CBSE 11th Class Geography Syllabus


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Course Structure

Parts/Units Topics Marks
Part A Fundamentals of Physical Geography 30
Unit - 1 Geography as a Discipline
Unit - 2 The Earth
Unit - 3 Landforms
Unit - 4 Climate
Unit - 5 Water (Oceans)
Unit - 6 Life on the Earth
Unit - 7 Map and Diagram 5
Part B India – Physical Environment 30
Unit - 8 Introduction
Unit - 9 Physiography
Unit - 10 Climate, Vegetation, & Soil
Unit - 11 Natural Hazards & Disasters
Unit - 12 Map and Diagram 5
Part C Practical Work 30
Unit - 1 Fundamentals of Maps
Unit - 2 Topographic and Weather Maps
Unit - 3 Practical Record Book and Viva
Total 100

Course Syllabus

Part A: Fundamentals of Physical Geography

Unit-1: Geography as a Discipline

  • Geography as −
    • An integrating discipline
    • A science of spatial attributes
  • Branches of Geography −
    • Physical Geography
    • Human Geography
  • Scope and Career Options

Unit-2: The Earth

  • Origin and evolution of the earth
    • Interior of the earth
  • Wegener's continental drift theory and plate tectonics
  • Earthquakes and volcanoes −
    • Causes
    • Types
    • Effects

Unit-3: Landforms

  • Rocks −
    • Types
    • Characteristics
  • Landforms and their evolution
  • Geomorphic processes −
    • Weathering
    • Mass wasting
    • Erosion
    • Deposition
    • Soil-formation

Unit 4: Climate

  • Atmosphere −

    • Composition and structure

    • Elements of weather and climate

  • Insolation −

    • Angle of incidence and distribution

    • Heat Budget of the earth-heating and cooling of atmosphere (conduction, convection, terrestrial radiation and advection)

  • Temperature −

    • Factors controlling temperature

    • Distribution of temperature - horizontal and vertical

    • Inversion of temperature

  • Pressure-pressure belts −

    • Winds-planetary

    • Seasonal and local

    • Air masses and fronts

    • Tropical and extratropical cyclones

  • Precipitation −

    • Evaporation

    • Condensation-dew

    • Frost

    • Fog

    • Mist

    • Cloud

    • Rainfall - types and world distribution

  • World climates −

    • Classification (Koeppen and Thornthwaite)

    • Global warming

    • Climatic changes

  • Climate and Global Concerns

Unit 5: Hydrosphere

  • Basics of Oceanography
  • Oceans −
    • Distribution of temperature
    • Distribution of salinity
  • Movements of −
    • Ocean water-waves
    • Tides
    • Currents
  • Submarine reliefs
  • Ocean resources and pollution

Unit 6: Biosphere

  • Biosphere −
    • Importance of plants and other organisms
    • Biodiversity and conservation
    • Ecosystem
    • Ecological balance

Unit 7: Map work

  • Identification of features based on 1 to 6 units on the outline/Physical/Political map of the world.

Part - B: India - Physical Environment

Unit - 8: Introduction

  • Location
  • Space relations
  • India's place in the world

Unit - 9: Physiography

  • Structure and Relief
    • Physiographic Divisions
  • Drainage systems
    • Concept of river basins
    • Watershed
    • The Himalayan rivers
    • The Peninsular rivers

Unit - 10: Climate, Vegetation and Soil

  • Weather and climate −
  • Spatial and temporal distribution of −
    • Temperature
    • Pressure
    • Winds
    • Rainfall
  • Indian monsoon −
    • Mechanism
    • Onset and withdrawal
    • Variability of rainfalls - spatial and temporal
    • Use of weather charts
    • Climatic types (Koeppen)
  • Natural vegetation −
    • Types
    • Distribution
    • Wild life
    • Conservation
    • Biosphere reserves
  • Soils −
    • Major types (ICAR's classification) and their distribution
    • Soil degradation
    • Soil conservation

Unit-11: Hazards and Disasters: Causes, Consequences and Management

  • Floods −
    • Cloudbursts
  • Droughts −
    • Types
    • Impact
  • Earthquakes and Tsunami
  • Cyclones −
    • Features
    • Impact
  • Landslides

Unit – 12: Map Work

  • Features based on above units for locating and labelling on the Outline/Political/Physical map of India.

Part - C: Practical Work

Unit-1: Fundamentals of Maps

  • Geo spatial data

  • Concept of Geographical data matrix

    • Point data

    • Line data

    • Area data

  • Maps −

    • Types

    • Scales-types

    • Construction of simple linear scale

    • Measuring distance

    • Finding direction and use of symbols

  • Map projection −

    • Latitude

    • Longitude

    • Time

    • Typology

    • Construction and properties of projection

    • Conical with one standard parallel and Mercator's projection (only two projections)

Unit 2: Topographic and Weather Maps

  • Study of topographic maps (1: 50,000 or 1: 25,000 Survey of India maps) −

  • Contour cross section

  • Identification of landforms −

    • Slopes

    • Hills

    • Valleys

    • Waterfall

    • Cliffs

    • Distribution of settlements

  • Aerial Photographs −

    • Types and geometry - vertical aerial photographs

    • Difference between maps and aerial photographs

    • Photo scale determination

    • Identification of physical and cultural features

  • Satellite imageries −

    • Stages in remote sensing data-acquisition

    • Platform and sensors and data products

    • Photographic and digital

  • Use of weather instruments −

    • Thermometer

    • Wet and dry-bulb thermometer

    • Barometer

    • Wind vane

    • Rain gauge

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