QTP - Quick Guide


QTP - Introduction

QTP stands for QuickTest Professional, a product of Hewlett Packard (HP). This tool helps testers to perform an automated functional testing seamlessly without monitoring once script development is complete.

HP QTP uses Visual Basic Scripting (VBScript) for automating the applications. The Scripting Engine need not be installed exclusively as it is available part of the Windows OS. The Current version of VBScript is 5.8 which is available as part of Win 7. VBScript is NOT a object oriented language but a object based language.

Testing Tools:

Tools from a software testing context, can be defined as a product that supports one or more test activities right from planning, requirements, creating a build, test execution, defect logging and test analysis.

Classification of Tools

Tools can be classified based on several parameters. It includes,

  • The purpose of the tool

  • The Activities that are supported within the tool

  • The Type/level of testing it supports.

  • The Kind of licensing (open source, freeware, commercial)

  • The technology used

Types of Tools:

S.No#Tool TypeUsed forUsed by
1.Test Management ToolTest Managing, scheduling,defect logging, tracking and analysis.testers
2.Configuration management toolFor Implementation,execution, tracking changesAll Team members
3.Static Analysis ToolsStatic TestingDevelopers
4.Test data Preperation ToolsAnalysis and Design, Test data generationTesters
5.Test Execution ToolsImplementation, ExecutionTesters
6.Test ComparatorsComparing expected and actual resultsAll Team members
7.Coverage measurement toolsProvides structural coverageDevelopers
8.Performance Testing toolsMonitoring the performance,response timeTesters
9.Project planning and Tracking ToolsFor Planning Project Managers
10.Incident Management ToolsFor managing the testsTesters

Where QTP Fits in ?

QTP is a Functional testing tool which is best suited for regression testing of the applications. QTP is a licensed/commercial tool owned by HP which is one of the most popular tools available in the market. It compares the actual and expected result and reports the results in the execution summary

QTP History and Evolution:

HP Quick Test Professional was originally owned by Mercury Interactive and it was acquired by Hp. Its original name was Astra Quick Test and later named as Quick Test Professional but the latest version is known as Unified Functional Tester(UFT).

Version History:

Now let us take a look at the version history of QTP.

Astra Quick Test v1.0 to v5.5 - Mercury InteractiveMay 1998 to Aug 2001
QuickTest Professional v6.5 to v9.0 - Mercury InteractiveSep 2003 to Apr 2006
Hp-QuickTest Professional v9.1 to v11.0 - Acquired and Released by HPFeb 2007 to Sep 2010
Hp-Unified Functional Testing v11.5 to v11.532012 to Nov 2013


  • Developing automated tests using VBScript doesn't require a highly skilled coder and relatively easy when compared other object oriented programming languages.

  • Easy to use, ease of navigation, results validation and Report generation.

  • Readily Integrated with Test Management Tool(Hp-Quality Center) which enables easy scheduling and Monitoring.

  • Can also be used for Mobile Application Testing.

  • Since it is a Hp product, the full support is provided by HP and by its forums for addressing technical issues.


  • Unlike Selenium, QTP works in Windows operating system only.

  • Not all versions of Browsers are supported and the testers need to wait for the patch to be released for each one of the major versions.

  • Having said that it is a commercial tool, the licensing cost is very high.

  • Even though scripting time is less, the execution time is relatively higher as it puts load on CPU & RAM.

Automated Testing Process:

For any automated tool implementation, the following are the phases/stages of it. Each one of the stages corresponds to a particular activity and each phase has a definite outcome.

Automated Testing Process
  • Test Automation Feasibility Analysis - First step is to check if the application can be automated or not. Not all applications can be automated due to its limitations.

  • Appropriate Tool Selection - The Next most important step is the selection of tools. It depends on the technology in which the application is built, its features and usage.

  • Evaluate the suitable framework - Upon selecting the tool the next activity is to select a suitable framework. There are various kinds of frameworks and each framework has its own significance. We will deal with frameworks in detail later this chapter.

  • Build the Proof of Concept - Proof of Concept(POC) is developed with an end to end scenario to evaluate if the tool can support the automation of the application. As it is performed with an end to end scenario which will ensure that the major functionalities can be automated.

  • Develop Automation Framework - After building the POC, framework development is carried out which is the crucial step for the success of any test automation project. Framework should be build after diligent analysis of the technology used by the application and also its key features.

  • Develop Test Script, Execute and Analyze - Once Script development is completed, the scripts are executed, results are analyzed and defects are logged, if any. The Test Scripts are usually version controlled.

QTP Installation:

QTP is a commercial tool and trial version can be downloaded from HP site directly. Only the current version which is Unified functional testing(11.5x) is available for download. Below is the URL from where the trial version can be downloaded.

The Download URL : http://www8.hp.com/us/en/software-solutions/functional-testing.html

Installation Procedure :

Step 1 - Click "Trials and Demos" link and select "Hp Unified Functional Testing 11.50 CC English SW E-Media Evaluation" as shown below:

Download and Install - Step 1

Step 2 - Upon Selecting "Hp Unified Functional Testing 11.50", the download wizard opens. Fill in the Personal details and click next

Download and Install - Step 2

Step 3 - Read the terms of use and click "NEXT".

Download and Install - Step 3

Step 4 - Download window opens. Click on "Download" Button.

Download and Install - Step 4

Step 5 - The downloaded file will be of the format .RAR. Now you need to unzip the archive and the folder contents would be as shown below and execute the Setup.exe.

Download and Install - Step 5

Step 6 - Upon Executing the Setup File, inorder to install, select "Unified Functional Testing Set up" from the list as shown below:

Download and Install - Step 6

Step 7 - Then Click Next to Continue.

Download and Install - Step 7

Step 8 - In the Custom Set up Window, select the plugins that are required for your automation. i.e. You Should select the plugins based on the technology of your application under test. For Example, If your application is based on .NET then you should ensure that you select .NET.

Download and Install - Step 8

Step 9 - Upon Selecting the required plugins for Installation, Click Next and upon completion of the installation you will end up with a Finish button Window.

Download and Install - Step 10

Step 10 - Once you complete your installation, the "Additional Installation Requirements" Dialog box opens. Select everything in the list other than "Run License Installation Wizard" and click "RUN". We Need NOT select "Run License Installation Wizard" because we are installing the trial version which by default gives a license for 30 days.

Download and Install - Step 11

Step 11 - Upon completion of Additional Installation Requirements, a tick mark is shown which inturn states that the components are installed successfully and click close.

Download and Install - Step 12

Launching UFT and Addins Page:

Step 1 - After Installation, application can be launched from the Start Menu as shown in the figure.

Download and Install - Step 13

Step 2 - The License page appears. You can click on continue as we have installed the trial license

Download and Install - Step 14

Step 3 - The Addins Dialog box opens for the user to select the required addins' DONOT load all the addin's but just the required addins and click "Ok" button

Download and Install - Step 14

Step 4 - Upon loading the required addins the UFT 11.5 tool opens for the user and the first glimpse of the UFT looks as shown below:

Download and Install - Step 16

Record and Playback

Recording a test corresponds to recording the user actions of the application under test so that UFT automatically generates the scripts that can be played back. Record and Playback can give us the first impression if the tool can support the technology or NOT if the initial settings are done correctly.

Steps for Record and Playback is as follows:

Step 1: Click on "New" test from the Start Page as shown below:

New Test Selection from Home Page

Step 2: Upon Clicking, "New" Link, the new test window opens and the user need to select the test type. Select "GUI Test", give a name for the test and also the location where it needs to be saved.

Select Type of Test

Step 3. Once a New test is created, the new test screen opens as shown below and click on "Action1" Tab which is created with 1 action by default.

New Test Page

Step 4. Click on "Record" Menu and select "Record and Run Settings" as shown below:

Record and Run Settings

Step 5. The Record and Run Settings Dialog opens and based on the type of application, one can select i.e Web, Java, Windows Applications. For Example, We will record a Web Based Application (http://easycalculation.com/)

Record and Run Settings

Step 6. Click Record Button, the Internet Explorer opens automatically with the webaddress http://easycalculation.com/ as per the settings. Click "Numbers" link under "Algebra" and key in a number and hit "calculate". Upon completion of the action click "Stop" button in the record panel. You will notice that the script is generated as shown below:

Generated Script

Step 7. Now playback the script by clicking on the playback button. The Script replays and result is displayed.

Playback the Script

Step 8. The result window is opened by default which exactly shows the timestamp of execution, pass and failed steps.

 Results Window Analysis

Significance of Record and Playback:

  1. It is used as the preliminary investigation method to verify if UFT can support the technology/application.

  2. Used to create a test a basic functionality of an application or feature that does not require long-term maintenance.

  3. It can be used for recording both mouse movements and keyboard inputs.

Modes of Recording:

  1. Normal Recording : This is the default Recording mode that records the objects and the operations performed on the application under test.

  2. Analog Recording : This records not only the keyboard actions but also the mouse movements relative to the screen or the application window.

  3. Low-Level Recording : This records the exact co-ordinates of the objects independent of the fact whether UFT recognizes the object or NOT. It just records the co-ordinates, hence does NOT record mouse movements.

  4. Insight Recording : UFT records operation based on its appearance and NOT based on its native properties.

How to Choose Recording Modes:

Upon clicking on Recording button, user can choose the recording mode from the recording pane that appears on the screen once recording starts. The selection can be made from any the ones that has been discussed above. Choosing Recording Modes

The Below Scenario is recorded in all the modes and see how the same action has been recorded under various circumstances.

  1. Launch IE - http://easycalculation.com/

  2. Click "Numbers" under "Algebra"

  3. Click "Square Root" link

  4. Enter a value to calculate the square root. Let us say 10

  5. Hit Calculate

Script Recorded under Default, Analog and Low Level Recording Mode.

Browser("Free Online Math Calculator").Page("Free Online Math Calculator").Link("Numbers").Click
Browser("Free Online Math Calculator").Page("Numbers Calculator - Math").Link("Square Root").Click
Browser("Free Online Math Calculator").Page("Square Root Calculator").WebEdit("n").Set "10"
Browser("Free Online Math Calculator").Page("Square Root Calculator").WebButton("calculate").Click

Desktop.RunAnalog "Track1"

Window("Windows Internet Explorer").WinObject("Internet Explorer_Server").Click 235,395
Window("Windows Internet Explorer").WinObject("Internet Explorer_Server").Click 509,391
Window("Windows Internet Explorer").WinObject("Internet Explorer_Server").Click 780,631
Window("Windows Internet Explorer").WinObject("Internet Explorer_Server").Type "10"
Window("Windows Internet Explorer").WinObject("Internet Explorer_Server").Click 757,666

The Recordings using insight recording mode will be as shown below:

Insight Recording Modes

Object Repository:

Object Repository is a collection of object and properties with which QTP will be able to recognize the objects and act on it. When a user records a test, the objects and its properties are captured by default. Without understanding objects and its properties, QTP will NOT be able to play back the scripts.

Click on each one of the below topics to know more about Object Repository and its associated features.

Object Spy and its FeaturesTo Understand the usage of object Spy and its associated functionalities.
Working with Object RepositoryAdding,Editing, Deleting Objects from a Object Repository and its associated functionalities.
Types of Object RepositoryDeals with Shared Object and Local Object Repository and their context with respect to scripting.
User-defined ObjectsDeals with the circumstances to use the User-Defined Objects.
Object Repository in XMLDeals with coverting OR's to XML and how to use the object Repository as XML.
Comparing and Merging OROperations such as Compare OR', Merge OR's to effectively work with Object Repository.
Ordinal IdentifiersCircumstances when the ordinal identifiers are used and their advantages.
Child ObjectsUsing Child Objects for effective scripting


Actions helps testers to divide scripts into groups of QTP statements called actions. Actions are similar to functions in VBScript, however there are few differences. By Default QTP creates a test with 1 action.

Actions are inbuild feature of QTP.VBScript Functions are supported by both VBScript and QTP.
Actions parameters are passed byvalue only.Function parameters are passed either by byvalue or byref.
Actions have extension .mtsFunctions are saved as .vbs or .qfl
Actions may or maynot be reusable.Functions are always reusable.

The properties of the action can be accessed by Right Clicking on the Script Editor Window and Selecting "Properties".

Action Properties

Action properties contains following information

  • Action Name

  • Location

  • Reusable Flag

  • Input Parameters

  • Output Parameters

Types of Actions:

There are three types of actions:
  • Non-reusable action - An action that can be called only in that specific test in which it has been designed and can be called only once

  • Reusable action - An action that can be called multiple times any test in which it resides and can also be used by any other tests

  • External Reusable action - It is a reusable action stored in another test. External actions are read-only in the calling test, but it can be used locally with the editable copy of the Data Table information for the external action

Working with Actions:

There are three options to insert an action. Click on each one of those to know more about the selected type of action.

Action TypeDescription
Insert Call to New ActionInserts a New Action from the existing action
Insert Call to Copy of ActionInserts a copy of an existing action
Insert Call to Existing ActionInserts a call to existing re-usable action


A DataTable, similar to Microsoft Excel helps testers to create data driven test cases that can be used to run an Action multiple times. There are two types of Datatables.

  • Local Data Table - Each action has its own private data table also known as local data table which is can also be accessed across actions.

  • Global Data Table - Each test has one global data sheet that is accessible across actions.

The Data sheet can be accessed from the "Data" Tab of QTP as shown below:

Data Table in QTP

To execute a test case for some specified number of iterations,one can set the iterations of global data table in the Test Settings dialog, that can be accessed using File -> Settings -> Run(Tab) as shown below:

Data Table in QTP


For Instance, if user want to parameterize "compound Interest" of "http://easycalculation.com/" that can be accessed using "http://easycalculation.com/compound-interest.php". The Parameters can be created as shown below. Most of the functionalities of Excel can be used in Data table as well.

Data Table in QTP

Data Table Operations:

There are three types of objects to access Data Table. Data Table Operations can be well understood by traversing through the below link:

Object TypeDescription
Data Table MethodsGives Detailed information about the data table methods.
DTParameter Object MethodsGives Detailed information about the DTParameter methods.
DTSheet Object MethodsGives Detailed information about the DTSheet methods.

What are CheckPoints?

Checkpoints, as the name says it all, it refers to a validation point that compares the current value for specified properties or current state of an object with the expected value which can be inserted at any point of time in the script.


Standard CheckpointVerifies the property values of an object in application under test and supported by all add-in environments.
Bitmap CheckpointVerifies an area of your application as a bitmap
File Content CheckpointVerifies the text in a dynamically generated or accessed file such as .txt,.pdf
Table CheckpointVerifies the information within a table. Not all environments are supported.
Text CheckpointVerify if the text that is displayed within a defined area in a Windows-based application, according to specified criteria.
Text Area CheckpointVerifies if the text string is displayed within a defined area in a Windows-based application, according to specified criteria.
Accessibility CheckpointVerifies the page and reports the areas of the Web site that may not conform to the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) Web Content Accessibility Guidelines
Page CheckpointVerifies the characteristics of a Web page. It can also check for broken links.
Database CheckpointVerifies the contents of a database accessed by the application under test.
XML CheckpointVerifies the content of the .xml documents or .xml documents in Web pages and frames.

Inserting CheckPoint

When the user wants to insert a checkpoint, one has to ensure that most of the checkpoints are supported during the recording sessions only. Once the user stops recording, checkpoints are NOT enabled.

Below is the checkpoint menu, when the user is NOT in the recording mode.

Check Point Menu when Recording NOT in Progress

Below is the checkpoint menu, when the user is in the recording mode.

Check Point Menu when Recording is in Progress


The checkpoints are added for the application under test - "http://easycalculation.com/"

' 1. Inserted Standard Checkpoint
Status = Browser("Math Calculator").Page("Math Calculator").Link("Numbers").Check CheckPoint("Numbers")

If Status Then
   print "Checkpoint Passed"
   Print "Checkpoint Failed"
End if

' 2. Inserted BitMap Checkpoint
imgchkpoint = Browser("Math Calculator").Page("Math Calculator").Image("French").Check CheckPoint("French")

If imgchkpoint Then
   print "Checkpoint Passed"
   Print "Checkpoint Failed"
End if

Viewing Checkpoint Properties

After Inserting, incase a tester want to change the values, we can do so by performing right click on the keyword 'checkpoint' of the script and navigating to "Checkpoint Properties" as shown below:

Check point properties.

You can locate the same checkpoints in object repository as well as shown below. It exactly shows what type of checkpoint and what are the expected values, time out values.

Check point properties.

What is Synchronization?

Synchronization point is the time interface between Tool and Application under test. Synchronization point is a feature to specify delay time between one step and another of the test script.

For Example, clicking on a link may load the page is 1 second, sometimes 5 seconds or even it might take 10 seconds to load it completely. It depends on various factors such as the application server response time, network bandwidth , client system capabilities etc.

If the time is varying then the script will fail unless the tester handles these time differences intelligently.

Ways to Insert Sync Point:

  • WaitProperty

  • Exist

  • Wait

  • Sync(only for web based apps)

  • Inserting QTP Inbuilt Synchronization points.

Let us say we need to insert a sync point beween clicking on "numbers" link and clicking on "simple Interest" calculator of in "http://easycalculation.com/". We will now take a look at all the 5 ways to insert sync point for the above scenario.

Method 1: WaitProperty

WaitProperty is a method that takes the property name, Value and Timeout value as input to perform the sync. It is a dynamic wait and hence this option is encouraged.

' Method 1 - WaitProperty with 25 seconds
Dim obj
Set obj = Browser("Math Calculator").Page("Math Calculator")

obj.Link("Simple Interest").WaitProperty "text", "Simple Interest",25000
obj.Link("Simple Interest").Click

Method 2: Exist

Exist is a method that takes the Timeout value as input to perform the sync. Again it is a dynamic wait and hence this option is encouraged.

' Method 2 : Exist Timeout - 30 Seconds
Dim obj
Set obj = Browser("Math Calculator").Page("Math Calculator")

If obj.Link("Simple Interest").Exist(30) Then
	obj.Link("Simple Interest").Click
	Print "Link NOT Available"
End IF

Method 3: Wait

Wait is a hardcoded sync point which waits independent of the event happened or NOT. Hence usage of Wait is discouraged and can be used for shorter wait time such as 1 or 2 seconds.

' Method 3 : Wait Timeout - 30 Seconds
Dim obj
Set obj = Browser("Math Calculator").Page("Math Calculator")
Browser("Math Calculator").Page("Math Calculator").Link("Simple Interest").Click

Method 4: Sync Method

Sync Method can be used only for web applications where there is always a lag between page loads.

' Method 4 : 
Dim obj
Set obj = Browser("Math Calculator").Page("Math Calculator")

Browser("Math Calculator").Sync
Browser("Math Calculator").Page("Math Calculator").Link("Simple Interest").Click

Method 5 : Inserting QTP Inbuilt Synchronization points:

Step 1 : Get into Recording Mode. This Option Would be Disabled if the user is NOT in Recording Mode.

Step 2 : Goto "Design" -> "Synchronization Point" .

Step 3 : We need to Select the object which we want to be the Sync Point. After Selecting the object, object window opens as shown below:

QTP Sync Point

Step 4 : Click Ok, the "Add Synchronization Window" Opens up. Select the Property, Value and Time out value and click ok as shown below:

QTP Sync Point

Step 5 : The Script would be generated as shown below which is the same as that of the WaitProperty(Method 1) that we had already discussed:

Browser("Math Calculator").Page("Math Calculator").Link("Numbers").Click
Browser("Math Calculator").Page("Math Calculator").Link("Simple Interest").WaitProperty "text", "Simple Interest", 10000

Default Synchronization:

When user hasn't used any of the above sync methods, still QTP has inbuild Object synchronization timeout which can be adjusted by the user.

Navigate to "File" >> "Settings" >> Run Tab >> Object Synchronization Time out as shown below.

Default Synchronization Time Out

Smart Identification:

Sometimes, QTP is unable to find any object that matches the recognized object description or it may find more than one object that fits the description, then QTP ignores the recognized description and uses the Smart Identification mechanism to recognize the object.

QTP's Smart Identification uses two types of properties:

  • Base Filter Properties - The basic properties of a particular test object class whose values cannot be changed without changing the essence of the original object.

  • Optional Filter Properties - Other properties also assist in identifying the objects of a particular class whose properties are unlikely to change often but can be ignored if they are no longer applicable.

Enabling Smart identification for an object:

Step 1 : Navigate to "Tools" -> "Object Identification". Object Identification Dialog Opens.

Step 2 : Choose the Environment, Object Class and Turn ON "Enable Smart Identification" as shown below:

Smart Identification Configuration

Step 3 : Click Configure and choosing the base and Optional Filter Properties.

Smart Identification Configuration

Step 3 : Add Properties in Base Properties apart from the Default one and also add/remove Optional Filter Properties. Please Note that Same properties cannot be part of both Mandatory and Assistive Properties and click "OK".

Smart Identification Configuration

Step 4 : Verifying if the Smart Identification is Enabled after Adding object of that type in the Object Repository. Smart Identification is Set to TRUE. We can also make it False in case we dont want to enable Smart Identification.

Smart Identification Configuration

Step 5 : We can even disable a test Level by applying at test script level under "Settings" of "File" Menu as shown below:

Smart Identification Configuration

Step 6 : If the Smart Identification is disabled as per Step# 6 then it wont apply smart identification for any object during script execution.

Step 7 : In case objects are added with Smart Identification as Off, QTP won't use Smart Identification for recognizing in future, even though we have enabled it afterwords.


Debugging, in automation testing context, is a systematic process of spotting and fixing the coding issues in the automation scripts so that the script will be more robust and can spot the defects in the application.

There are various ways to perform debugging using break points in QTP. Break Points can be inserted just by pressing "F9" or by using the Menu option "Run" -> "Inserting/Removing Break Point".

After Inserting the Break point the "Red Coloured" Dot and the line will be highlighted in RED as shown below:

Debugging using Break Point
Step IntoF11Used to execute each and every Step. Steps into the Function/Action and executes line by line. It pauses on each line after execution.
Step OverF10Used to Step over the Function. Step Over runs only the current step in the active document.
Step OutShift+F11After Step Into the function, you can use the Step Out command. Step Out continues the run to the end of the function and then pauses the run session at the next line.

Options in Break Point:

Various Options in Break Point can be accessed by Navigating 'Run' Menu.

F9Insert/Remove BreakPoint
Ctrl+F9Enable/Disable BreakPoint
Ctrl+Shift+F9Clear All BreakPoint
Use Only MenuEnable/Disable All BreakPoints

Debugging Pane:

The Following are the panes in the debugging window:

Debugging using Break Point
  • Output - This Tab displays all the Output of the Print Statements.

  • Watch - This Tab displays the Boolean output of the Given Expression.

  • LocalVariables - This Tab displays the Output of the Local Variables.


The Watch Pane shows the output expression as shown below:

Debugging using Break Point

The Local Variables Pane shows the values held by the local variables as shown below:

Debugging using Break Point

What is Error Handling?

There are various ways on handling errors in QTP. There are three possible kinds of error type one would encounter while working with QTP.

  • Syntax Errors

  • Logical Errors

  • Run Time Errors

Error Types:

Syntax Errors:

Syntax errors are the typos or a piece of the code that does not confirm with the VBscripting language grammar. Syntax errors occur at the time of compilation of code and cannot be executed until the errors are fixed. To verify the syntax one use the keyboard shortcut as Ctrl+F7 and the result is displayed as shown below. If the window is NOT displayed one can navigate to "View" -> "Errors".

Error Handling

Logical Errors:

If the script is syntactically correct but it produces unexpected results. Logical error usually does not interrupt the execution but produces incorrect results. Logical errors could occur due to variety of reasons, viz- wrong assumptions or misunderstanding of the requirement and sometimes incorrect program logics(using do-while instead of do-Until) or Infinite Loops.

One of the ways to detect a logical error is to perform peer reviews and also verifying the QTP output file/result file to ensure the tool has performed what it has intended to do.

RunTime Errors:

As The name states, this kind of Error happens during Run Time. The reason for such kind of errors is that the script trying to perform something but it is unable to do so and the script usually stops as it is unable to continue with the execution. Classic Examples for Run Time Errors are,

  1. File NOT found but the script trying to read the file.

  2. Object NOT found but scripts is trying to act on that particular object.

  3. Dividing a number by Zero.

  4. Array Index out of bounds while accessing array elements.

Handling Run-Time Errors:

There are various ways to handle errors in the code.

1. Using Test Settings - Error handling can be defined the Test Settings by Navigating to "File" >> "Settings" >> "Run" Tab as shown below. We can select any of the specified settings and click "OK".

Error Handling

2. Using On Error Statement - On Error statement is used to notify the VBScript engine of intentions to handle the run-time errors by tester, rather than allowing the VBScript engine to display error messages that are not user friendly.

  • On Error Resume Next - On Error Resume Next informs the VBScript engine to procees executing the next line of code when an error is encountered.

  • On error Goto 0 - This helps the testers to turn off the error handling.

3. Using Err Object - Error object is an inbuilt object within VBScript that captures the run time error number and error description with which we will be able to debug the code easily.

  • Err.Number - The Number property returns or Sets a numeric value specifying an error. If Err.Number value is 0 then No error had occured.

  • Err.Description - The Description property returns or sets a brief description about an error.

  • Err.Clear - The Clear method resets the Err object and clears all the previous values associated with it.


'Call  the function to Add two Numbers
Call Addition(num1,num2)
Function Addition(a,b) 
 On error resume next 
 If NOT IsNumeric(a) or IsNumeric(b) Then
   Print "Error number is  " &  err.number & " and description is : " &  err.description
   Exit Function
 End If
 Addition = a+b
 'disables error handling 
 On Error Goto 0
End function

Using Exit Statement - Exit Statements can be used along with Err object to exit from a test or action or iteration based on the Err.Number value. Let us see each one of those Exit statements in detail.

  • ExitTest - Exits from the entire QTP test no matter what the run-time iteration settings are.

  • ExitAction - Exits the current action.

  • ExitActionIteration - Exits the current iteration of the action.

  • ExitTestIteration - Exits the current iteration of the QTP test and proceeds to the next iteration.

5. Recovery Scenarios - Upon encountering an error, recovery scenarios are triggered based on certain conditions and it is dealt in detail in a seperate chapter.

6. Reporter Object - Reporter Object helps us to report an event to the run results. It helps us to identify if the concerned action/step is pass/fail.

'Syntax: Reporter.ReportEventEventStatus, ReportStepName, Details, [ImageFilePath]

Reporter.ReportEvent micFail, "Login", "User is unable to Login." 

Recovery Scenarios

While executing the QTP scripts, we might get some Unexpected errors. Inorder To recover the test and continue executing the rest of the script from these unexpected errors, Recovery Scenarios are used. The Recovery Scenario Manager can be accessed by Navigating to "Resources" -> Recovery Scenario Manager as shown below:

Recovery Scenario Manager - Access

Steps to create Recovery Scenario:

Step 1 : Upon Clicking "New" Recovery Scenario button, the Recovery Scenario Wizard opens as shown below:

Recovery Scenario Manager - Access

Step 2 : Next Step is to choose the Trigger Event. It corresponds to event which arises It can be any of the below four events.

  • Pop-Up Window

  • Object State

  • Test Run Error

  • Application Crash

Step 3 : Recovery Operations Window Opens. Recovery Operation can any of the following Operation as shown below:

Recovery Scenario Manager - Access

Step 4 : Upon Specifying the appropriate Recovery Operation, we need to specify the Post Recovery Operation as well as shown below:

Recovery Scenario Manager - Access

Step 5 : Upon Specifying the Post Recovery Operation, the recovery scenario should be named and added to the Test so that it will be activated.

Recovery Scenario Manager - Access

Step 6 : The Recovery Scenario creation is complete and needs to be mapped to the current Test by checking the option "Add Scenario to the current Test" and click "Finish"

Recovery Scenario Manager - Access

Step 7 : The Added Recovery Scenario will be as shown below and click on "Close" Button to continue.

Recovery Scenario Manager - Access

Step 8 : Upon Clicking on Close Button, QTP would Pop up user to Save the created Recovery Scenarion. It will be saved with the extension .qrs and the wizard would be closed.

Recovery Scenario Manager - Access


The Created Recovery Scenario should be part of the test now and can be verified by navigating to "File" -> "Settings" -> "Recovery" Tab.

Recovery Scenario Manager - Access

Environment Variables

QTP environment variables are special types of variables that can be accessed by all actions ,function libraries and recovery Scenarios. There are inbuilt environment variables for Windows that are available to all the applications running on that particular system where as QTP environment variables are only available to that test script during run-time.

Types of Environment Variables

Built-in Environment Variables - provides a range of environment parameters that can provide information such as test name, action name, the test path, local host name, the operating system name, type and its version. The Environment Variable names can be accessed by Navigating to "File" -> "Test Settings" -> "Environment" Tab

Build-in Environment Variables

User defined Internal - User Defined Variables can be saved by Selecting "User Defined" in the Environment Tab Window. The "+" button is Clicked to enter Parameter Name and Value as shown below:

User Defined Internal Environment Variables

User Defined External - User Defined Variables can be stored in a external file as an .xml and can be loaded into the test as shown in the below figure or can also be loaded dynamically during run-time as explained below in one of the examples.

User Defined Internal Environment Variables

Environment Variables - Supported Methods:

1. ExternalFileName Property - Returns the name of the loaded external environment variable file specified in the Environment tab of the Test Settings dialog box. If no external environment variable file is loaded, this property returns an empty string

x= Environment.ExternalFileName 
print x
User Defined Internal Environment Variables

2. LoadFromFile Method - Loads the specified environment variable file(.xml) dynamically during run time. When using this method, the environment variables need NOT be added manually into the Environment Tab.

 Environment.LoadFromFile "D:\config.xml"
 b = Environment.Value("Browser")
 print b
User Defined Internal Environment Variables

3. Value Property - Retrieves the value of environment variables. We can also set the value of user-defined internal environment variables using this property.

  ' Get the Value of the InBuilt Environment Variables
  a = Environment.Value("OS")
  print a
  b = Environment.Value("ActionName")
  print b
  'Loaded from External File
  Environment.LoadFromFile "D:\config.xml"
  c = Environment.Value("Browser")
  print c
User Defined Internal Environment Variables

Library Files

Inorder to modularize the script, library Files are added to the QTP Script. It contains variable declaration, Functions, Classes etc. They enable reusability that can be shared across test scripts. They are saved with an extenstion .vbs or .qfl

A New Library File can be Created by Navigating to "File" >> "Function Library"

Associating Function Libraries

Method#1 : By using "File" > "Settings" > Resources > Associate Function Library option. Click on "+" Button to Add Function Library File and add it using actual path or relative path as shown below:

Associating Library File

Method#2 : Using ExecuteFile method.

  'Syntax : ExecuteFile(Filepath)
  ExecuteFile "C:\lib1.vbs" 
  ExecuteFile "C:\lib2.vbs" 

Method#3 : Using LoadFunctionLibrary Method.

  'Syntax : LoadFunctionLibrary(Filepath)
  LoadFunctionLibrary "C:\lib1.vbs" 
  LoadFunctionLibrary "C:\lib2.vbs" 

Method#4 : Automation Object Model(AOM) - It is a mechanism using which we can control various QTP operations outside QTP. Using AOM, we can launch QTP, Open the Test, Associate Function Libraries etc. The Following Vbscript should be saved with Extension .vbs and upon executing the same, QTP will be launched and test would start executing. AOM will be discussed in detail in the later chapters.

 'Launch QTP
 Set objQTP = CreateObject("QuickTest.Application")
 objQTP.Visible = True
 'Open the test
 objQTP.Open "D:\GUITest2", False, False
 Set objLib = objQTP.Test.Settings.Resources.Libraries
 'Associate Function Library if NOT associated already.
 If objLib.Find("C:\lib1.vbs") = -1 Then 
   objLib.Add "C:\lib1.vbs", 1 

Test Results:

The Test Results Window gives us sufficient information to show the steps passed, failed etc. Results window opens automatically after execution of the test(as per default settings).

  • Steps Passed

  • Steps Failed

  • Environment Parameters

  • Graphical Statistics

Test Results

Operations perfomed in Test Results:

Converting Results to HTML

In the Results Viewer window, Navigate to "File" -> "Export to File", Export Run Results dialog box opens as shown below:

Test Results

We can choose what type of report to be exported. It can be short results, Detailed Results or even we can select nodes. Upon Selecting the File Name and exporting it, the file would be saved as .HTML File

Filtering the Results:

Results can be filtered based Status, Node Type, Iterations. It can be accessed by using Filter Button in the "Test Results Window"

Test Results

Raising Defects

Defects can be logged into QC directly from the Test Results Window pane by accessing "Tools" -> "Add Defect" which open's connection to ALM as shown below:

Test Results

Test Results:

The Automatic Test Results Window can be configured under "Tools" -> "Options" -> "Run Sessions" Tab. We can turn if off if required and also we can switch ON "Automatically Export Results when session Ends"

Test Results

Upon Errors, the screenshot or the movie can be recorded based on the settings. The same can be configured under "Tools" -> "Options" -> "Screen Capture" Tab. We can save the screenshot or movies based on 3 conditions.

  • For Errors

  • Always

  • For Errors and Warnings

Test Results

Working with GUI Objects:

There are various GUI objects with which QTP interacts during the script execution. Hence it is important to know the basic methods for the key GUI objects using which we will be able to work on it effectively.

Working with Text Box

Below are the methods using which we access text box during Run Time.

  • Set - Helps the tester to Set Values into the Text Box

  • Click - Clicks on the Text Box

  • SetSecure - Used to set the text in the password boxes securely.

  • WaitProperty - Waits Till the Property value becomes true.

  • Exist - Checks for the existance of the Text Box

  • GetROProperty("text") - Gets the Value of the Text Box

  • GetROProperty("Visible") - Returns a Boolean value if visible.


Browser("Math Calculator").Sync
Set Obj = Browser("Math Calculator").Page("SQR Calc").WebEdit("n")

'Clicks on the Text Box

'Verify if the Object Exist - Returns Boolean value
a= obj.Exist
print a

'Set the value
obj.Set "10000" : wait(2)

'Get the Runtime Object Property - Value of the Text Box
val = obj.GetROProperty("value")
print val

'Get the Run Time Object Property - Visiblility - Returns Boolean Value
x= Obj.GetROProperty("visible")
print x

Working with Check Box

Following are some of the key methods with which one can work with Check Box.

  • Set - Helps the tester to Set the checkbox value "ON" or "OFF"

  • Click - Clicks on the check Box. Even checks ON or OFF but user won't be sure about the status.

  • WaitProperty - Waits Till the Property value becomes true.

  • Exist - Checks for the existance of the Check Box

  • GetROProperty("name") - Gets the Name of the check Box

  • GetROProperty("Visible") - Returns a Boolean value if visible


'To Check the Check Box
Set Obj = Browser("Calculator").Page("Gmail").WebCheckBox("PersistentCookie")
Obj.Set "ON"

'To UnCheck the Check Box
Obj.Set "OFF"

'Verifies the Existance of the Check box and returns Boolean Value
val = Obj.Exist
print val

'Fetches the Name of the CheckBox
a= Obj.GetROProperty("name")
print a

'Verifies the visible property and returns the boolean value.
x = Obj.GetROProperty("visible")
print x

Working with Radio Button

Following are some of the key methods with which one can work with Radio Button.

  • Select(RadioButtonName) - Helps the tester to Set the Radio Box "ON"

  • Click - Clicks on the Radio Button. Even Radio Button ON or OFF but tester can't get the status.

  • WaitProperty - Waits Till the Property value becomes true.

  • Exist - Checks for the existance of the Radio Button

  • GetROProperty("name") - Gets the Name of the Radio Button

  • GetROProperty("Visible") - Returns a Boolean value if visible


'Select the Radio Button by name "YES"
Set Obj = Browser("Calculator").Page("Forms").WebRadioGroup("group1")

'Verifies the Existance of the Radio Button and returns Boolean Value
val = Obj.Exist
print val

'Returns the Outerhtml of the Radio Button
txt = Obj.GetROProperty("outerhtml")
print text

'Returns the boolean value if Radio button is Visible.
vis = Obj.GetROProperty("visible")
print vis

Working with Combo Box

Following are some of the key methods with which one can work with Combo Box.

  • Select(Value) - Helps the tester to Select the value from the ComboBox

  • Click - Clicks on the object.

  • WaitProperty - Waits Till the Property value becomes true.

  • Exist - Checks for the existance of the Combo Box

  • GetROProperty("Text") - Gets the Selected Value of the Combo Box

  • GetROProperty("all items") - Returns all the items in the combo Box

  • GetROProperty("items count") - Returns the number of items in the combo Box


'Get the List of all the Items from the ComboBox
Set ObjList = Browser("Math Calculator").Page("Statistics").WebList("class")
x = ObjList.GetROProperty("all items")
print x

'Get the Number of Items from the Combo Box
y = ObjList.GetROProperty("items count")
print y

'Get the text value of the Selected Item
z = ObjList.GetROProperty("text")
print z

Working with Buttons

Following are some of the key methods with which one can work with Buttons.

  • Click - Clicks on the Button.

  • WaitProperty - Waits Till the Property value becomes true.

  • Exist - Checks for the existance of the Button

  • GetROProperty("Name") - Gets the Name of the Button

  • GetROProperty("Disabled") - Returns a boolean value if enabled/disabled


'To Perform a Click on the Button
Set obj_Button = Browser("Math Calculator").Page("SQR").WebButton("Calc")

'To Perform a Middle Click on the Button

'To check if the button is enabled or disabled.Returns Boolean Value
x = obj_Button.GetROProperty("disabled")
print x

'To fetch the Name of the Button
y = obj_Button.GetROProperty("name")
print y

Working with webTables

In Today's web based application, webtables have become very common and testers need to understand how Web Tables work and how to perform an action on web Tables. This Topic will help you to work with the web Tables Effectively.

Sample Web Table
  • html id - If the table has an id tag then it is best to make use of this property.

  • innerText - Heading of the Table.

  • sourceIndex - Fetches the Source Index of the Table

  • ChildItemCount - Gets the number of ChildItems present in specified Row

  • RowCount - Gets the number of Rows in the Table

  • ColumnCount - Gets the number of Columns in the Table

  • GetcellData - Gets the Value of the Cell based on the column and Row Index


Browser("Tutorials Point").Sync
' WebTable 
Obj = Browser("Tutorials Point").Page("VBScript Decisions").WebTable("Statement")
' Fetch RowCount
x = Obj.RowCount
print x

' Fetch ColumnCount
y = Obj.ColumnCount(1)
print y

' Print the Cell Data of the Table
For i = 1 To x Step 1
	For j = 1 To y Step 1
       z = Obj.GetCellData(i,j)
       print "Row ID : " & i & " Column ID : " & j & " Value : " & z

'Fetch the Child Item count of Type Link in a particular Cell
z = Obj.ChildItemCount(2,1,"Link")
print z

What are Virtual Objects?

Sometimes, application under test may contain standard window object but are NOT recognized by QTP. Under these circumstances objects can be defined as virtual object(VO) of type button, link etc so that user actions can be simulated on the virtual objects during execution.


Let us say we are automating a scenario in Microsoft Word. I activated MS word application and I click on any icon in the ribbon. For example, In the Insert Ribbon, User clicks on "Picture" button. A Button is recognized as WinObject hence importance of vitural objects is pronounced.

Window("Microsoft Word").WinObject("Ribbon").Click 145,45
Window("Microsoft Word").WinObject("Ribbon").WinObject("Picture...").Click 170,104

Creating a Virtual Object

Step 1 : In such scenarios, virtual Objects are created using Virtual Object Manager or New Virtual Object from "Tools" >>

"Virtual Object" >> "New Virtual Object" and click "Next" Button

Virtual Object - Step 1

Step 2 : Map the Object against the Class Type and click "Next".

Virtual Object - Step 2

Step 3 : Click "Mark Object" Button, cross hair cursor would appear and mark the object that you would like to map and click "Next".

Virtual Object - Step 3

Step 4 : Selecting the parent of the Virtual object and click "Next".

Virtual Object - Step 4

Step 5 : Name the collection in which you would like to store the vitual object and click "Finish".

Virtual Object - Step 5

Virtual object Manager

Virtual object Manager manages the collections of Virtual objects. Testers can add or Delete the Virtual Objects from the Vitual object manager.

Navigation to Virtual object Manager : "Tools" >> "Virtual Object Manager" as shown below:

Virtual Object - Step 6

Using Virtual Objects

After creating the Virtual Objects the created object can be used as shown below:

Window("Microsoft Word").WinObject("Ribbon").VirtualButton("button").Click

Virtual Object Limitations

  • QTP doesn't support virtual objects for analog or low-level recording.

  • Checkpoints cannot be added on Virtual Objects.

  • Virtual Object are NOT controlled by Object Repository.

  • Though we map an object to a particular class (button or List), all the methods of the native objects are not supported by Virtual objects.

  • Object Spy cannot be used on Virtual Object.

  • The test execution will fail if the screen resolution changes as the co-ordinates change.

  • Application Window should be of same screen size so that Virtual objects are captured correctly.

Accessing Databases:

As such QTP doesn't provide any built-in support to connect to database, however using VBScript testers will be able to connect and interact with databases using ADODB objects

ADODB has 4 properties or methods with which we will be able to work with the databases.

  • ADODB.Connection - Used to establish a connection to the Database

  • ADODB.Command - Used to execute a SQL command(Queries or Stored Procedures)

  • ADODB.Fields - Used to fetch a particular column from a record set after executing a query/stored proc

  • ADODB.Recordset - Used to fetch data from a database

How to connect to Database?

Databases can be connected using Connection strings. Each database differ the way we connect to the them, however the connection strings can be build with the help of http://www.connectionstrings.com/

Now Let us see how to connect to the database with the following parameters.

  • Database Type - MSSQL SERVER

  • Server Name - SQLEXPRESS

  • Database Name - Trial

  • User Id - sa

  • password - Password123

The Output of the Query is shown in the SQL Server Management Studio as follows:

Accessing Database
 Dim objConnection 
 'Set Adodb Connection Object
 Set objConnection = CreateObject("ADODB.Connection")     
 Dim objRecordSet 
 'Create RecordSet Object
 Set objRecordSet = CreateObject("ADODB.Recordset")     
 Dim DBQuery 'Query to be Executed
 DBQuery = "Select NAME from dbo.EMPLOYEE where AGE = 29"
 'Connecting using SQL OLEDB Driver
 objConnection.Open "Provider=sqloledb.1;Server=.\SQLEXPRESS;User Id=sa;Password=Password123;Database=Trial"
 'Execute the Query
 objRecordSet.Open DBQuery,objConnection
 'Return the Result Set
 Value = objRecordSet.fields.item(0)				
 msgbox Value
 ' Release the Resources
 Set objConnection = Nothing
 Set objRecordSet = Nothing


Upon Executing the above script the output is shown in the message box as shown below:

Accessing Database - 2

What is an XML?

XML is a markup language designed for how to store data that is in the form that both human and machine readable format. Using XML, data can also be easily exchanged between computer and database systems.

Sample XML and their key elements are represented below:

Working with XML

Accessing XML

Const XMLDataFile = "C:\TestData.xml"
Set xmlDoc = CreateObject("Microsoft.XMLDOM")
xmlDoc.Async = False

' Getting the number of Nodes (books)
Set nodes = xmlDoc.SelectNodes("/bookstore/book")
Print "Total books: " & nodes.Length    ' Displays 2

' get all titles
Set nodes = xmlDoc.SelectNodes("/Booklib/book/value/text()")

' get their values
For i = 0 To (nodes.Length - 1)
    Title = nodes(i).NodeValue
    Print "Title is" & (i + 1) & ": " & Title

Comparing XML

We can compare Two given xml's.

Dim xmlDoc1
Dim xmlDoc2

' Load the XML Files
Set xmlDoc1 = XMLUtil.CreateXMLFromFile ("C:\File1.xml")
Set xmlDoc2 = XMLUtil.CreateXMLFromFile ("C:\File2.xml")

'Use the compare method of the XML to check if they are equivalent
Comp = xmlDoc1.Compare (xmlDoc1, xmlDoc2)

'Returns 1 if the two files are the same
If Comp = 1 Then
   Msgbox "XML Files are the Same"
   Msgbox "XML Files are Different"
End if

Descriptive Programming:

QTP scripts can execute only if the objects are present in the Object Repository. If the descriptions of the Objects are created using Descriptive programming when testers want to perform an operation on an object that is not present in the object repository.

  • When objects in the application are very dynamic in nature.

  • When the Object Repository grows big which will result in poor Performance as the size of the Object Repository increases.

  • When the framework is built such that it has been decided not to use Object Repository at all.

  • When testers want to perform an action on the application at run-time without having the knowledge of object's unique properties.


There are two ways to script using Descriptive Programming technique. They are

  1. Description Objects

  2. Description Strings

Description Objects

Script is developed using description Objects that depends upon the properties used and their corresponding values. Then these descriptions are used to build the script.

'Creating a description object
Set btncalc = Description.Create()

'Add descriptions and properties
btncalc("type").value = "Button"
btncalc("name").value = "calculate"
btncalc("html tag").value = "INPUT"

' Use the same to script it
Browser("Math Calc").Page("Num Calculator").WebButton(btncalc).Click

Description Strings

The description of the objects are developed using the properties and values as strings as shown below.

Browser("Math Calc").Page("Num Calculator").WebButton("html tag:=INPUT","type:=Button","name:=calculate").Click

Child Objects

QTP provides the ChildObjects method which enables us to create a collection of objects. The parent objects preceeds ChildObjects.

Dim oDesc
Set oDesc = Description.Create
oDesc("micclass").value = "Link"

'Find all the Links
Set obj = Browser("Math Calc").Page("Math Calc").ChildObjects(oDesc)

Dim i
'obj.Count value has the number of links in the page
For i = 0 to obj.Count - 1	 
  'get the name of all the links in the page			
  x = obj(i).GetROProperty("innerhtml") 
  print x 

Ordinal Identifiers

Descriptive programming is used to script based on ordinal identifiers which will enable QTP to act on those objects when two or more objects have same properties.

' Using Location
Dim Obj
Set Obj = Browser("title:=.*google.*").Page("micclass:=Page")
Obj.WebEdit("name:=Test","location:=0").Set "ABC"
Obj.WebEdit("name:=Test","location:=1").Set "123"
' Index
Obj.WebEdit("name:=Test","index:=0").Set "1123"
Obj.WebEdit("name:=Test","index:=1").Set "2222"
' Creation Time

Automation Object Model:

QTP itself can be automated using the COM interface that is provided by Hp-QTP. Automation object model is a set of objects, methods, and properties that helps testers to control the configuration settings and execute the scripts using the QTP interface. The Key Configurations/actions that can be controlled are listed below but not limited to

  1. Loads all the required add-ins for a test

  2. Makes QTP visible while execution

  3. Opens the Test using the specified location

  4. Associates Function Libraries

  5. Specifies the Common Object Sync Time out

  6. Start and End Iteration

  7. Enable/Disable Smart Identification

  8. On Error Settings

  9. Data Table Path

  10. Recovery Scenario Settings

  11. Log Tracking Settings

QTP 11.5x provides an exclusive documentation on Automation Object model that can be referred by navigating to "Start" >> "All Programs" >> "HP Software" >> "HP Unified Functional Testing" >> "Documentation" >> "Unified Functional Testing Automation Reference"

Generate AOM Script:

Tester Can generate AOM Script from QTP itself using "Generate Script" Option. Navigate to "Run" >> "Settings" >> "Properties" Tab >> "Generate Script" as shown below:

Automation Object Model


' A Sample Script to Demostrate AOM
Dim App 'As Application
Set App = CreateObject("QuickTest.Application")
App.Visible = True

App.Test.Settings.Launchers("Web").Active = False
App.Test.Settings.Launchers("Web").Browser = "IE"
App.Test.Settings.Launchers("Web").Address = "http://easycalculation.com/"
App.Test.Settings.Launchers("Web").CloseOnExit = True

App.Test.Settings.Launchers("Windows Applications").Active = False
App.Test.Settings.Launchers("Windows Applications").Applications.RemoveAll
App.Test.Settings.Launchers("Windows Applications").RecordOnQTDescendants = True
App.Test.Settings.Launchers("Windows Applications").RecordOnExplorerDescendants = False
App.Test.Settings.Launchers("Windows Applications").RecordOnSpecifiedApplications = True

App.Test.Settings.Run.IterationMode = "rngAll"
App.Test.Settings.Run.StartIteration = 1
App.Test.Settings.Run.EndIteration = 1
App.Test.Settings.Run.ObjectSyncTimeOut = 20000
App.Test.Settings.Run.DisableSmartIdentification = False
App.Test.Settings.Run.OnError = "Dialog"

App.Test.Settings.Resources.DataTablePath = ""

App.Test.Settings.Web.BrowserNavigationTimeout = 60000
App.Test.Settings.Web.ActiveScreenAccess.UserName = ""
App.Test.Settings.Web.ActiveScreenAccess.Password = ""

App.Test.Settings.Recovery.Enabled = True
App.Test.Settings.Recovery.SetActivationMode "OnError"
App.Test.Settings.Recovery.Add "D:\GUITest2\recover_app_crash.qrs", "Recover_Application_Crash", 1
App.Test.Settings.Recovery.Item(1).Enabled = True 

' System Local Monitoring settings
App.Test.Settings.LocalSystemMonitor.Enable = false
' Log Tracking settings
With App.Test.Settings.LogTracking 
	.IncludeInResults = False 
	.Port = 18081 
	.IP = "" 
	.MinTriggerLevel = "ERROR" 
	.EnableAutoConfig = False 
	.RecoverConfigAfterRun = False 
	.ConfigFile = "" 
	.MinConfigLevel = "WARN" 
End With

What is a Software Framework?

A Framework defines a set of guidelines/best practices that enforces a set of standards which makes it easy to use for the end users to work with. There are different types of automation frameworks and the most common ones are listed below:

  • Keyword-Driven Framework

  • Data-Driven Framework

  • Hybrid Framework

Keyword-Driven Framework

Keyword driven testing is a type of functional automation testing framework which also known as table-driven testing or action word based testing.

In Keyword-driven testing we use a table format, usually a spreadsheet, to define keywords or action words for each function that we would like to execute.

Keyword Driven testing in Automation Testing


  • It is best suited for novice or a non technical tester.

  • Enables writing tests in a more abstract manner using this approach.

  • Keyword driven testing allows automation to be started earlier in the SDLC even before a stable build is delivered for testing.

  • There is a high degree of reusability.


  • Initial investment in developing the keywords and its related functionalities might take longer.

  • It might act as a restriction to the technically abled testers.

Data Driven Framework

Data-driven testing is creation of test scripts where test data and/or output values are read from data files instead of using the same hard-coded values each time the test runs. This way testers can test how the application handles various inputs effectively. It can be any of the below data files.

  • datapools

  • Excel files

  • ADO objects

  • CSV files

  • ODBC sources

Flow Diagram:

Data Driven Testing can be best understood by the following diagram:

Keyword Driven testing in Automation Testing


  • Data driven framework results in less amount of code.

  • Offers greater flexibility for maintaining and fixing the scripting issues.

  • Test Data can be developed


  • Each script needs to be different to understand different sets of data.

Hybrid Framework

Hybrid Framework is a combination of Keyword driven and data Driven framework that can be best described using the following flow diagram.

Hybrid Framework in Automation Testing

Affecting Factors

Following are the parameters one should take into account while developing the framework. The affects factors are listed below

  • Framework Files Should Support Versioning Controlling Software such as SVN,CVS, MS Source Control

  • Framework should support executing the scripts in different environments viz- QA, SAT, DEV

  • Upon Object Changes, Scripts should execute with minimal changes.

  • Framework should configure itself and take care of prerequisite such as creating folders/databases.

  • Framework Should have Robust Reporting Structure so that issues in the script/application can be easily spotted

  • Framework Should have greater flexibility so that it should be easy to use

  • Framework Should follow coding standards so that files, functions and history of changes are maintained correctly.

Designing a Framework

Let us design a simple framework by taking a sample application. We will automate few scenarios of the application under test and write reusable functions.

Please click the below link to learn more about designing frameworks. - QTP - Designing Framework