

  • Melt Spinning processes for PET, polyamide and polypropylene

  • Wet and dry spinning processes for viscose and acrylic fibres

  • Post spinning operations such as drawing, heat setting, tow- to-top conversion and different texturing methods

  • Methods of investigating fibre structure e.g., Density, X-ray diffraction, birefringence, optical and electron microscopy, I.R. spectroscopy, thermal methods (DSC, DMA/TMA, TGA)

  • Structure and morphology of man-made fibres, mechanical properties of fibres, moisture sorption in fibres

  • Fibre structure and property correlation

Section C: Yarn manufacture, Yarn structure and Properties

  • Principles of opening, cleaning and mixing/blending of fibrous materials, working principle of modern opening and cleaning equipment

  • The technology of carding, carding of cotton and synthetic fibres

  • Drafting operation, roller and apron drafting principle, causes of mass irregularity introduced by drafting

  • Roller arrangements in drafting systems

  • Principles of cotton combing, combing cycle, mechanism and function, combing efficiency, lap preparation

  • Recent developments in comber

  • Roving production, mechanism of bobbin building, roving twist

  • Principle of ring spinning, forces acting on yarn and traveler, ring & traveler designs, mechanism of cop formation, causes of end breakages

  • Working principle of ring doubler and two for one twister, single and folded yarn twist, properties of double yarns, production of core spun yarn

  • Principles of compact, rotor, air jet, air vortex, core, wrap, twist less and friction spinning

  • Yarn contraction, yarn diameter, specific volume & packing coefficient

  • Twist factor, twist strength relationship in spun yarns

  • Fibre configuration and orientation in yarn

  • Cause of fibre migration and its estimation

  • Irregularity index

  • Structure property relationship of compact ring, rotor, air-jet and friction spun yarns

Section D: Fabric manufacture, Structure and Properties

  • Principles of winding processes and machines, random, precision and step precision winding, package faults and their remedies

  • Yarn clearers and tensioners

  • Different systems of yarn splicing

  • Features of modern cone winding machines

  • Different types of warping creels

  • features of modern beam and sectional warping machines

  • Different sizing systems, sizing of spun and filament yarns, sizing machines

  • Principles of Pirn Winding processes and machines

  • Primary and secondary motions of loom, cam design & kinematics of sley, effect of their settings and timings on fabric formation, fabric appearance and weaving performance; Dobby and jacquard shedding

  • Mechanics of weft insertion with shuttle, warp and weft stop motions, warp protection, weft replenishment

  • Principles of weft insertion systems of shuttle-less weaving machines

  • Principles of multiphase and circular looms

  • Principles of weft and warp knitting, basic weft and warp knitted structures

  • Classification, production, properties and application of nonwoven fabrics, principle of web formation & bonding

  • Basic woven fabric constructions and their derivatives

  • crepe, cord, terry, gauze, leno and double cloth constructions

  • Peirce’s equations for fabric geometry

  • Elastica model of plain woven fabrics

  • Thickness, cover and maximum set of woven fabrics

Section E: Textile Testing

  • Sampling techniques, sample size and sampling errors

  • Measurement of fibre length, fineness, crimp

  • measurement of cotton fiber maturity and trash content

  • High volume fibre testing

  • Measurement of yarn count, twist and hairiness

  • Tensile testing of fibers, yarns and fabrics

  • Evenness testing of slivers, rovings and yarns

  • Classimat fault analysis

  • Testing equipment for measurement of fabric properties like thickness, compressibility, air permeability, wetting & wicking, drape, crease recovery, tear strength, bursting strength and abrasion resistance

  • Instruments and systems for objective evaluation of fabric hand

  • Statistical analysis of experimental results, frequency distributions, correlation, significance tests, analysis of variance and control charts

Section F: Chemical Processing

  • Impurities in natural fibre

  • Chemistry and practice of preparatory processes for cotton, wool and silk

  • Mercerization of cotton

  • Preparatory processes for manmade fibres and their blends

  • Classification of dyes

  • Dyeing of cotton, wool, silk, polyester, nylon and acrylic with appropriate dye classes

  • Dyeing of polyester/cotton and polyester/wool blends

  • Dyeing machines

  • Dyeing of cotton knitted fabrics and machines used

  • Dye fibre interaction

  • Introduction to thermodynamics and kinetics of dyeing

  • Methods for determination of wash, light and rubbing fastness

  • Styles of printing

  • Printing thickeners including synthetic thickeners

  • Printing auxiliaries

  • Printing of cotton with reactive dyes, wool, silk, nylon with acid and metal complex dyes, Printing of polyester with disperse dyes

  • Pigment printing

  • Resist and discharge printing of cotton, silk and polyester

  • Transfer printing of polyester

  • Inkjet printing

  • Mechanical finishing of cotton

  • Stiff, soft, wrinkle resistant, water repellent, flame retardant and enzyme (biopolishing) finishing of cotton

  • Milling, decatizing and shrink resistant finishing of wool; Antistatic and soil release finishing

  • Heat setting of synthetic fabrics

  • Minimum application techniques

  • Pollution control and treatment of effluents

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