GATE XL-P Chemistry Syllabus


Course Syllabus

Unit 1: Atomic Structure and Periodicity

  • Planck’s quantum theory
  • Wave particle duality
  • Uncertainty principle
  • Quantum mechanical model of hydrogen atom
  • Electronic configuration of atoms and ions
  • Periodic table and periodic properties −
    • Ionization energy
    • Electron affinity
    • Electronegativity
    • Atomic size

Unit 2: Structure and Bonding

  • Ionic and covalent bonding
  • MO and VB approaches for diatomic molecules
  • VSEPR theory and shape of molecules
  • Hybridization
  • Resonance
  • Dipole moment
  • Structure parameters such as bond length
  • Bond angle and bond energy
  • Hydrogen bonding and van der Waals interactions
  • Ionic solids
  • Ionic radii and lattice energy (Born-Haber cycle)
  • HSAB principle

Unit 3: s, p and d Block Elements

  • Oxides
  • Halides and hydrides of alkali
  • Alkaline earth metals
  • B, Al, Si, N, P, and S
  • General characteristics of 3d elements
  • Coordination complexes −
    • Valence bond and crystal field theory
    • Color, geometry
    • Magnetic properties
    • Isomerism

Unit 4: Chemical Equilibria

  • Colligative properties of solutions, ionic equilibria in solution, solubility product, common ion effect, hydrolysis of salts, pH, buffer and their applications

  • Equilibrium constants (Kc, Kp and Kx) for homogeneous reactions

Unit 5: Electrochemistry

  • Conductance
  • Kohlrausch law
  • Cell potentials
  • EMF
  • Nernst equation
  • Galvanic cells
  • Thermodynamic aspects and their applications

Unit 6: Reaction Kinetics

  • Rate constant
  • order of reaction
  • molecularity
  • activation energy
  • Zero, first and second order kinetics
  • catalysis and elementary enzyme reactions

Unit 7: Thermodynamics

  • First law of Thermodynamics −
    • Reversible and irreversible processes
    • Internal energy
    • Enthalpy
    • Kirchhoff equation
    • Heat of reaction
    • Hess’s law
    • Heat of formation
  • Second law −
    • Entropy
    • Free energy and work function
  • Gibbs-Helmholtz equation
  • Clausius-Clapeyron equation
  • Free energy change
  • Equilibrium constant and Trouton’s rule
  • Third law of thermodynamics

Unit 8: Structure-Reactivity Correlations and Organic Reaction Mechanisms

  • Acids and bases, electronic and steric effects, optical and geometrical isomerism, tautomerism, conformers and concept of aromaticity

  • Elementary treatment of SN1, SN2, E1 and E2 reactions, Hoffmann and Saytzeff rules, addition reactions, Markownikoff rule and Kharash effect

  • Aromatic electrophilic substitutions, orientation effect as exemplified by various functional groups

  • Diels-Alder, Wittig and hydroboration reactions

  • Identification of functional groups by chemical tests

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