# GATE Biotechnology Syllabus

## Subject Code: BT

### Course Structure

Sections/Units Topics
Section A Engineering Mathematics
Section B General Biotechnology
Unit 1 Biochemistry
Unit 2 Microbiology
Unit 3 Cell Biology
Unit 4 Molecular Biology and Genetics
Unit 5 Analytical Techniques
Unit 6 Immunology
Unit 7 Bioinformatics
Section C Recombinant DNA Technology
Section D Plant and Animal Biotechnology
Section E Bioprocess Engineering and Process Biotechnology

### Course Syllabus

Section A: Engineering Mathematics

• Linear Algebra −
• Matrices and determinants
• Systems of linear equations
• Eigen values and Eigen vectors
• Calculus −
• Limit, continuity and differentiability
• Partial derivatives
• Maxima and minima
• Sequences and series
• Test for convergence
• Fourier Series
• Differential Equations −
• Linear and nonlinear first order ODEs
• Higher order ODEs with constant coefficients
• Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations
• Laplace transforms
• PDE-Laplace
• Heat and wave equations
• Probability and Statistics −
• Mean, median, mode and standard deviation
• Random variables
• Poisson
• Normal and binomial distributions
• Correlation and regression analysis
• Numerical Methods −
• Solution of linear and nonlinear algebraic equations
• Integration of trapezoidal and Simpson’s rule
• Single and multistep methods for differential equations

Section B: General Biotechnology

Unit 1: Biochemistry

• Biomolecules-structure and functions −
• Biological membranes
• Structure
• Action potential
• Transport processes
• Enzymes −
• Classification
• Kinetics and mechanism of action
• Basic concepts and designs of metabolism −
• Carbohydrates
• Lipids
• Amino acids
• Nucleic acids
• Photosynthesis
• Respiration
• Electron transport chain
• Bioenergetics

Unit 2: Microbiology

• Viruses- structure and classification
• Microbial classification and diversity (bacterial, algal and fungal)
• Methods in microbiology
• Microbial growth and nutrition
• Aerobic and anaerobic respiration
• Nitrogen fixation
• Microbial diseases and host-pathogen interaction

Unit 3: Cell Biology

• Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell structure
• Cell cycle and cell growth control
• Cell-Cell communication
• Cell signaling and signal transduction

Unit 4: Molecular Biology and Genetics

• Molecular structure of genes and chromosomes

• Mutations and mutagenesis

• Nucleic acid replication, transcription, translation and their regulatory mechanisms in prokaryotes and eukaryotes

• Mendelian inheritance

• Gene interaction

• Complementation

• Linkage, recombination and chromosome mapping

• Extra chromosomal inheritance

• Microbial genetics (plasmids, transformation, transduction, conjugation)

• Horizontal gene transfers and Transposable elements

• RNA interference

• DNA damage and repair

• Chromosomal variation

• Molecular basis of genetic diseases

Unit 5: Analytical Techniques

• Principles of microscopy-light, electron, fluorescent and confocal
• Centrifugation- high speed and ultra
• Principles of spectroscopy −
• UV
• Visible
• CD
• IR
• FTIR
• Raman
• MS
• NMR
• Principles of chromatography −
• Ion exchange
• Gel filtration
• Hydrophobic interaction
• Affinity
• GC
• HPLC
• FPLC
• Electrophoresis
• Microarray

Unit 6: Immunology

• History of Immunology
• Innate, humoral and cell mediated immunity
• Antigen
• Antibody structure and function
• Molecular basis of antibody diversity
• Synthesis of antibody and secretion
• Antigen-antibody reaction
• Complement
• Primary and secondary lymphoid organ
• B and T cells and macrophages
• Major histocompatibility complex (MHC)
• Antigen processing and presentation
• Polyclonal and monoclonal antibody
• Regulation of immune response
• Immune tolerance
• Hypersensitivity
• Autoimmunity
• Graft versus host reaction

Unit 7: Bioinformatics

• Major bioinformatics resources and search tools

• Sequence and structure databases

• Sequence analysis −

• Biomolecular sequence file formats

• Scoring matrices

• Sequence alignment

• Phylogeny

• Data mining and analytical tools for genomic and proteomic studies

• Molecular dynamics and simulations (basic concepts including force fields, protein-protein, protein-nucleic acid, protein-ligand interaction)

Section C: Recombinant DNA Technology

• Restriction and modification enzymes

• Vectors; plasmid, bacteriophage and other viral vectors, cosmids, Ti plasmid, yeast artificial chromosome

• Mammalian and plant expression vectors

• cDNA and genomic DNA library

• Gene isolation, cloning and expression

• Transposons and gene targeting

• DNA labeling

• DNA sequencing

• Polymerase chain reactions

• DNA fingerprinting

• Southern and northern blotting

• In-situ hybridization

• RAPD, RFLP

• Site-directed mutagenesis

• Gene transfer technologies

• Gene therapy

Section D: Plant and Animal Biotechnology

• Totipotency
• Regeneration of plants
• Plant growth regulators and elicitors
• Tissue culture and Cell suspension culture system −
• Methodology
• Kinetics of growth
• Nutrient optimization
• Production of secondary metabolites by plant suspension cultures
• Hairy root culture
• Transgenic plants
• Plant products of industrial importance

Animal cell culture

• Media composition and growth conditions
• Animal cell and tissue preservation
• Anchorage and non-anchorage dependent cell culture
• Kinetics of cell growth
• Micro & macro-carrier culture
• Hybridoma technology
• Stem cell technology
• Animal cloning
• Transgenic animals

Section E: Bioprocess Engineering and Process Biotechnology

• Chemical engineering principles applied to biological system −
• Principle of reactor design
• Ideal and non-ideal multiphase bioreactors
• Mass and heat transfer
• Rheology of fermentation fluids, Aeration and agitation
• Media formulation and optimization
• Kinetics of microbial growth, substrate utilization and product formation
• Sterilization of air and media
• Batch, fed-batch and continuous processes
• Various types of microbial and enzyme reactors
• Instrumentation control and optimization
• Unit operations in solid-liquid separation and liquid-liquid extraction
• Process scale-up, economics and feasibility analysis

Engineering principle of bioprocessing

• Upstream production and downstream

• Bioprocess design and development from lab to industrial scale

• Microbial, animal and plant cell culture platforms

• Production of biomass and primary/secondary metabolites

• Biofuels, Bioplastics, industrial enzymes, antibiotics

• Large scale production and purification of recombinant proteins

• Industrial application of chromatographic and membrane based bio-separation methods

• Immobilization of biocatalysts (enzymes and cells) for bioconversion processes

• Bioremediation-Aerobic and anaerobic processes for stabilization of solid/liquid wastes