GATE Section-XE-G Food Technology Syllabus


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Course Syllabus

Unit 1: Food Chemistry and Nutrition

  • Carbohydrates −

    • Structure and functional properties of mono-, oligo-, & polysaccharides including starch, cellulose, pectic substances and dietary fibre, gelatinization and retrogradation of starch

  • Proteins −

    • Classification and structure of proteins in food

    • Biochemical changes in post mortem and tenderization of muscles

  • Lipids −

    • Classification and structure of lipids

    • Rancidity

    • Polymerization

    • Polymorphism

  • Pigments −

    • Carotenoids

    • Chlorophylls

    • Anthocyanins

    • Tannins

    • Myoglobin

  • Food flavours −

    • Terpenes

    • Esters

    • Aldehydes

    • Ketones

    • Quinines

  • Enzymes −

    • Specificity

    • Simple and inhibition kinetics

    • Coenzymes

    • Enzymatic

    • Nonenzymatic browning

  • Nutrition −

    • Balanced diet

    • Essential amino acids and essential fatty acids

    • Protein efficiency ratio

    • Water soluble and fat soluble vitamins

    • Role of minerals in nutrition

    • Co-factors

    • Anti-nutrients

    • Nutraceuticals

    • Nutrient deficiency diseases

  • Chemical and biochemical c hanges −

    • Changes occur in foods during different processing

Unit 2: Food Microbiology

  • Characteristics of microorganisms −

    • Morphology of bacteria, Yeast, Mold and actinomycetes

    • Spores and vegetative cells

    • Gram-staining

  • Microbial growthn −

    • Growth and death kinetics

    • Serial dilution technique

  • Food spoilage −

    • Spoilage microorganisms in different food products including milk, fish, meat, egg, cereals and their products

  • Toxins from microbes −

    • Pathogens and non-pathogens including Staphylococcus, Salmonella, Shigella, Escherichia, Bacillus, Clostridium, and Aspergillus genera

  • Fermented foods and beverages −

    • Curd

    • Yoghurt

    • Cheese

    • Pickles

    • Soya-sauce

    • Sauerkraut

    • Idli

    • Dosa

    • Vinegar

    • Alcoholic beverages

    • Sausage

Unit 3: Food Products Technology

  • Processing principles − thermal processing, chilling, freezing, dehydration, addition of preservatives and food additives, irradiation, fermentation, hurdle technology, intermediate moisture foods

  • Food pack aging and storage − packaging materials, aseptic packaging, controlled and modified atmosphere storage

  • Cereal processing and products −

    • Milling of rice, wheat, and maize

    • Parboiling of paddy, bread, biscuits, extruded products and ready to eat breakfast cereals

  • Oil processing −

    • Expelling

    • Solvent extraction

    • Refining

    • Hydrogenation

  • Fruits and vegetables processing −

    • Extraction

    • Clarification

    • Concentration and packaging of −

      • Fruit juice

      • Jam

      • Jelly

      • Marmalade

      • Squash

      • Candies

      • Tomat

      • sauce

      • Ketchup

      • Puree

      • Potat

      • chips

      • Pickles

  • Plantation crops processing and products −

    • Tea

    • Coffee

    • Cocoa

    • Spice

    • Extraction of essential oils and oleoresins from spices

  • Milk and milk products processing −

    • Pasteurization and sterilization

    • Cream

    • Butter

    • Ghee

    • Ice-cream

    • Cheese

    • Milk powder

    • Processing of animal products −

      • Drying

      • Canning

      • Freezing of fish and meat

      • Production of egg powder

  • Waste utilization −

    • Pectin from fruit wastes

    • Uses of by-products from rice milling

  • Food standards and quality maintenance −

    • FPO

    • PFA

    • Agmark

    • ISI

    • HACCP

    • Food plant sanitation

    • Cleaning in place (CIP)

Unit 4: Food Engineering

  • Mass and Energy Balance; Momentum Transfer −

    • Flow rate and pressure drop relationships for Newtonian fluids flowing through pipe

    • Reynolds number

  • Heat Transfer −

    • Heat transfer by conduction

    • Convection

    • Radiation

    • Heat exchangers

  • Mass Transfer −

    • Molecular diffusion and ick’s law

    • Conduction and convective mass transfer

    • Permeability through single and multilayer films

  • Mechanical Operations −

    • Size reduction of solids

    • High pressure homogenization

    • Filtration

    • Centrifugation

    • Settling

    • Sieving

    • Mixing & agitation of liquid

  • Thermal Operations −

    • Thermal sterilization

    • Evaporation of liquid foods

    • Hot air drying of solids

    • Spray and freeze-drying

    • Freezing and crystallization

  • Mass Transfer Operations −

    • Psychrometry

    • Humidification

    • Dehumidification operations

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