# GATE Textile Engineering and Fibre Science Syllabus

## Subject Code: TF

### Course Structure

Sections/Units Topics
Section A Engineering Mathematics
Unit 1 Linear Algebra
Unit 2 Calculus
Unit 3 Vector Calculus
Unit 4 Differential Equations
Unit 5 Probability and Statistics
Unit 6 Numerical Methods
Section B Textile Fibers
Section C Yarn manufacture, Yarn structure and Properties
Section D Fabric manufacture, Structure and Properties
Section E Textile Testing
Section F Chemical processing

### Course Syllabus

Section A: Engineering Mathematics

Unit 1: Linear Algebra

• Matrices and Determinants
• Systems of linear equations
• Eigen values
• Eigen vectors

Unit 2: Calculus

• Limit, continuity and differentiability
• Partial Derivatives
• Maxima and minima
• Sequences and series
• Test for convergence
• Fourier series

Unit 3: Vector Calculus

• Divergence and Curl
• Line
• Surface and volume integrals
• Stokes, Gauss and Green’s theorems

Unit 4: Differential Equations

• Linear and non-linear first order ODEs
• Higher order linear ODEs with constant coefficients
• Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations
• Laplace transforms
• PDEs –Laplace, heat and wave equations

Unit 5: Probability and Statistics

• Mean, median, mode and standard deviation

• Random variables

• Poisson, normal and binomial distributions; Correlation and regression analysis

Unit 6: Numerical Methods

• Solutions of linear and non-linear algebraic equations
• Integration of trapezoidal and Simpson’s rule
• Single and multi-step methods for differential equations

Section B: Textile Fibers

• Classification of textile fibers

• Essential requirements of fiber forming polymers

• Gross and fine structure of natural fibers like cotton, wool, silk, Introduction to important bast fibres

• Properties and uses of natural and man- made fibres including carbon, aramid and ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fibers

• Physical and chemical methods of fiber and blend identification and blend analysis

• Molecular architecture, amorphous and crystalline phases, glass transition, plasticization, crystallization, melting, factors affecting Tg and Tm

• Production process of viscose and other regenerated cellulosic fibres such as polynosic, lyocell

• Polymerization of nylon-6, nylon-66, poly (ethylene terephthalate), polyacrylonitrile and polypropylene

• Melt Spinning processes for PET, polyamide and polypropylene

• Wet and dry spinning processes for viscose and acrylic fibres

• Post spinning operations such as drawing, heat setting, tow- to-top conversion and different texturing methods

• Methods of investigating fibre structure e.g., Density, X-ray diffraction, birefringence, optical and electron microscopy, I.R. spectroscopy, thermal methods (DSC, DMA/TMA, TGA)

• Structure and morphology of man-made fibres, mechanical properties of fibres, moisture sorption in fibres

• Fibre structure and property correlation

Section C: Yarn manufacture, Yarn structure and Properties

• Principles of opening, cleaning and mixing/blending of fibrous materials, working principle of modern opening and cleaning equipment

• The technology of carding, carding of cotton and synthetic fibres

• Drafting operation, roller and apron drafting principle, causes of mass irregularity introduced by drafting

• Roller arrangements in drafting systems

• Principles of cotton combing, combing cycle, mechanism and function, combing efficiency, lap preparation

• Recent developments in comber

• Roving production, mechanism of bobbin building, roving twist

• Principle of ring spinning, forces acting on yarn and traveler, ring & traveler designs, mechanism of cop formation, causes of end breakages

• Working principle of ring doubler and two for one twister, single and folded yarn twist, properties of double yarns, production of core spun yarn

• Principles of compact, rotor, air jet, air vortex, core, wrap, twist less and friction spinning

• Yarn contraction, yarn diameter, specific volume & packing coefficient

• Twist factor, twist strength relationship in spun yarns

• Fibre configuration and orientation in yarn

• Cause of fibre migration and its estimation

• Irregularity index

• Structure property relationship of compact ring, rotor, air-jet and friction spun yarns

Section D: Fabric manufacture, Structure and Properties

• Principles of winding processes and machines, random, precision and step precision winding, package faults and their remedies

• Yarn clearers and tensioners

• Different systems of yarn splicing

• Features of modern cone winding machines

• Different types of warping creels

• features of modern beam and sectional warping machines

• Different sizing systems, sizing of spun and filament yarns, sizing machines

• Principles of Pirn Winding processes and machines

• Primary and secondary motions of loom, cam design & kinematics of sley, effect of their settings and timings on fabric formation, fabric appearance and weaving performance; Dobby and jacquard shedding

• Mechanics of weft insertion with shuttle, warp and weft stop motions, warp protection, weft replenishment

• Principles of weft insertion systems of shuttle-less weaving machines

• Principles of multiphase and circular looms

• Principles of weft and warp knitting, basic weft and warp knitted structures

• Classification, production, properties and application of nonwoven fabrics, principle of web formation & bonding

• Basic woven fabric constructions and their derivatives

• crepe, cord, terry, gauze, leno and double cloth constructions

• Peirce’s equations for fabric geometry

• Elastica model of plain woven fabrics

• Thickness, cover and maximum set of woven fabrics

Section E: Textile Testing

• Sampling techniques, sample size and sampling errors

• Measurement of fibre length, fineness, crimp

• measurement of cotton fiber maturity and trash content

• High volume fibre testing

• Measurement of yarn count, twist and hairiness

• Tensile testing of fibers, yarns and fabrics

• Evenness testing of slivers, rovings and yarns

• Classimat fault analysis

• Testing equipment for measurement of fabric properties like thickness, compressibility, air permeability, wetting & wicking, drape, crease recovery, tear strength, bursting strength and abrasion resistance

• Instruments and systems for objective evaluation of fabric hand

• Statistical analysis of experimental results, frequency distributions, correlation, significance tests, analysis of variance and control charts

Section F: Chemical Processing

• Impurities in natural fibre

• Chemistry and practice of preparatory processes for cotton, wool and silk

• Mercerization of cotton

• Preparatory processes for manmade fibres and their blends

• Classification of dyes

• Dyeing of cotton, wool, silk, polyester, nylon and acrylic with appropriate dye classes

• Dyeing of polyester/cotton and polyester/wool blends

• Dyeing machines

• Dyeing of cotton knitted fabrics and machines used

• Dye fibre interaction

• Introduction to thermodynamics and kinetics of dyeing

• Methods for determination of wash, light and rubbing fastness

• Styles of printing

• Printing thickeners including synthetic thickeners

• Printing auxiliaries

• Printing of cotton with reactive dyes, wool, silk, nylon with acid and metal complex dyes, Printing of polyester with disperse dyes

• Pigment printing

• Resist and discharge printing of cotton, silk and polyester

• Transfer printing of polyester

• Inkjet printing

• Mechanical finishing of cotton

• Stiff, soft, wrinkle resistant, water repellent, flame retardant and enzyme (biopolishing) finishing of cotton

• Milling, decatizing and shrink resistant finishing of wool; Antistatic and soil release finishing

• Heat setting of synthetic fabrics

• Minimum application techniques

• Pollution control and treatment of effluents