Nitrogen is a chemical element of group of 15 of the periodic table; among all the elements of group 15, it is the lightest element.
The symbol of nitrogen is ‘N’ and atomic number is 7.
In 1772, Scottish physician Daniel Rutherford, first discovered and isolated carbon.
However, the name ‘nitrogen’ was first given by Jean-Antoine-Claude Chaptal in 1790.
Nitrogen has two stable isotopes namely 14N and 15N.
Free nitrogen atoms normally easily react with most of the elements and form nitrides.
The molecules of N2 is colorless, odorless, tasteless, and diamagnetic gas at standard conditions.
The melting point of N2 is −2100C and the boiling point is −1960C.
Nitrogen compounds repetitively interchange between the atmosphere and living organisms, making a nitrogen cycle.
Nitrogen is most abundantly found element on the earth, as it constitutes about 78.1% of the entire volume of the earth’s atmosphere.
Nitrogen gas, which is an industrial gas, largely produced by the fractional distillation of liquid air.
Following are the major compounds of Nitrogen −
Ammonium - NH4+
Ammonia - NH3
Nitric acid - HNO3
Nitrite - NO2-
Nitrogen dioxide - NO2
Dinitrogen pentroxide - N2O5
Hydrazine - N2H4
Dinitrogen - N2
Cyanide - CN
Ammonium nitrate - (NH4)(NO3)
Nitrogen trichloride - NCl3
Nitrogen trifluoride - NF3
Nitrogen triiodide - NI3
Pyridine - C5H5N
Nitronium ion - NO2+
Hydrazoic acid - HN3
Ammonium sulfate - (NH4)2SO4
Nitrogen compounds are extensively used in wide range of fields and industries.
Pure nitrogen is used as food additive.
Used in fire suppression systems especially for the information technology equipment.
Also used in manufacturing stainless steel.
Nitrogen is also used to inflate the tires of some of the aircraft and race cars.
Liquid nitrogen is used as a refrigerant.