GATE Agricultural Engineering Syllabus


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Subject Code: AG

Course Structure

Sections/Units Topics
Section A Engineering Mathematics
1 Linear Algebra
2 Calculus
3 Vector Calculus
4 Differential Equations
5 Probability and Statistics
6 Numerical Methods
Section B Farm Machinery
1 Machine Design
2 Farm Machinery
Section C Farm Power
1 Sources of Power
2 Farm Power
3 Tractors and Powertillers
Section D Soil and Water Conservation Engineering
1 Fluid Mechanics
2 Soil Mechanics
3 Hydrology
4 Surveying and Leveling
5 Soil and Water Erosion
6 Watershed Management
Section E Irrigation and Drainage Engineering
1 Soil-Water-Plant Relationship
2 Irrigation Water Conveyance and Application Methods
3 Agricultural Drainage
4 Groundwater Hydrology
5 Wells and Pumps
Section F Agricultural Processing Engineering
1 Drying
2 Size Reduction and Conveying
3 Processing and By-product Utilization
4 Storage System
Section G Dairy and Food Engineering
1 Heat and Mass Transfer
2 Preservation of Food

Course Syllabus

Section A: Engineering Mathematics

Unit 1: Linear Algebra

  • Matrices and determinants
  • Systems of linear equations
  • Eigen values and Eigen vectors

Unit 2: Calculus

  • Limit, continuity and differentiability
  • Partial derivatives
  • Maxima and minima
  • Sequences and series
  • Tests for convergence
    • Fourier series
    • Taylor series

Unit 3: Vector Calculus

  • Gradient; divergence and curl
  • Line, surface and volume integrals
  • Stokes, Gauss and Green’s theorems

Unit 4: Differential Equations

  • Linear and non-linear first order Ordinary Differential Equations (ODE)
  • Higher order linear ODEs with constant coefficients
  • Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations
  • Laplace transforms
  • Partial Differential Equations - Laplace, heat and wave equations

Unit 5: Probability and Statistics

  • Mean, median, mode and standard deviation
  • Random Variables
  • Poisson, normal and binomial distributions
  • Correlation and regression analysis
  • Tests of significance
  • Analysis of variance (ANOVA)

Unit 6: Numerical Methods

  • Solutions of linear and non-linear algebraic equations
  • Numerical integration - trapezoidal and Simpson’s rule
  • Numerical solutions of ODE

Section B: Farm Machinery

Unit 1: Machine Design

  • Design and selection of machine elements −
    • Gears
    • Pulleys
    • Chains and sprockets
    • Belts
  • Overload safety devices used in farm machinery
  • Measurement of force, torque, speed, displacement and acceleration on machine elements

Unit 2: Farm Machinery

  • Soil tillage
    • forces acting on a tillage tool
  • Hitch systems and hitching of tillage implements
  • Functional requirements −
    • Principles of working
    • Construction and operation of manual
    • Animal and power operated equipment for tillage
    • Sowing
    • Planting
    • Fertilizer application
    • Inter-cultivation
    • Spraying
    • Mowing
    • Chaff cutting
    • Harvesting
    • Threshing
    • Transport
  • Testing of agricultural machinery and equipment
  • Calculation of performance parameters −
    • Field capacity
    • Efficiency
    • Application rate and losses
  • Cost analysis of implements and tractors

Section C: Farm Power

Unit 1: Sources of Power

  • Sources of power on the farm −
    • Human
    • Animal
    • Mechanical
    • Electrical
    • Wind
    • Solar
    • Biomass
  • Bio-fuels

Unit 2: Farm Power

  • Thermodynamic principles of I.C. Engines
  • I.C. Engine cycles
  • Engine components
  • Fuels and combustion
  • Lubricants and their properties
  • I.C. Engine systems −
    • Fuel
    • Cooling
    • Lubrication
    • Ignition
    • Electrical
    • Intake
    • Exhaust
  • Selection, operation, maintenance and repair of I.C. Engines
  • Power efficiencies and measurement
  • Calculation of power, torque, fuel consumption, heat load and power losses

Unit 3: Tractors and Powertillers

  • Type, selection, maintenance and repair of tractors and powertillers

  • Tractor clutches and brakes

  • Power transmission systems – gear trains, differential, final drives and power take-off

  • Mechanics of tractor chassis

  • Traction theory

  • Three point hitches- free link and restrained link operations

  • Mechanical steering and hydraulic control systems used in tractors

  • Tractor tests and performance

  • Human engineering and safety in design of tractor and agricultural implements

Section D: Soil and Water Conservation Engineering

Unit 1: Fluid Mechanics

  • Ideal and real fluids −

    • properties of fluids

  • Hydrostatic pressure and its measurement

  • Hydrostatic forces on plane and curved surface

  • Continuity equation

  • Bernoulli’s theorem

  • Laminar and turbulent flow in pipes, darcy- weisbach and hazen-williams equations, moody’s diagram

  • Flow through orifices and notches

  • Flow in open channels

Unit 2: Soil Mechanics

  • Engineering properties of soils
  • Fundamental definitions and relationships
  • Index properties of soils
  • Permeability and seepage analysis
  • Shear strength, mohr’s circle of stress, active and passive earth pressures
  • Stability of slopes

Unit 3: Hydrology

  • Hydrological cycle and components

  • Meteorological parameters, their measurement and analysis of precipitation data

  • Runoff estimation

  • Hydrograph analysis −

    • Unit hydrograph theory and application

  • Stream flow measurement

  • Flood routing −

    • Hydrological reservoir

    • Channel routing

Unit 4: Surveying and Leveling

  • Measurement of distance and area
  • Instruments for surveying and leveling
  • Chain surveying, methods of traversing
  • Measurement of angles and bearings
  • Plane table surveying
  • Types of leveling
  • theodolite traversing
  • Contouring
  • Computation of areas and volume

Unit 5: Soil and Water Erosion

  • Mechanics of soil erosion −
    • Soil erosion types
    • Wind and water erosion
    • Factors affecting erosion
    • Soil loss estimation
  • Biological and engineering measures to control erosion −
    • Terraces and bunds
    • Vegetative waterways
    • Gully control structures, drop, drop inlet and chute spillways
    • Earthen dams

Unit 6: Watershed Management

  • Watershed characterization
  • Land use capability classification
  • Rainwater harvesting structures
  • Check dams and farm ponds

Section E: Irrigation and Drainage Engineering

Unit 1: Soil-Water-Plant Relationship

  • Water requirement of crops
  • Consumptive use and evapotranspiration
  • Measurement of infiltration −
    • Soil moisture
    • Irrigation water infiltration

Unit 2: Irrigation Water Conveyance and Application Methods

  • Design of irrigation channels and underground pipelines irrigation scheduling
  • Surface, sprinkler and micro irrigation methods
  • Design and evaluation of irrigation methods
  • Irrigation efficiencies

Unit 3: Agricultural Drainage

  • Drainage coefficient −
    • Planning
    • Design and layout of surface
    • Sub-surface drainage systems
  • Leaching requirement and salinity control
  • Irrigation and drainage water quality and reuse

Unit 4: Groundwater Hydrology

  • Groundwater occurrence

  • Darcy’s Law, steady flow in confined and unconfined aquifers, evaluation of aquifer properties

  • Groundwater recharge

Unit 5: Wells and Pumps

  • Types of wells, steady flow through wells
  • Classification of pumps
  • Pump characteristics
  • Pump selection and installation

Section F: Agricultural Processing Engineering

Unit 1: Drying

  • Psychrometry – properties of air-vapors mixture

  • Concentration and drying of liquid foods – evaporators, tray, drum and spray dryers

  • Hydrothermal treatment

  • Drying and milling of cereals, pulses and oilseeds

Unit 2: Size Reduction and Conveying

  • Mechanics and energy requirement in size reduction of granular solids
  • Particle size analysis for comminuted solids
  • Size separation by screening
  • Fluidization of granular solids-pneumatic, bucket, screw and belt conveying
  • Cleaning and grading
  • Effectiveness of grain cleaners
  • Centrifugal separation of solids, liquids and gases

Unit 3: Processing and By-product Utilization

  • Processing of −
    • Seeds
    • Spices
    • Fruits
    • Vegetables
  • By-product utilization from processing industries

Unit 4: Storage Systems

  • Controlled and modified atmosphere storage
  • Perishable food storage, godowns, bins and grain silos

Section G: Dairy and Food Engineering

Unit 1: Heat and Mass Transfer

  • Steady state heat transfer in conduction, convection and radiation
  • Transient heat transfer in simple geometry
  • Working principles of heat exchangers
  • Diffusive and convective mass transfer
  • Simultaneous heat and mass transfer in agricultural processing operations
  • Material and energy balances in food processing systems
  • Water activity, sorption and desorption isotherms

Unit 2: Preservation of Food

  • Kinetics of microbial death – pasteurization and sterilization of milk and other liquid foods

  • preservation of food by cooling and freezing

  • Refrigeration and cold storage basics and applications

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