GATE XL-U Food Technology Syllabus


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Course Syllabus

Unit 1: Food Chemistry and Nutrition

  • Carbohydrates −

    • Structure and functional properties of mono-, oligo-, & polysaccharides including starch, cellulose, pectic substances and dietary fibre

    • Gelatinization and retrogradation of starch

  • Proteins −

    • Classification and structure of proteins in food

    • Biochemical changes in post mortem and tenderization of muscles

  • Lipids −

    • Classification and structure of lipids, rancidity, polymerization and polymorphism

  • Pigments −

    • Carotenoids

    • Chlorophylls

    • Anthocyanins

    • Tannins

    • Myoglobin

  • Food flavours −

    • Terpenes

    • Esters

    • Aldehydes

    • Ketones

    • Quinines

  • Enzymes −

    • Specificity

    • Simple and inhibition kinetics

    • Coenzymes

    • Enzymatic and nonenzymatic browning

  • Nutrition −

    • Balanced diet

    • Essential amino acids and essential fatty acids

    • Protein efficiency ratio

    • Water soluble and fat soluble vitamins

    • Role of minerals in nutrition

    • Co-factors

    • Anti-nutrients

    • Nutraceuticals

    • Nutrient deficiency diseases

  • Chemical and biochemical changes −

    • changes occur in foods during different processing

Unit 2: Food Microbiology

  • Characteristics of microorganisms −

    • Morphology of bacteria, yeast, mold and actinomycetes

    • Spores and vegetative cells

    • Gram-staining

  • Microbial growth −

    • Growth and death kinetics

    • Serial dilution technique

  • Food spoilage −

    • Spoilage microorganisms in different food products including milk, fish, meat, egg, cereals and their products

  • Toxins from microbes −

    • Pathogens and non-pathogens including Staphylococcus, Salmonella, Shigella, Escherichia, Bacillus, Clostridium, and Aspergillus genera

  • Fermented foods and beverages −

    • Curd, yoghurt, cheese, pickles, soya-sauce, sauerkraut, idli, dosa, vinegar, alcoholic beverages and sausage

Unit 3: Food Products Technology

  • Processing principles − thermal processing, chilling, freezing, dehydration, addition of preservatives and food additives, irradiation, fermentation, hurdle technology, intermediate moisture foods

  • Food pack aging and storage − packaging materials, aseptic packaging, controlled and modified atmosphere storage

  • Cereal processing and products − milling of rice, wheat, and maize, parboiling of paddy, bread, biscuits, extruded products and ready to eat breakfast cereals

  • Oil processing − expelling, solvent extraction, refining and hydrogenation

  • Fruits and vegetables processing − extraction, clarification, concentration and packaging of fruit juice, jam, jelly, marmalade, squash, candies, tomato sauce, ketchup, and puree, potato chips, pickles

  • Plantation crops processing and products − tea, coffee, cocoa, spice, extraction of essential oils and oleoresins from spices

  • Milk and milk products processing − pasteurization and sterilization, cream, butter, ghee, ice-cream, cheese and milk powder

  • Processing of animal products − drying, canning, and freezing of fish and meat; production of egg powder

  • Waste utilization − pectin from fruit wastes, uses of by-products from rice milling.

  • Food standards and quality maintenance − FPO, PFA, Agmark, ISI, HACCP, food plant sanitation and cleaning in place (CIP)

Unit 4: Food Engineering

  • Mass and energy balance; Momentum transfer − Flow rate and pressure drop relationships for Newtonian fluids flowing through pipe, Reynolds number

  • Heat transfer − heat transfer by conduction, convection, radiation, heat exchangers

  • Mass transfer − molecular diffusion and Fick’s law, conduction and convective mass transfer, permeability through single and multilayer films

  • Mechanical operations − size reduction of solids, high pressure homogenization, filtration, centrifugation, settling, sieving, mixing & agitation of liquid

  • Thermal operations − thermal sterilization, evaporation of liquid foods, hot air drying of solids, spray and freeze-drying, freezing and crystallization

  • Mass transfer operations − psychrometry, humidification and dehumidification operations.

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