Chemistry - Maganese


  • Manganese is a chemical element that usually found in combination with the iron.

  • The symbol of manganese is ‘Mn’ and atomic number is ’25.’

  • Manganese is a metal very important for the industrial use.

  • In 1774, Johan Gottlieb Gahn, first time isolated an impure sample of manganese metal in 1774.

Features of Manganese

  • Following are the major features and characteristics of manganese −

    • Similar to iron, manganese is silvery-gray metal.

    • Manganese can be oxidized easily, but very difficult to fuse it, as it is very hard and brittle.

    • In air, manganese gets tarnished slowly (oxidization).

    • Manganese is an element, which is part of the iron group.

Occurrence of Manganese

  • Manganese is the 12th most abundant element of the earth’s crust.

  • Soil usually contains about 7–9000 ppm of manganese with an average of 440 ppm.

  • Seawater has only about 10 ppm manganese; whereas, the atmosphere contains about 0.01 µg/m3.

  • Pyrolusite (MnO2) is the most important ore of manganese.

Compounds of Manganese

  • Following are the major compounds of manganese −

    • Manganese (II) oxide - MnO

    • Manganese (I) oxide - Mn2O3

    • Manganese dioxide - MnO2

    • Manganese chloride - MnCl2

    • Potassium permanganate - KMnO4

    • Manganese (II) sulfate - MnSO4

    • Manganese (II) carbonate - MnCO3

    • Manganese (II) sulfide - MnS

    • Manganese (II) nitrate - Mn(NO3)2

    • Manganese (II) bromide - MnBr2

    • Manganese heptoxide - Mn2O7

    • Dimanganese decacarbonyl - C10O10Mn2

    • Manganese (II) iodide - MnI2

    • Manganese (II) fluoride - MnF2

Uses of Manganese

  • Following are the major uses of manganese −

    • Manganese is one of the most essential constituents of steel production.

    • Manganese phosphating is commonly used for the rust and corrosion prevention on steel.

    • In biology, manganese(II) ions act as cofactors for the large variety of enzymes.

    • Manganese is also important in the oxygen-evolving phenomenon of photosynthetic plants.

    • Manganese dioxide is also used in the manufacture of oxygen and chlorine and in drying black paints.