Chemistry - Nobel Prize

  • Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff (a scientist of the Netherlands) was the first person who received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1901.

  • Jacobus Henricus received the Nobel award for his work namely ‘the laws of chemical dynamics and osmotic pressure in solutions.’

  • Starting from the 1901 to 2016, total 174 scientists (of chemistry) have been received the Nobel Prize.

  • By the time, four women have been received the Nobel Prize in chemistry.

  • Marie Curie was the first lady who received the Nobel Prize in chemistry.

  • The following table illustrates the name of individuals who received Nobel Prize in chemistry along with their work (for which they received the Prize) −

Name Country (year) Work/Area
Svante August Arrhenius Sweden (1903) Electrolytic theory of dissociation
Sir William Ramsay UK (1904) Discovery of the inert gaseous elements in air
Ernest Rutherford UK/New Zealand (1908) Chemistry of radioactive substances
Maria Skłodowska-Curie Poland/France (1911) Discovery of the elements radium and polonium
Alfred Werner Switzerland (1913) Linkage of atoms in molecules
Theodore William Richards US (1914) Determinations of the atomic weight
Walter Norman Haworth UK (1937) Investigations on carbohydrates and vitamin C
Paul Karrer Switzerland (1937) investigations on carotenoids, flavins and vitamins A and B2
Adolf Friedrich Johann Butenandt Germany (1939) Work on sex hormones
Otto Hahn Germany (1944) Discovery of the fission of heavy nuclei
John Howard Northrop & Wendell Meredith Stanley US (1946) Preparation of enzymes and virus proteins in a pure form
Vincent du Vigneaud US (1955) First synthesis of a polypeptide hormone
Sir Cyril Norman Hinshelwood & Nikolay Nikolaevich Semenov UK & Soviet Union (1956) Mechanism of chemical reactions
Frederick Sanger UK (1958) The structure of proteins (especially insulin)
Willard Frank Libby US (1960) Method to use carbon-14 for age determination
Melvin Calvin US (1961) Carbon dioxide assimilation in plants
Karl Ziegler & Giulio Natta Germany & Italy (1963) Chemistry and technology of high polymers
Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin UK (1964) Determinations by X-ray techniques
Paul J. Flory US (1974) Physical chemistry of macromolecules
Paul Berg US (1980) recombinant-DNA
Aaron Klug UK (1982) Development of crystallographic electron microscopy
Henry Taube US (1983) Mechanisms of electron transfer reactions
Robert Bruce Merrifield US (1984) Methodology for chemical synthesis on a solid matrix
Elias James Corey US (1990) Methodology of organic synthesis
Richard R. Ernst Switzerland (1991) Methodology of high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy
Kary B. Mullis US (1993) Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method
George A. Olah US & Hungary (1994) Carbocation chemistry
Peter Agre US (2003) Discovery of water channels (cell membranes)
Roger D. Kornberg US (2006) Molecular basis of eukaryotic transcription
Gerhard Ertl Germany (2007) Chemical processes on solid surfaces
Venkatraman Ramakrishnan, Thomas A. Steitz, & Ada E. Yonath 2009 Structure and function of the ribosome
Tomas Lindahl, Paul L. Modrich, & Aziz Sancar 2015 DNA repair
Jean-Pierre Sauvage, Fraser Stoddart, & Ben Feringa 2016 Design and synthesis of molecular machines