Chemistry - Metallurgy


  • The branch of science and technology that studies the properties of metals and their production and purification is known as metallurgy.

  • Naturally occurring solid inorganic substance is known as a mineral.

  • Naturally occurring solid material from which valuable mineral or metal can be extracted is known as ore.

  • The following table illustrates the major elements and their ores −

Element Ores Chemical Composition
Aluminum Bauxite Al2O32H2O
Corundum Al2O3
Kryolite Na3AlF6
Dyspore Al2O3.H2O
Copper Copper Pyrite CuFeS2
Malachite 2CuCO3Cu(OH)2
Iron Hematite Fe2O3
Magnetite Fe3O4
Siderite FeCO3
Sodium Sodium Carbonate Na2CO3
Sodium Chloride NaCl
Sodium Nitrate NaNO3
Sodium Sulphate Na2SO4
Potassium Potassium Chloride KCl
Potassium Carbonate K2CO3
Potassium Nitrate KNO3
Magnesium Magnesite MgCO3
Dolomite CaMg(CO3)2
Epsom Salt MgSO4
Calcium Calcium Carbonate CaCO3
Tin Cassiterite SnO2
Lead Galena PbS
Cerussite PbCO3
Anglesite PbSO4
Silver Argentite Ag2S
Tetrahedrite Sb4S3
Zinc Zinc Carbonate (known as calamine) ZnCO3
Zinc Sulphide ZnS
Mercury Cinnabar HgS
Manganese Pyrolusite MnO2
Phosphorous Phosphorite Ca3(PO4)2
Fluorapatite Ca5 (PO4)3F
Chlorapatite 3Ca3(PO4)2.CaCI2
Gold Calaverite AuTe2
Sylvanite (Ag,Au)Te2
Nagy√°gite (Pb5Au(Te, Sb)4S5-8)
Petzite Ag3AuTe2
Antimony Stibnite Sb2S3
Stibiconite (Sb3+ Sb25+ O6(OH))
Cobalt Cobaltite CoAsS
Nickel Pentlandite ((Ni, Fe)S)
Chromium Chromite (FeCr2O4)