CBSE 11th Class Chemistry Syllabus


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Course Structure

Units Topics Marks
I Basic Concepts of Chemistry 11
II Structure of Atom
III Classification of Elements & Periodicity in Properties 4
IV Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure 21
V States of Matter: Gases and Liquids
VI Thermodynamics
VII Equilibrium
VIII Redox Reactions 16
IX Hydrogen
X s-Block Elements
XI Some p-Block Elements
XII Organic Chemistry: Basic Principles & Techniques 18
XIII Hydrocarbons
XIV Environmental Chemistry
Total 70

Course Syllabus

Unit I: Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry

  • General Introduction −
    • Importance of Chemistry
    • Scope of chemistry
  • Nature of matter
  • Laws of chemical combination
  • Dalton's atomic theory
  • Concept of −
    • Elements
    • Atoms
    • Molecules
  • Atomic and molecular masses −
    • Mole concept
    • Molar mass
    • Percentage composition
    • Empirical and molecular formula
    • Chemical reactions
    • Stoichiometry and calculations based on stoichiometry

Unit II: Structure of Atom

  • Discovery of −
    • Electron
    • Proton
    • Neutron
    • Atomic number
    • Isotopes
    • Isobars
  • Models −
    • Thomson's model and its limitations
    • Rutherford's model and its limitations
    • Bohr's model and its limitations
  • Concept of shells and subshells
  • Dual nature of matter and light
  • de Broglie's relationship
  • Heisenberg uncertainty principle
  • Concept of orbitals
  • Quantum numbers
  • Shapes of s, p and d orbitals
  • Rules for filling electrons in orbitals −
    • Aufbau principle
    • Pauli's exclusion principle
    • Hund's rule
    • Electronic configuration of atoms
    • Stability of half-filled and completely filled orbitals

Unit III: Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties

  • Significance of classification
  • Brief history of the development of periodic table
  • Modern periodic law
  • Present form of periodic table
  • Periodic trends in properties of elements −
    • Atomic radii
    • Ionic radii
    • Inert gas radii
    • Ionization enthalpy
    • Electron gain enthalpy
    • Electronegativity
    • Valency
  • Nomenclature of elements with atomic number greater than 100

Unit IV: Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure

  • Valence electrons

  • Ionic bond

  • Covalent bond

  • Bond parameters

  • Lewis structure

  • Polar character of covalent bond

  • Covalent character of ionic bond

  • Valence bond theory

  • Resonance

  • Geometry of covalent molecules

  • VSEPR theory

  • Concept of hybridization

  • Involving s, p and d orbitals

  • Shapes of some simple molecules

  • Molecular orbital theory of homonuclear diatomic molecules (qualitative idea only)

  • Hydrogen bond

Unit V: States of Matter: Gases and Liquids

  • Three states of matter
  • Intermolecular interactions
  • Types of bonding
  • Melting and boiling points
  • Role of gas laws in elucidating the concept of the molecule
  • Boyle's law
  • Charles law
  • Gay-Lussac's law
  • Avogadro's law
  • Ideal behavior
  • Empirical derivation of gas equation
  • Avogadro's number
  • Ideal gas equation
  • Deviation from ideal behavior
  • Liquefaction of gases
  • Critical temperature
  • Kinetic energy and molecular speeds (elementary idea)
  • Liquid state
  • Vapour pressure
  • Viscosity
  • Surface tension

Unit VI: Chemical Thermodynamics

  • System
    • Concept
    • Types
    • Surroundings
    • Work
    • Heat
    • Energy
    • Extensive
    • Intensive properties
    • State functions
  • First law of thermodynamics
  • Internal energy and enthalpy
  • Heat capacity and specific heat
  • Measurement of δU and δH
  • Hess's law of constant heat summation
  • Enthalpy of bond dissociation
  • Combustion
  • Formation
  • Atomization
  • Sublimation
  • Phase transition
  • Ionization
  • Solution
  • Dilution
  • Second law of Thermodynamics (brief introduction)
  • Introduction of entropy as a state function
  • Gibb's energy change for spontaneous and non-spontaneous processes
  • Criteria for Equilibrium
  • Third law of thermodynamics (brief introduction)

Unit VII: Equilibrium

  • Equilibrium in physical and chemical processes
  • Dynamic nature of equilibrium
  • Law of mass action
  • Equilibrium constant
  • Factors affecting equilibrium
  • Le chatelier's principle
  • Ionic equilibrium-ionization of acids and bases
  • Strong and weak electrolytes
  • Degree of ionization
  • Ionization of poly basic acids
  • Acid strength
  • Concept of pH
  • Henderson equation
  • Hydrolysis of salts (elementary idea)
  • Buffer solution
  • Solubility product
  • Common ion effect (with illustrative examples)

Unit VIII: Redox Reaction

  • Concept of oxidation and reduction
  • Redox reactions
  • Oxidation number
  • Balancing redox reactions
  • In terms of loss and gain of electrons and change in oxidation number
  • Applications of redox reactions

Unit IX: Hydrogen

  • Position of hydrogen in periodic table
  • Occurrence
  • Isotopes
  • Preparation
  • Properties and uses of hydrogen
  • Hydrides-ionic covalent and interstitial
  • Physical and chemical properties of water
  • Heavy water
  • Hydrogen peroxide –preparation, reactions and structure and use
  • Hydrogen as a fuel

Unit X: s -Block Elements (Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metals)

Group 1 & Group 2 Elements

  • General introduction
  • Electronic configuration
  • Occurrence
  • Anomalous properties of the first element of each group
  • Diagonal relationship
  • Trends in the variation of properties - such as −
    • Ionization enthalpy
    • Atomic and ionic radii
  • Trends in chemical reactivity with −
    • Oxygen
    • Water
    • Hydrogen
    • Halogens
  • Preparation and Properties of Some Important Compounds −
    • Sodium Carbonate
    • Sodium Chloride
    • Sodium Hydroxide
    • Sodium Hydrogen carbonate
  • Biological importance of −
    • Sodium
    • Potassium
    • Magnesium
    • Calcium
  • Industrial uses of −
    • Calcium Oxide
    • Calcium Carbonate

Unit XI: Some p -Block Elements

General Introduction to p - Block Elements

  • Group 13 Elements −

    • General introduction

    • Electronic configuration

    • Occurrence

    • Variation of properties

    • Oxidation states

    • Trends in chemical reactivity

    • Anomalous properties of first element of the group

    • Boron - physical and chemical properties

    • Some important compounds Borax, Boric acid, Boron Hydrides, Aluminum

    • Reactions with acids and alkalis

  • Group 14 Elements −

    • General introduction

    • Electronic configuration

    • Occurrence

    • Variation of properties

    • Oxidation states

    • Trends in chemical reactivity

    • Anomalous behaviour of first elements

    • Carbon-catenation

    • Allotropic forms

    • Physical and chemical properties

    • Uses of some important compounds: oxides

    • Important compounds of Silicon and a few uses

    • Uses of Silicon Tetrachloride, Silicones, Silicates and Zeolites

Unit XII: Organic Chemistry

  • Some Basic Principles and Technique
  • General introduction
  • Methods of purification
  • Qualitative and quantitative analysis
  • Classification and IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds
  • Electronic displacements in a covalent bond
  • Inductive effect
  • Electromeric effect
  • Resonance and hyper conjugation
  • Homolytic and heterolytic fission of a covalent bond
  • Free radicals
  • Carbocations
  • Carbanions
  • Electrophiles
  • Nucleophile
  • Types of organic reactions

Unit XIII: Hydrocarbons - Classification

  • Aliphatic Hydrocarbons

  • Alkanes

    • Nomenclature

    • Isomerism

    • Conformation (ethane only)

    • Physical properties

    • Chemical reactions including free radical mechanism of halogenation

    • Combustion

    • Pyrolysis

  • Alkenes

    • Nomenclature

    • Structure of double bond (ethene)

    • Geometrical isomerism

    • Physical properties

    • Methods of preparation

    • Chemical reactions

    • Addition of hydrogen, halogen, water, hydrogen halides (markownikov's addition and peroxide effect)

    • Ozonolysis

    • Oxidation

    • Mechanism of electrophilic addition

  • Alkynes

    • Nomenclature

    • Structure of triple bond (ethyne)

    • Physical properties

    • Methods of preparation

    • Chemical reactions

    • Acidic character of alkynes

    • Addition reaction of - hydrogen, halogens, hydrogen halides and water

  • Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    • Introduction

    • IUPAC nomenclature

    • Benzene

    • Resonance

    • Aromaticity

    • Chemical properties

    • Mechanism of electrophilic substitution

    • Nitration

    • Sulphonation

    • Halogenation

    • Friedel Craft's alkylation and acylation

    • directive influence of functional group in mono-substituted benzene

    • Carcinogenicity and toxicity

Unit XIV: Environmental Chemistry

  • Environmental pollution −
    • Air
    • Water
    • Soil pollution
  • Chemical reactions in atmosphere
  • Smog
  • Major atmospheric pollutants
  • Acid rain
  • Ozone and its reactions
  • Effects of depletion of ozone layer
  • Greenhouse effect and global warming
  • Pollution due to industrial wastes
  • Green chemistry as an alternative tool for reducing pollution
  • Strategies for control of environmental pollution

Practical Syllabus

Course Structure

Units Topics Marks
I Volumetric Analysis 8
II Salt Analysis 8
III Content Based Experiment 6
IV Project Work 4
V Class record and viva 4
Total 30

Practical Syllabus

A. Basic Laboratory Techniques

  • Cutting glass tube and glass rod
  • Bending a glass tube
  • Drawing out a glass jet
  • Boring a cork

B. Characterization and Purification of Chemical Substances

  • Determination of melting point of an organic compound.

  • Determination of boiling point of an organic compound.

  • Crystallization of impure sample of any one of the following: Alum, Copper Sulphate, Benzoic Acid.

C. Experiments based on pH

(a) Any one of the following experiments −

  • Determination of pH of some solutions obtained from fruit juices, solution of known and varied

  • concentrations of acids, bases and salts using pH paper or universal indicator.

  • Comparing the pH of solutions of strong and weak acids of same concentration.

  • Study the pH change in the titration of a strong base using universal indicator.

(b) Study the pH change by common-ion in case of weak acids and weak bases.

D. Chemical Equilibrium

One of the following experiments −

  • Study the shift in equilibrium between ferric ions and thiocyanate ions by increasing/decreasing the concentration of either of the ions.

  • Study the shift in equilibrium between [Co(H2O)6]2+ and chloride ions by changing the concentration of either of the ions.

E. Quantitative Estimation

  • Using a chemical balance

  • Preparation of standard solution of Oxalic acid

  • Determination of strength of a given solution of Sodium Hydroxide by titrating it against standard solution of Oxalic acid

  • Preparation of standard solution of Sodium Carbonate

  • Determination of strength of a given solution of Hydrochloric acid by titrating it against standard Sodium Carbonate solution

F. Qualitative Analysis

  • Determination of one anion and one cation in a given salt

    Cations − Pb2+, Cu2+ As3+A13+, Fe3+, Mn2+, Ni2+, Zn2+, Co2+Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+, Mg2+,

    Anions − C32-, S2-, S32-, NO3-, Cl-, Br, I-, PO3+, C2O42-, CH3 COO-

    (Note − Insoluble salts excluded)

  • Detection of -Nitrogen, Sulphur, Chlorine in organic compounds.

PROJECT WORK

Scientific investigations involving laboratory testing and collecting information from other sources.

A few suggested Projects −

  • Checking the bacterial contamination in drinking water by testing sulphide ion.

  • Study of the methods of purification of water.

  • Testing the hardness, presence of Iron, Fluoride, Chloride, etc., depending upon the regional variation

  • in drinking water and study of causes of presence of these ions above permissible limit (if any).

  • Investigation of the foaming capacity of different washing soaps and the effect of addition of Sodium Carbonate on it.

  • Study the acidity of different samples of tea leaves.

  • Determination of the rate of evaporation of different liquids.

  • Study the effect of acids and bases on the tensile strength of fibers.

  • Study of acidity of fruit and vegetable juices

Note − Any other investigatory project, which involves about 10 periods of work, can be chosen with the approval of the teacher.

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