GATE Section-XE-E Thermodynamics Syllabus


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Course Syllabus

Unit 1: Basic Concepts

  • Continuum and macroscopic approach

  • Thermodynamic systems (closed and open)

  • Thermodynamic properties and equilibrium

  • State of a system, state postulate for simple compressible substances, state diagrams, paths and processes on state diagrams

  • Concepts of heat and work, different modes of work

  • Zeroth law of thermodynamics

  • Concept of temperature

Unit 2: First Law of Thermodynamics

  • Concept of energy and various forms of energy

  • Internal energy, enthalpy

  • Specific heats

  • First law applied to elementary processes, closed systems and control volumes, steady and unsteady flow analysis

Unit 3: Second Law of Thermodynamics

  • Limitations of the first law of thermodynamics −
    • Concepts of heat engines and heat pumps/refrigerators
    • Kelvin-Planck and Clausius statements and their equivalence
  • Reversible and irreversible processes
  • Carnot cycle and Carnot principles/theorems
  • Thermodynamic temperature scale
  • Clausius inequality and concept of entropy
  • Microscopic interpretation of entropy −
    • The principle of increase of entropy
    • T-s diagrams
  • Second law analysis of control volume
  • Availability and irreversibility
  • Third law of thermodynamics

Unit 4: Properties of Pure Substances

  • Thermodynamic properties of pure substances in solid, liquid and vapor phases

  • P-vT behaviour of simple compressible substances, phase rule, thermodynamic property tables and charts, ideal and real gases, ideal gas equation of state and van der Waals equation of state

  • Law of corresponding states, compressibility factor and generalized compressibility chart

Unit 5: Thermodynamic Relations

  • T-ds relations
  • Helmholtz and Gibbs functions
  • Gibbs relations
  • Maxwell relations
  • Joule-Thomson coefficient
  • Coefficient of volume expansion
  • Adiabatic and isothermal compressibilities
  • Clapeyron and Clapeyron-Clausius equations

Unit 6: Thermodynamic Cycles

  • Carnot vapor cycle
  • Ideal Rankine cycle
  • Rankine reheat cycle
  • Air-standard Otto cycle
  • Air-standard Diesel cycle
  • Air-standard Brayton cycle
  • Vapor-compression refrigeration cycle

Unit 7: Ideal Gas Mixtures

  • Dalton’s and Amagat’s laws, properties of ideal gas mixtures, air-water vapor mixtures and simple thermodynamic processes involving them

  • Specific and relative humidities, dew point and wet bulb temperature, adiabatic saturation temperature, psychrometric chart

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