# GATE Agricultural Engineering Syllabus

## Subject Code: AG

### Course Structure

Sections/Units Topics
Section A Engineering Mathematics
1 Linear Algebra
2 Calculus
3 Vector Calculus
4 Differential Equations
5 Probability and Statistics
6 Numerical Methods
Section B Farm Machinery
1 Machine Design
2 Farm Machinery
Section C Farm Power
1 Sources of Power
2 Farm Power
3 Tractors and Powertillers
Section D Soil and Water Conservation Engineering
1 Fluid Mechanics
2 Soil Mechanics
3 Hydrology
4 Surveying and Leveling
5 Soil and Water Erosion
6 Watershed Management
Section E Irrigation and Drainage Engineering
1 Soil-Water-Plant Relationship
2 Irrigation Water Conveyance and Application Methods
3 Agricultural Drainage
4 Groundwater Hydrology
5 Wells and Pumps
Section F Agricultural Processing Engineering
1 Drying
2 Size Reduction and Conveying
3 Processing and By-product Utilization
4 Storage System
Section G Dairy and Food Engineering
1 Heat and Mass Transfer
2 Preservation of Food

### Course Syllabus

Section A: Engineering Mathematics

Unit 1: Linear Algebra

• Matrices and determinants
• Systems of linear equations
• Eigen values and Eigen vectors

Unit 2: Calculus

• Limit, continuity and differentiability
• Partial derivatives
• Maxima and minima
• Sequences and series
• Tests for convergence
• Fourier series
• Taylor series

Unit 3: Vector Calculus

• Line, surface and volume integrals
• Stokes, Gauss and Green’s theorems

Unit 4: Differential Equations

• Linear and non-linear first order Ordinary Differential Equations (ODE)
• Higher order linear ODEs with constant coefficients
• Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations
• Laplace transforms
• Partial Differential Equations - Laplace, heat and wave equations

Unit 5: Probability and Statistics

• Mean, median, mode and standard deviation
• Random Variables
• Poisson, normal and binomial distributions
• Correlation and regression analysis
• Tests of significance
• Analysis of variance (ANOVA)

Unit 6: Numerical Methods

• Solutions of linear and non-linear algebraic equations
• Numerical integration - trapezoidal and Simpson’s rule
• Numerical solutions of ODE

Section B: Farm Machinery

Unit 1: Machine Design

• Design and selection of machine elements −
• Gears
• Pulleys
• Chains and sprockets
• Belts
• Overload safety devices used in farm machinery
• Measurement of force, torque, speed, displacement and acceleration on machine elements

Unit 2: Farm Machinery

• Soil tillage
• forces acting on a tillage tool
• Hitch systems and hitching of tillage implements
• Functional requirements −
• Principles of working
• Construction and operation of manual
• Animal and power operated equipment for tillage
• Sowing
• Planting
• Fertilizer application
• Inter-cultivation
• Spraying
• Mowing
• Chaff cutting
• Harvesting
• Threshing
• Transport
• Testing of agricultural machinery and equipment
• Calculation of performance parameters −
• Field capacity
• Efficiency
• Application rate and losses
• Cost analysis of implements and tractors

Section C: Farm Power

Unit 1: Sources of Power

• Sources of power on the farm −
• Human
• Animal
• Mechanical
• Electrical
• Wind
• Solar
• Biomass
• Bio-fuels

Unit 2: Farm Power

• Thermodynamic principles of I.C. Engines
• I.C. Engine cycles
• Engine components
• Fuels and combustion
• Lubricants and their properties
• I.C. Engine systems −
• Fuel
• Cooling
• Lubrication
• Ignition
• Electrical
• Intake
• Exhaust
• Selection, operation, maintenance and repair of I.C. Engines
• Power efficiencies and measurement
• Calculation of power, torque, fuel consumption, heat load and power losses

Unit 3: Tractors and Powertillers

• Type, selection, maintenance and repair of tractors and powertillers

• Tractor clutches and brakes

• Power transmission systems – gear trains, differential, final drives and power take-off

• Mechanics of tractor chassis

• Traction theory

• Mechanical steering and hydraulic control systems used in tractors

• Tractor tests and performance

• Human engineering and safety in design of tractor and agricultural implements

Section D: Soil and Water Conservation Engineering

Unit 1: Fluid Mechanics

• Ideal and real fluids −

• properties of fluids

• Hydrostatic pressure and its measurement

• Hydrostatic forces on plane and curved surface

• Continuity equation

• Bernoulli’s theorem

• Laminar and turbulent flow in pipes, darcy- weisbach and hazen-williams equations, moody’s diagram

• Flow through orifices and notches

• Flow in open channels

Unit 2: Soil Mechanics

• Engineering properties of soils
• Fundamental definitions and relationships
• Index properties of soils
• Permeability and seepage analysis
• Shear strength, mohr’s circle of stress, active and passive earth pressures
• Stability of slopes

Unit 3: Hydrology

• Hydrological cycle and components

• Meteorological parameters, their measurement and analysis of precipitation data

• Runoff estimation

• Hydrograph analysis −

• Unit hydrograph theory and application

• Stream flow measurement

• Flood routing −

• Hydrological reservoir

• Channel routing

Unit 4: Surveying and Leveling

• Measurement of distance and area
• Instruments for surveying and leveling
• Chain surveying, methods of traversing
• Measurement of angles and bearings
• Plane table surveying
• Types of leveling
• theodolite traversing
• Contouring
• Computation of areas and volume

Unit 5: Soil and Water Erosion

• Mechanics of soil erosion −
• Soil erosion types
• Wind and water erosion
• Factors affecting erosion
• Soil loss estimation
• Biological and engineering measures to control erosion −
• Terraces and bunds
• Vegetative waterways
• Gully control structures, drop, drop inlet and chute spillways
• Earthen dams

Unit 6: Watershed Management

• Watershed characterization
• Land use capability classification
• Rainwater harvesting structures
• Check dams and farm ponds

Section E: Irrigation and Drainage Engineering

Unit 1: Soil-Water-Plant Relationship

• Water requirement of crops
• Consumptive use and evapotranspiration
• Measurement of infiltration −
• Soil moisture
• Irrigation water infiltration

Unit 2: Irrigation Water Conveyance and Application Methods

• Design of irrigation channels and underground pipelines irrigation scheduling
• Surface, sprinkler and micro irrigation methods
• Design and evaluation of irrigation methods
• Irrigation efficiencies

Unit 3: Agricultural Drainage

• Drainage coefficient −
• Planning
• Design and layout of surface
• Sub-surface drainage systems
• Leaching requirement and salinity control
• Irrigation and drainage water quality and reuse

Unit 4: Groundwater Hydrology

• Groundwater occurrence

• Darcy’s Law, steady flow in confined and unconfined aquifers, evaluation of aquifer properties

• Groundwater recharge

Unit 5: Wells and Pumps

• Types of wells, steady flow through wells
• Classification of pumps
• Pump characteristics
• Pump selection and installation

Section F: Agricultural Processing Engineering

Unit 1: Drying

• Psychrometry – properties of air-vapors mixture

• Concentration and drying of liquid foods – evaporators, tray, drum and spray dryers

• Hydrothermal treatment

• Drying and milling of cereals, pulses and oilseeds

Unit 2: Size Reduction and Conveying

• Mechanics and energy requirement in size reduction of granular solids
• Particle size analysis for comminuted solids
• Size separation by screening
• Fluidization of granular solids-pneumatic, bucket, screw and belt conveying
• Effectiveness of grain cleaners
• Centrifugal separation of solids, liquids and gases

Unit 3: Processing and By-product Utilization

• Processing of −
• Seeds
• Spices
• Fruits
• Vegetables
• By-product utilization from processing industries

Unit 4: Storage Systems

• Controlled and modified atmosphere storage
• Perishable food storage, godowns, bins and grain silos

Section G: Dairy and Food Engineering

Unit 1: Heat and Mass Transfer

• Transient heat transfer in simple geometry
• Working principles of heat exchangers
• Diffusive and convective mass transfer
• Simultaneous heat and mass transfer in agricultural processing operations
• Material and energy balances in food processing systems
• Water activity, sorption and desorption isotherms

Unit 2: Preservation of Food

• Kinetics of microbial death – pasteurization and sterilization of milk and other liquid foods

• preservation of food by cooling and freezing

• Refrigeration and cold storage basics and applications