Geography India - Industry


  • On the basis of size, capital investment, and labor force employed, industries are classified as large, medium, small scale, and cottage industries.

Indian Industry
  • On the basis of ownership, industries come under public sector, private sector, joint, and cooperative sector.

  • Industries of strategic and national importance are usually in the public sector.

  • Industries are also classified on the basis of the use of their products such as basic goods industries, capital goods industries, intermediate goods industries, and consumer goods industries.

  • On the basis of raw materials used by the industries − industries are categorized as agriculture-based industries, forest-based industries, mineral-based industries, and industrially processed raw material-based industries.

  • Location of industries is influenced by several factors like access to raw materials, power, market, capital, transport, and labor, etc.

  • Establishment of iron and steel industry in Bhilai (Chhattisgarh) and Rourkela (Odisha) were based on decision to develop backward tribal areas of the country.

Iron and Steel Industry

  • The major raw materials for the iron and steel industries are iron ore, coking coal, limestone, dolomite, manganese, and fire clay.

  • Major iron and steel industries in India are −

    • The Tata Iron and Steel plant (TISCO);

    • The Indian Iron and Steel Company (IISCO);

    • Visvesvaraiya Iron and Steel Works Ltd. (VISL);

    • Rourkela Steel Plant;

    • Bhilai Steel Plant;

    • Durgapur Steel Plant; and

    • Bokaro Steel Plant.

  • Some other major iron and steel industries are −

    • Vizag Steel Plant, in Vishakhapatnam in Andhra Pradesh is the first port based plant which started operating in 1992.

    • The Vijaynagar Steel Plant at Hosapete in Karnataka was developed by using indigenous technology.

    • The Salem Steel Plant in Tamil Nadu was commissioned in 1982.

  • The Rourkela Steel plant was set up in the year 1959 in the Sundargarh district of Odisha in collaboration with Germany.

  • The Bhilai Steel Plant was established in 1959 with Russian collaboration in Durg District of Chhattisgarh.

  • Durgapur Steel Plant was established in 1962 in West Bengal, in collaboration with the government of the United Kingdom

  • Bokaro steel plant was set up in 1964 at Bokaro with Russian collaboration.

Cotton Industry

  • India was famous worldwide for the production of muslin, a very fine variety of cotton cloth, calicos, chintz, and other different varieties of fine cotton cloth.

  • In 1854, the first modern cotton mill was established in Mumbai.

  • At present, the major centers of the cotton textile industry are Ahmedabad, Bhiwandi, Solapur, Kolhapur, Nagpur, Indore, and Ujjain.

  • Tamil Nadu has the largest number of mills; however, most of them produce yarn rather than cloth.

  • Davangere, Hubballi, Ballari, Mysuru, and Bengaluru are important cotton growing regions in Karnataka.

Sugar Industry

  • With more than one-third of the total production, Maharashtra has emerged as a leading sugar producer in the country.

  • Uttar Pradesh is the second largest producer of sugar.

Petrochemical Industry

  • Many items are derived from crude petroleum, which provide raw materials for many new industries; hence, these are collectively known as petrochemical industries.

  • Petrochemical industries are categorized as polymers, synthetic fibers, elastomers, and surfactant intermediate industries.

  • Mumbai is the hub of petrochemical industries.

  • Three organizations, which are working in the petrochemical sector under the administrative control of the Department of Chemicals and Petrochemicals are −

    • The Indian Petrochemical Corporation Limited (IPCL);

    • The Petrofils Cooperative Limited (PCL);

    • The Central Institute of Plastic Engineering and Technology (CIPET).

    • The National Organic Chemicals Industries Limited (NOCIL), established as private sector in 1961.

Information Technology

  • The Information Technology (IT) revolution opened up new possibilities of economic and social transformation.

  • The IT software and services industry account for almost 2% of India‚Äôs GDP.

Industrial Policy

  • The new Industrial Policy was implemented in 1991.

  • The new industrial policy has three main dimensions − liberalization, privatization, and globalization.

  • Within this new industrial policy, measures initiated are − abolition of industrial licensing; free entry to foreign technology; foreign investment policy; access to capital market; open trade; abolition of phased manufacturing program; and liberalized industrial location program.

  • Globalization means integrating the economy of the country with the world economy.

Industrial Regions

  • India has eight major industrial regions namely (as shown on the map given below) −

    • Mumbai-Pune Region,

    • Hugli Region,

    • Bengaluru-Tamil Nadu Region,

    • Gujarat Region,

    • Chhotanagpur Region,

    • Vishakhapatnam-Guntur Region,

    • Gurgaon-Delhi-Meerut Region, and

    • Kollam-Thiruvananthapuram Region.

Major Industrial Regions