The most widely used classification of climate is the climate classification scheme propounded by V. Koeppen.
Koeppen identified a close relationship between the distribution of vegetation and climate.
Therefore, he selected certain values of temperature and precipitation and related them with the distribution of vegetation and used the values for classifying the world climates.
Likewise, Koeppen’s world climate classification is based on mean annual and mean monthly temperature and precipitation data.
Koeppen used symbolic (alphabetic) letters (i.e. use of capital and small letters) to designate climatic groups and types.
Koeppen broadly categorized five major climatic groups; four of them are based on temperature and one on precipitation.
The following table describes the division of Koeppen’s climate −
|A||Tropic||Average temperature of the coldest month is 18° C or higher.|
|B||Dry Climates||Potential evaporation exceeds precipitation.|
|C||Warm Temperate||The average temperature of the coldest month of the (Mid-latitude) climates years is higher than minus 3°C but below 18°C.|
|D||Cold Snow Forest Climates||The average temperature of the coldest month is minus 3° C or below.|
|E||Cold Climates||Average temperature for all months is below 10° C.|
|H||High Land||Cold due to elevation.|
The following table describes Koeppen’s World Climate Classification in details −
|A-Tropical Humid Climate||Tropical wet||Af||No dry season|
|Tropical monsoon||Am||Monsoonal, short dry season|
|Tropical wet & dry||Aw||Winter dry season|
|B-Dry Climate||Subtropical steppe||BSh||Low-latitude semi-arid or dry|
|Subtropical desert||BWh||Low-latitude arid or dry|
|Mid-latitude steppe||BSk||Mid-latitude semi-arid or dry|
|Mid-latitude desert||BWk||Mid-latitude arid or dry|
|C-Warm temperate (Midlatitude) Climates||Humid subtropical||Cfa||No dry season, warm summer|
|Mediterranean||Cs||Dry hot summer|
|Marine west coast||Cfb||No dry season, warm and cool summer|
|D-Cold SnowForest Climates||Humid continental||Df||No dry season, severe winter|
|Subarctic||Dw||Winter dry and very severe|
|E-Cold Climates||Tundra||ET||No true summer|
|Polar ice cap||EF||Perennial ice|
|H-Highland||Highland||H||Highland with snow cover|
The following map shows the world’s climatic regions as classified by Koeppen −