# GATE Section-XE-E Thermodynamics Syllabus

## Course Syllabus

### Unit 1: Basic Concepts

• Continuum and macroscopic approach

• Thermodynamic systems (closed and open)

• Thermodynamic properties and equilibrium

• State of a system, state postulate for simple compressible substances, state diagrams, paths and processes on state diagrams

• Concepts of heat and work, different modes of work

• Zeroth law of thermodynamics

• Concept of temperature

### Unit 2: First Law of Thermodynamics

• Concept of energy and various forms of energy

• Internal energy, enthalpy

• Specific heats

• First law applied to elementary processes, closed systems and control volumes, steady and unsteady flow analysis

### Unit 3: Second Law of Thermodynamics

• Limitations of the first law of thermodynamics −
• Concepts of heat engines and heat pumps/refrigerators
• Kelvin-Planck and Clausius statements and their equivalence
• Reversible and irreversible processes
• Carnot cycle and Carnot principles/theorems
• Thermodynamic temperature scale
• Clausius inequality and concept of entropy
• Microscopic interpretation of entropy −
• The principle of increase of entropy
• T-s diagrams
• Second law analysis of control volume
• Availability and irreversibility
• Third law of thermodynamics

### Unit 4: Properties of Pure Substances

• Thermodynamic properties of pure substances in solid, liquid and vapor phases

• P-vT behaviour of simple compressible substances, phase rule, thermodynamic property tables and charts, ideal and real gases, ideal gas equation of state and van der Waals equation of state

• Law of corresponding states, compressibility factor and generalized compressibility chart

### Unit 5: Thermodynamic Relations

• T-ds relations
• Helmholtz and Gibbs functions
• Gibbs relations
• Maxwell relations
• Joule-Thomson coefficient
• Coefficient of volume expansion
• Adiabatic and isothermal compressibilities
• Clapeyron and Clapeyron-Clausius equations

### Unit 6: Thermodynamic Cycles

• Carnot vapor cycle
• Ideal Rankine cycle
• Rankine reheat cycle
• Air-standard Otto cycle
• Air-standard Diesel cycle
• Air-standard Brayton cycle
• Vapor-compression refrigeration cycle

### Unit 7: Ideal Gas Mixtures

• Dalton’s and Amagat’s laws, properties of ideal gas mixtures, air-water vapor mixtures and simple thermodynamic processes involving them

• Specific and relative humidities, dew point and wet bulb temperature, adiabatic saturation temperature, psychrometric chart