QTP - Quick Guide
QTP - Introduction
QTP stands for QuickTest Professional, a product of Hewlett Packard (HP). This tool helps testers to perform an automated functional testing seamlessly without monitoring once script development is complete.
HP QTP uses Visual Basic Scripting (VBScript) for automating the applications. The Scripting Engine need not be installed exclusively as it is available part of the Windows OS. The Current version of VBScript is 5.8 which is available as part of Win 7. VBScript is NOT a object oriented language but a object based language.
Tools from a software testing context, can be defined as a product that supports one or more test activities right from planning, requirements, creating a build, test execution, defect logging and test analysis.
Classification of Tools
Tools can be classified based on several parameters. It includes,
The purpose of the tool
The Activities that are supported within the tool
The Type/level of testing it supports.
The Kind of licensing (open source, freeware, commercial)
The technology used
Types of Tools:
|S.No#||Tool Type||Used for||Used by|
|1.||Test Management Tool||Test Managing, scheduling,defect logging, tracking and analysis.||testers|
|2.||Configuration management tool||For Implementation,execution, tracking changes||All Team members|
|3.||Static Analysis Tools||Static Testing||Developers|
|4.||Test data Preperation Tools||Analysis and Design, Test data generation||Testers|
|5.||Test Execution Tools||Implementation, Execution||Testers|
|6.||Test Comparators||Comparing expected and actual results||All Team members|
|7.||Coverage measurement tools||Provides structural coverage||Developers|
|8.||Performance Testing tools||Monitoring the performance,response time||Testers|
|9.||Project planning and Tracking Tools||For Planning||Project Managers|
|10.||Incident Management Tools||For managing the tests||Testers|
Where QTP Fits in ?
QTP is a Functional testing tool which is best suited for regression testing of the applications. QTP is a licensed/commercial tool owned by HP which is one of the most popular tools available in the market. It compares the actual and expected result and reports the results in the execution summary
QTP History and Evolution:
HP Quick Test Professional was originally owned by Mercury Interactive and it was acquired by Hp. Its original name was Astra Quick Test and later named as Quick Test Professional but the latest version is known as Unified Functional Tester(UFT).
Now let us take a look at the version history of QTP.
|Astra Quick Test v1.0 to v5.5 - Mercury Interactive||May 1998 to Aug 2001|
|QuickTest Professional v6.5 to v9.0 - Mercury Interactive||Sep 2003 to Apr 2006|
|Hp-QuickTest Professional v9.1 to v11.0 - Acquired and Released by HP||Feb 2007 to Sep 2010|
|Hp-Unified Functional Testing v11.5 to v11.53||2012 to Nov 2013|
Developing automated tests using VBScript doesn't require a highly skilled coder and relatively easy when compared other object oriented programming languages.
Easy to use, ease of navigation, results validation and Report generation.
Readily Integrated with Test Management Tool(Hp-Quality Center) which enables easy scheduling and Monitoring.
Can also be used for Mobile Application Testing.
Since it is a Hp product, the full support is provided by HP and by its forums for addressing technical issues.
Unlike Selenium, QTP works in Windows operating system only.
Not all versions of Browsers are supported and the testers need to wait for the patch to be released for each one of the major versions.
Having said that it is a commercial tool, the licensing cost is very high.
Even though scripting time is less, the execution time is relatively higher as it puts load on CPU & RAM.
Automated Testing Process:
For any automated tool implementation, the following are the phases/stages of it. Each one of the stages corresponds to a particular activity and each phase has a definite outcome.
Test Automation Feasibility Analysis - First step is to check if the application can be automated or not. Not all applications can be automated due to its limitations.
Appropriate Tool Selection - The Next most important step is the selection of tools. It depends on the technology in which the application is built, its features and usage.
Evaluate the suitable framework - Upon selecting the tool the next activity is to select a suitable framework. There are various kinds of frameworks and each framework has its own significance. We will deal with frameworks in detail later this chapter.
Build the Proof of Concept - Proof of Concept(POC) is developed with an end to end scenario to evaluate if the tool can support the automation of the application. As it is performed with an end to end scenario which will ensure that the major functionalities can be automated.
Develop Automation Framework - After building the POC, framework development is carried out which is the crucial step for the success of any test automation project. Framework should be build after diligent analysis of the technology used by the application and also its key features.
Develop Test Script, Execute and Analyze - Once Script development is completed, the scripts are executed, results are analyzed and defects are logged, if any. The Test Scripts are usually version controlled.
QTP is a commercial tool and trial version can be downloaded from HP site directly. Only the current version which is Unified functional testing(11.5x) is available for download. Below is the URL from where the trial version can be downloaded.
The Download URL : http://www8.hp.com/us/en/software-solutions/functional-testing.html
Installation Procedure :
Step 1 - Click "Trials and Demos" link and select "Hp Unified Functional Testing 11.50 CC English SW E-Media Evaluation" as shown below:
Step 2 - Upon Selecting "Hp Unified Functional Testing 11.50", the download wizard opens. Fill in the Personal details and click next
Step 4 - Download window opens. Click on "Download" Button.
Step 5 - The downloaded file will be of the format .RAR. Now you need to unzip the archive and the folder contents would be as shown below and execute the Setup.exe.
Step 6 - Upon Executing the Setup File, inorder to install, select "Unified Functional Testing Set up" from the list as shown below:
Step 7 - Then Click Next to Continue.
Step 8 - In the Custom Set up Window, select the plugins that are required for your automation. i.e. You Should select the plugins based on the technology of your application under test. For Example, If your application is based on .NET then you should ensure that you select .NET.
Step 9 - Upon Selecting the required plugins for Installation, Click Next and upon completion of the installation you will end up with a Finish button Window.
Step 10 - Once you complete your installation, the "Additional Installation Requirements" Dialog box opens. Select everything in the list other than "Run License Installation Wizard" and click "RUN". We Need NOT select "Run License Installation Wizard" because we are installing the trial version which by default gives a license for 30 days.
Step 11 - Upon completion of Additional Installation Requirements, a tick mark is shown which inturn states that the components are installed successfully and click close.
Launching UFT and Addins Page:
Step 1 - After Installation, application can be launched from the Start Menu as shown in the figure.
Step 2 - The License page appears. You can click on continue as we have installed the trial license
Step 3 - The Addins Dialog box opens for the user to select the required addins' DONOT load all the addin's but just the required addins and click "Ok" button
Step 4 - Upon loading the required addins the UFT 11.5 tool opens for the user and the first glimpse of the UFT looks as shown below:
Record and Playback
Recording a test corresponds to recording the user actions of the application under test so that UFT automatically generates the scripts that can be played back. Record and Playback can give us the first impression if the tool can support the technology or NOT if the initial settings are done correctly.
Steps for Record and Playback is as follows:
Step 1: Click on "New" test from the Start Page as shown below:
Step 2: Upon Clicking, "New" Link, the new test window opens and the user need to select the test type. Select "GUI Test", give a name for the test and also the location where it needs to be saved.
Step 3. Once a New test is created, the new test screen opens as shown below and click on "Action1" Tab which is created with 1 action by default.
Step 4. Click on "Record" Menu and select "Record and Run Settings" as shown below:
Step 5. The Record and Run Settings Dialog opens and based on the type of application, one can select i.e Web, Java, Windows Applications. For Example, We will record a Web Based Application (http://easycalculation.com/)
Step 6. Click Record Button, the Internet Explorer opens automatically with the webaddress http://easycalculation.com/ as per the settings. Click "Numbers" link under "Algebra" and key in a number and hit "calculate". Upon completion of the action click "Stop" button in the record panel. You will notice that the script is generated as shown below:
Step 7. Now playback the script by clicking on the playback button. The Script replays and result is displayed.
Step 8. The result window is opened by default which exactly shows the timestamp of execution, pass and failed steps.
Significance of Record and Playback:
It is used as the preliminary investigation method to verify if UFT can support the technology/application.
Used to create a test a basic functionality of an application or feature that does not require long-term maintenance.
It can be used for recording both mouse movements and keyboard inputs.
Modes of Recording:
Normal Recording : This is the default Recording mode that records the objects and the operations performed on the application under test.
Analog Recording : This records not only the keyboard actions but also the mouse movements relative to the screen or the application window.
Low-Level Recording : This records the exact co-ordinates of the objects independent of the fact whether UFT recognizes the object or NOT. It just records the co-ordinates, hence does NOT record mouse movements.
Insight Recording : UFT records operation based on its appearance and NOT based on its native properties.
How to Choose Recording Modes:
Upon clicking on Recording button, user can choose the recording mode from the recording pane that appears on the screen once recording starts. The selection can be made from any the ones that has been discussed above.
The Below Scenario is recorded in all the modes and see how the same action has been recorded under various circumstances.
Launch IE - http://easycalculation.com/
Click "Numbers" under "Algebra"
Click "Square Root" link
Enter a value to calculate the square root. Let us say 10
Script Recorded under Default, Analog and Low Level Recording Mode.
' DEFAULT RECORDING MODE Browser("Free Online Math Calculator").Page("Free Online Math Calculator").Link("Numbers").Click Browser("Free Online Math Calculator").Page("Numbers Calculator - Math").Link("Square Root").Click Browser("Free Online Math Calculator").Page("Square Root Calculator").WebEdit("n").Set "10" Browser("Free Online Math Calculator").Page("Square Root Calculator").WebButton("calculate").Click ' ANALOG RECORDING MODE Desktop.RunAnalog "Track1" ' LOW LEVEL RECORDING MODE Window("Windows Internet Explorer").WinObject("Internet Explorer_Server").Click 235,395 Window("Windows Internet Explorer").WinObject("Internet Explorer_Server").Click 509,391 Window("Windows Internet Explorer").WinObject("Internet Explorer_Server").Click 780,631 Window("Windows Internet Explorer").WinObject("Internet Explorer_Server").Type "10" Window("Windows Internet Explorer").WinObject("Internet Explorer_Server").Click 757,666
The Recordings using insight recording mode will be as shown below:
Object Repository is a collection of object and properties with which QTP will be able to recognize the objects and act on it. When a user records a test, the objects and its properties are captured by default. Without understanding objects and its properties, QTP will NOT be able to play back the scripts.
Click on each one of the below topics to know more about Object Repository and its associated features.
|Object Spy and its Features||To Understand the usage of object Spy and its associated functionalities.|
|Working with Object Repository||Adding,Editing, Deleting Objects from a Object Repository and its associated functionalities.|
|Types of Object Repository||Deals with Shared Object and Local Object Repository and their context with respect to scripting.|
|User-defined Objects||Deals with the circumstances to use the User-Defined Objects.|
|Object Repository in XML||Deals with coverting OR's to XML and how to use the object Repository as XML.|
|Comparing and Merging OR||Operations such as Compare OR', Merge OR's to effectively work with Object Repository.|
|Ordinal Identifiers||Circumstances when the ordinal identifiers are used and their advantages.|
|Child Objects||Using Child Objects for effective scripting|
Actions helps testers to divide scripts into groups of QTP statements called actions. Actions are similar to functions in VBScript, however there are few differences. By Default QTP creates a test with 1 action.
|Actions are inbuild feature of QTP.||VBScript Functions are supported by both VBScript and QTP.|
|Actions parameters are passed byvalue only.||Function parameters are passed either by byvalue or byref.|
|Actions have extension .mts||Functions are saved as .vbs or .qfl|
|Actions may or maynot be reusable.||Functions are always reusable.|
The properties of the action can be accessed by Right Clicking on the Script Editor Window and Selecting "Properties".
Action properties contains following information
Types of Actions:There are three types of actions:
Non-reusable action - An action that can be called only in that specific test in which it has been designed and can be called only once
Reusable action - An action that can be called multiple times any test in which it resides and can also be used by any other tests
External Reusable action - It is a reusable action stored in another test. External actions are read-only in the calling test, but it can be used locally with the editable copy of the Data Table information for the external action
Working with Actions:
There are three options to insert an action. Click on each one of those to know more about the selected type of action.
|Insert Call to New Action||Inserts a New Action from the existing action|
|Insert Call to Copy of Action||Inserts a copy of an existing action|
|Insert Call to Existing Action||Inserts a call to existing re-usable action|
A DataTable, similar to Microsoft Excel helps testers to create data driven test cases that can be used to run an Action multiple times. There are two types of Datatables.
Local Data Table - Each action has its own private data table also known as local data table which is can also be accessed across actions.
Global Data Table - Each test has one global data sheet that is accessible across actions.
The Data sheet can be accessed from the "Data" Tab of QTP as shown below:
To execute a test case for some specified number of iterations,one can set the iterations of global data table in the Test Settings dialog, that can be accessed using File -> Settings -> Run(Tab) as shown below:
For Instance, if user want to parameterize "compound Interest" of "http://easycalculation.com/" that can be accessed using "http://easycalculation.com/compound-interest.php". The Parameters can be created as shown below. Most of the functionalities of Excel can be used in Data table as well.
Data Table Operations:
There are three types of objects to access Data Table. Data Table Operations can be well understood by traversing through the below link:
|Data Table Methods||Gives Detailed information about the data table methods.|
|DTParameter Object Methods||Gives Detailed information about the DTParameter methods.|
|DTSheet Object Methods||Gives Detailed information about the DTSheet methods.|
What are CheckPoints?
Checkpoints, as the name says it all, it refers to a validation point that compares the current value for specified properties or current state of an object with the expected value which can be inserted at any point of time in the script.
|Standard Checkpoint||Verifies the property values of an object in application under test and supported by all add-in environments.|
|Bitmap Checkpoint||Verifies an area of your application as a bitmap|
|File Content Checkpoint||Verifies the text in a dynamically generated or accessed file such as .txt,.pdf|
|Table Checkpoint||Verifies the information within a table. Not all environments are supported.|
|Text Checkpoint||Verify if the text that is displayed within a defined area in a Windows-based application, according to specified criteria.|
|Text Area Checkpoint||Verifies if the text string is displayed within a defined area in a Windows-based application, according to specified criteria.|
|Accessibility Checkpoint||Verifies the page and reports the areas of the Web site that may not conform to the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) Web Content Accessibility Guidelines|
|Page Checkpoint||Verifies the characteristics of a Web page. It can also check for broken links.|
|Database Checkpoint||Verifies the contents of a database accessed by the application under test.|
|XML Checkpoint||Verifies the content of the .xml documents or .xml documents in Web pages and frames.|
When the user wants to insert a checkpoint, one has to ensure that most of the checkpoints are supported during the recording sessions only. Once the user stops recording, checkpoints are NOT enabled.
Below is the checkpoint menu, when the user is NOT in the recording mode.
Below is the checkpoint menu, when the user is in the recording mode.
The checkpoints are added for the application under test - "http://easycalculation.com/"
' 1. Inserted Standard Checkpoint Status = Browser("Math Calculator").Page("Math Calculator").Link("Numbers").Check CheckPoint("Numbers") If Status Then print "Checkpoint Passed" Else Print "Checkpoint Failed" End if ' 2. Inserted BitMap Checkpoint imgchkpoint = Browser("Math Calculator").Page("Math Calculator").Image("French").Check CheckPoint("French") If imgchkpoint Then print "Checkpoint Passed" Else Print "Checkpoint Failed" End if
Viewing Checkpoint Properties
After Inserting, incase a tester want to change the values, we can do so by performing right click on the keyword 'checkpoint' of the script and navigating to "Checkpoint Properties" as shown below:
You can locate the same checkpoints in object repository as well as shown below. It exactly shows what type of checkpoint and what are the expected values, time out values.
What is Synchronization?
Synchronization point is the time interface between Tool and Application under test. Synchronization point is a feature to specify delay time between one step and another of the test script.
For Example, clicking on a link may load the page is 1 second, sometimes 5 seconds or even it might take 10 seconds to load it completely. It depends on various factors such as the application server response time, network bandwidth , client system capabilities etc.
If the time is varying then the script will fail unless the tester handles these time differences intelligently.
Ways to Insert Sync Point:
Sync(only for web based apps)
Inserting QTP Inbuilt Synchronization points.
Let us say we need to insert a sync point beween clicking on "numbers" link and clicking on "simple Interest" calculator of in "http://easycalculation.com/". We will now take a look at all the 5 ways to insert sync point for the above scenario.
Method 1: WaitProperty
WaitProperty is a method that takes the property name, Value and Timeout value as input to perform the sync. It is a dynamic wait and hence this option is encouraged.
' Method 1 - WaitProperty with 25 seconds Dim obj Set obj = Browser("Math Calculator").Page("Math Calculator") obj.Link("Numbers").Click obj.Link("Simple Interest").WaitProperty "text", "Simple Interest",25000 obj.Link("Simple Interest").Click
Method 2: Exist
Exist is a method that takes the Timeout value as input to perform the sync. Again it is a dynamic wait and hence this option is encouraged.
' Method 2 : Exist Timeout - 30 Seconds Dim obj Set obj = Browser("Math Calculator").Page("Math Calculator") obj.Link("Numbers").Click If obj.Link("Simple Interest").Exist(30) Then obj.Link("Simple Interest").Click Else Print "Link NOT Available" End IF
Method 3: Wait
Wait is a hardcoded sync point which waits independent of the event happened or NOT. Hence usage of Wait is discouraged and can be used for shorter wait time such as 1 or 2 seconds.
' Method 3 : Wait Timeout - 30 Seconds Dim obj Set obj = Browser("Math Calculator").Page("Math Calculator") obj.Link("Numbers").Click wait(30) Browser("Math Calculator").Page("Math Calculator").Link("Simple Interest").Click
Method 4: Sync Method
Sync Method can be used only for web applications where there is always a lag between page loads.
' Method 4 : Dim obj Set obj = Browser("Math Calculator").Page("Math Calculator") obj.Link("Numbers").Click Browser("Math Calculator").Sync Browser("Math Calculator").Page("Math Calculator").Link("Simple Interest").Click
Method 5 : Inserting QTP Inbuilt Synchronization points:
Step 1 : Get into Recording Mode. This Option Would be Disabled if the user is NOT in Recording Mode.
Step 2 : Goto "Design" -> "Synchronization Point" .
Step 3 : We need to Select the object which we want to be the Sync Point. After Selecting the object, object window opens as shown below:
Step 4 : Click Ok, the "Add Synchronization Window" Opens up. Select the Property, Value and Time out value and click ok as shown below:
Step 5 : The Script would be generated as shown below which is the same as that of the WaitProperty(Method 1) that we had already discussed:
Browser("Math Calculator").Page("Math Calculator").Link("Numbers").Click Browser("Math Calculator").Page("Math Calculator").Link("Simple Interest").WaitProperty "text", "Simple Interest", 10000
When user hasn't used any of the above sync methods, still QTP has inbuild Object synchronization timeout which can be adjusted by the user.
Navigate to "File" >> "Settings" >> Run Tab >> Object Synchronization Time out as shown below.
Sometimes, QTP is unable to find any object that matches the recognized object description or it may find more than one object that fits the description, then QTP ignores the recognized description and uses the Smart Identification mechanism to recognize the object.
QTP's Smart Identification uses two types of properties:
Base Filter Properties - The basic properties of a particular test object class whose values cannot be changed without changing the essence of the original object.
Optional Filter Properties - Other properties also assist in identifying the objects of a particular class whose properties are unlikely to change often but can be ignored if they are no longer applicable.
Enabling Smart identification for an object:
Step 1 : Navigate to "Tools" -> "Object Identification". Object Identification Dialog Opens.
Step 2 : Choose the Environment, Object Class and Turn ON "Enable Smart Identification" as shown below:
Step 3 : Click Configure and choosing the base and Optional Filter Properties.
Step 3 : Add Properties in Base Properties apart from the Default one and also add/remove Optional Filter Properties. Please Note that Same properties cannot be part of both Mandatory and Assistive Properties and click "OK".
Step 4 : Verifying if the Smart Identification is Enabled after Adding object of that type in the Object Repository. Smart Identification is Set to TRUE. We can also make it False in case we dont want to enable Smart Identification.
Step 5 : We can even disable a test Level by applying at test script level under "Settings" of "File" Menu as shown below:
Step 6 : If the Smart Identification is disabled as per Step# 6 then it wont apply smart identification for any object during script execution.
Step 7 : In case objects are added with Smart Identification as Off, QTP won't use Smart Identification for recognizing in future, even though we have enabled it afterwords.
Debugging, in automation testing context, is a systematic process of spotting and fixing the coding issues in the automation scripts so that the script will be more robust and can spot the defects in the application.
There are various ways to perform debugging using break points in QTP. Break Points can be inserted just by pressing "F9" or by using the Menu option "Run" -> "Inserting/Removing Break Point".
After Inserting the Break point the "Red Coloured" Dot and the line will be highlighted in RED as shown below:
|Step Into||F11||Used to execute each and every Step. Steps into the Function/Action and executes line by line. It pauses on each line after execution.|
|Step Over||F10||Used to Step over the Function. Step Over runs only the current step in the active document.|
|Step Out||Shift+F11||After Step Into the function, you can use the Step Out command. Step Out continues the run to the end of the function and then pauses the run session at the next line.|
Options in Break Point:
Various Options in Break Point can be accessed by Navigating 'Run' Menu.
|Ctrl+Shift+F9||Clear All BreakPoint|
|Use Only Menu||Enable/Disable All BreakPoints|
The Following are the panes in the debugging window:
Output - This Tab displays all the Output of the Print Statements.
Watch - This Tab displays the Boolean output of the Given Expression.
LocalVariables - This Tab displays the Output of the Local Variables.
The Watch Pane shows the output expression as shown below:
The Local Variables Pane shows the values held by the local variables as shown below:
What is Error Handling?
There are various ways on handling errors in QTP. There are three possible kinds of error type one would encounter while working with QTP.
Run Time Errors
Syntax errors are the typos or a piece of the code that does not confirm with the VBscripting language grammar. Syntax errors occur at the time of compilation of code and cannot be executed until the errors are fixed. To verify the syntax one use the keyboard shortcut as Ctrl+F7 and the result is displayed as shown below. If the window is NOT displayed one can navigate to "View" -> "Errors".
If the script is syntactically correct but it produces unexpected results. Logical error usually does not interrupt the execution but produces incorrect results. Logical errors could occur due to variety of reasons, viz- wrong assumptions or misunderstanding of the requirement and sometimes incorrect program logics(using do-while instead of do-Until) or Infinite Loops.
One of the ways to detect a logical error is to perform peer reviews and also verifying the QTP output file/result file to ensure the tool has performed what it has intended to do.
As The name states, this kind of Error happens during Run Time. The reason for such kind of errors is that the script trying to perform something but it is unable to do so and the script usually stops as it is unable to continue with the execution. Classic Examples for Run Time Errors are,
File NOT found but the script trying to read the file.
Object NOT found but scripts is trying to act on that particular object.
Dividing a number by Zero.
Array Index out of bounds while accessing array elements.
Handling Run-Time Errors:
There are various ways to handle errors in the code.
1. Using Test Settings - Error handling can be defined the Test Settings by Navigating to "File" >> "Settings" >> "Run" Tab as shown below. We can select any of the specified settings and click "OK".
2. Using On Error Statement - On Error statement is used to notify the VBScript engine of intentions to handle the run-time errors by tester, rather than allowing the VBScript engine to display error messages that are not user friendly.
On Error Resume Next - On Error Resume Next informs the VBScript engine to procees executing the next line of code when an error is encountered.
On error Goto 0 - This helps the testers to turn off the error handling.
3. Using Err Object - Error object is an inbuilt object within VBScript that captures the run time error number and error description with which we will be able to debug the code easily.
Err.Number - The Number property returns or Sets a numeric value specifying an error. If Err.Number value is 0 then No error had occured.
Err.Description - The Description property returns or sets a brief description about an error.
Err.Clear - The Clear method resets the Err object and clears all the previous values associated with it.
'Call the function to Add two Numbers Call Addition(num1,num2) Function Addition(a,b) On error resume next If NOT IsNumeric(a) or IsNumeric(b) Then Print "Error number is " & err.number & " and description is : " & err.description Err.Clear Exit Function End If Addition = a+b 'disables error handling On Error Goto 0 End function
Using Exit Statement - Exit Statements can be used along with Err object to exit from a test or action or iteration based on the Err.Number value. Let us see each one of those Exit statements in detail.
ExitTest - Exits from the entire QTP test no matter what the run-time iteration settings are.
ExitAction - Exits the current action.
ExitActionIteration - Exits the current iteration of the action.
ExitTestIteration - Exits the current iteration of the QTP test and proceeds to the next iteration.
5. Recovery Scenarios - Upon encountering an error, recovery scenarios are triggered based on certain conditions and it is dealt in detail in a seperate chapter.
6. Reporter Object - Reporter Object helps us to report an event to the run results. It helps us to identify if the concerned action/step is pass/fail.
'Syntax: Reporter.ReportEventEventStatus, ReportStepName, Details, [ImageFilePath] 'Example Reporter.ReportEvent micFail, "Login", "User is unable to Login."
While executing the QTP scripts, we might get some Unexpected errors. Inorder To recover the test and continue executing the rest of the script from these unexpected errors, Recovery Scenarios are used. The Recovery Scenario Manager can be accessed by Navigating to "Resources" -> Recovery Scenario Manager as shown below:
Steps to create Recovery Scenario:
Step 1 : Upon Clicking "New" Recovery Scenario button, the Recovery Scenario Wizard opens as shown below:
Step 2 : Next Step is to choose the Trigger Event. It corresponds to event which arises It can be any of the below four events.
Test Run Error
Step 3 : Recovery Operations Window Opens. Recovery Operation can any of the following Operation as shown below:
Step 4 : Upon Specifying the appropriate Recovery Operation, we need to specify the Post Recovery Operation as well as shown below:
Step 5 : Upon Specifying the Post Recovery Operation, the recovery scenario should be named and added to the Test so that it will be activated.
Step 6 : The Recovery Scenario creation is complete and needs to be mapped to the current Test by checking the option "Add Scenario to the current Test" and click "Finish"
Step 7 : The Added Recovery Scenario will be as shown below and click on "Close" Button to continue.
Step 8 : Upon Clicking on Close Button, QTP would Pop up user to Save the created Recovery Scenarion. It will be saved with the extension .qrs and the wizard would be closed.
The Created Recovery Scenario should be part of the test now and can be verified by navigating to "File" -> "Settings" -> "Recovery" Tab.
QTP environment variables are special types of variables that can be accessed by all actions ,function libraries and recovery Scenarios. There are inbuilt environment variables for Windows that are available to all the applications running on that particular system where as QTP environment variables are only available to that test script during run-time.
Types of Environment Variables
Built-in Environment Variables - provides a range of environment parameters that can provide information such as test name, action name, the test path, local host name, the operating system name, type and its version. The Environment Variable names can be accessed by Navigating to "File" -> "Test Settings" -> "Environment" Tab
User defined Internal - User Defined Variables can be saved by Selecting "User Defined" in the Environment Tab Window. The "+" button is Clicked to enter Parameter Name and Value as shown below:
User Defined External - User Defined Variables can be stored in a external file as an .xml and can be loaded into the test as shown in the below figure or can also be loaded dynamically during run-time as explained below in one of the examples.
Environment Variables - Supported Methods:
1. ExternalFileName Property - Returns the name of the loaded external environment variable file specified in the Environment tab of the Test Settings dialog box. If no external environment variable file is loaded, this property returns an empty string
x= Environment.ExternalFileName print x
2. LoadFromFile Method - Loads the specified environment variable file(.xml) dynamically during run time. When using this method, the environment variables need NOT be added manually into the Environment Tab.
Environment.LoadFromFile "D:\config.xml" b = Environment.Value("Browser") print b
3. Value Property - Retrieves the value of environment variables. We can also set the value of user-defined internal environment variables using this property.
' Get the Value of the InBuilt Environment Variables a = Environment.Value("OS") print a b = Environment.Value("ActionName") print b 'Loaded from External File Environment.LoadFromFile "D:\config.xml" c = Environment.Value("Browser") print c
Inorder to modularize the script, library Files are added to the QTP Script. It contains variable declaration, Functions, Classes etc. They enable reusability that can be shared across test scripts. They are saved with an extenstion .vbs or .qfl
A New Library File can be Created by Navigating to "File" >> "Function Library"
Associating Function Libraries
Method#1 : By using "File" > "Settings" > Resources > Associate Function Library option. Click on "+" Button to Add Function Library File and add it using actual path or relative path as shown below:
Method#2 : Using ExecuteFile method.
'Syntax : ExecuteFile(Filepath) ExecuteFile "C:\lib1.vbs" ExecuteFile "C:\lib2.vbs"
Method#3 : Using LoadFunctionLibrary Method.
'Syntax : LoadFunctionLibrary(Filepath) LoadFunctionLibrary "C:\lib1.vbs" LoadFunctionLibrary "C:\lib2.vbs"
Method#4 : Automation Object Model(AOM) - It is a mechanism using which we can control various QTP operations outside QTP. Using AOM, we can launch QTP, Open the Test, Associate Function Libraries etc. The Following Vbscript should be saved with Extension .vbs and upon executing the same, QTP will be launched and test would start executing. AOM will be discussed in detail in the later chapters.
'Launch QTP Set objQTP = CreateObject("QuickTest.Application") objQTP.Launch objQTP.Visible = True 'Open the test objQTP.Open "D:\GUITest2", False, False Set objLib = objQTP.Test.Settings.Resources.Libraries 'Associate Function Library if NOT associated already. If objLib.Find("C:\lib1.vbs") = -1 Then objLib.Add "C:\lib1.vbs", 1 End
The Test Results Window gives us sufficient information to show the steps passed, failed etc. Results window opens automatically after execution of the test(as per default settings).
Operations perfomed in Test Results:
Converting Results to HTML
In the Results Viewer window, Navigate to "File" -> "Export to File", Export Run Results dialog box opens as shown below:
We can choose what type of report to be exported. It can be short results, Detailed Results or even we can select nodes. Upon Selecting the File Name and exporting it, the file would be saved as .HTML File
Filtering the Results:
Results can be filtered based Status, Node Type, Iterations. It can be accessed by using Filter Button in the "Test Results Window"
Defects can be logged into QC directly from the Test Results Window pane by accessing "Tools" -> "Add Defect" which open's connection to ALM as shown below:
The Automatic Test Results Window can be configured under "Tools" -> "Options" -> "Run Sessions" Tab. We can turn if off if required and also we can switch ON "Automatically Export Results when session Ends"
Upon Errors, the screenshot or the movie can be recorded based on the settings. The same can be configured under "Tools" -> "Options" -> "Screen Capture" Tab. We can save the screenshot or movies based on 3 conditions.
For Errors and Warnings
Working with GUI Objects:
There are various GUI objects with which QTP interacts during the script execution. Hence it is important to know the basic methods for the key GUI objects using which we will be able to work on it effectively.
Working with Text Box
Below are the methods using which we access text box during Run Time.
Set - Helps the tester to Set Values into the Text Box
Click - Clicks on the Text Box
SetSecure - Used to set the text in the password boxes securely.
WaitProperty - Waits Till the Property value becomes true.
Exist - Checks for the existance of the Text Box
GetROProperty("text") - Gets the Value of the Text Box
GetROProperty("Visible") - Returns a Boolean value if visible.
Browser("Math Calculator").Sync Set Obj = Browser("Math Calculator").Page("SQR Calc").WebEdit("n") 'Clicks on the Text Box Obj.Click 'Verify if the Object Exist - Returns Boolean value a= obj.Exist print a 'Set the value obj.Set "10000" : wait(2) 'Get the Runtime Object Property - Value of the Text Box val = obj.GetROProperty("value") print val 'Get the Run Time Object Property - Visiblility - Returns Boolean Value x= Obj.GetROProperty("visible") print x
Working with Check Box
Following are some of the key methods with which one can work with Check Box.
Set - Helps the tester to Set the checkbox value "ON" or "OFF"
Click - Clicks on the check Box. Even checks ON or OFF but user won't be sure about the status.
WaitProperty - Waits Till the Property value becomes true.
Exist - Checks for the existance of the Check Box
GetROProperty("name") - Gets the Name of the check Box
GetROProperty("Visible") - Returns a Boolean value if visible
'To Check the Check Box Set Obj = Browser("Calculator").Page("Gmail").WebCheckBox("PersistentCookie") Obj.Set "ON" 'To UnCheck the Check Box Obj.Set "OFF" 'Verifies the Existance of the Check box and returns Boolean Value val = Obj.Exist print val 'Fetches the Name of the CheckBox a= Obj.GetROProperty("name") print a 'Verifies the visible property and returns the boolean value. x = Obj.GetROProperty("visible") print x
Working with Radio Button
Following are some of the key methods with which one can work with Radio Button.
Select(RadioButtonName) - Helps the tester to Set the Radio Box "ON"
Click - Clicks on the Radio Button. Even Radio Button ON or OFF but tester can't get the status.
WaitProperty - Waits Till the Property value becomes true.
Exist - Checks for the existance of the Radio Button
GetROProperty("name") - Gets the Name of the Radio Button
GetROProperty("Visible") - Returns a Boolean value if visible
'Select the Radio Button by name "YES" Set Obj = Browser("Calculator").Page("Forms").WebRadioGroup("group1") Obj.Select("Yes") 'Verifies the Existance of the Radio Button and returns Boolean Value val = Obj.Exist print val 'Returns the Outerhtml of the Radio Button txt = Obj.GetROProperty("outerhtml") print text 'Returns the boolean value if Radio button is Visible. vis = Obj.GetROProperty("visible") print vis
Working with Combo Box
Following are some of the key methods with which one can work with Combo Box.
Select(Value) - Helps the tester to Select the value from the ComboBox
Click - Clicks on the object.
WaitProperty - Waits Till the Property value becomes true.
Exist - Checks for the existance of the Combo Box
GetROProperty("Text") - Gets the Selected Value of the Combo Box
GetROProperty("all items") - Returns all the items in the combo Box
GetROProperty("items count") - Returns the number of items in the combo Box
'Get the List of all the Items from the ComboBox Set ObjList = Browser("Math Calculator").Page("Statistics").WebList("class") x = ObjList.GetROProperty("all items") print x 'Get the Number of Items from the Combo Box y = ObjList.GetROProperty("items count") print y 'Get the text value of the Selected Item z = ObjList.GetROProperty("text") print z
Working with Buttons
Following are some of the key methods with which one can work with Buttons.
Click - Clicks on the Button.
WaitProperty - Waits Till the Property value becomes true.
Exist - Checks for the existance of the Button
GetROProperty("Name") - Gets the Name of the Button
GetROProperty("Disabled") - Returns a boolean value if enabled/disabled
'To Perform a Click on the Button Set obj_Button = Browser("Math Calculator").Page("SQR").WebButton("Calc") obj_Button.Click 'To Perform a Middle Click on the Button obj_Button.MiddleClick 'To check if the button is enabled or disabled.Returns Boolean Value x = obj_Button.GetROProperty("disabled") print x 'To fetch the Name of the Button y = obj_Button.GetROProperty("name") print y
Working with webTables
In Today's web based application, webtables have become very common and testers need to understand how Web Tables work and how to perform an action on web Tables. This Topic will help you to work with the web Tables Effectively.
html id - If the table has an id tag then it is best to make use of this property.
innerText - Heading of the Table.
sourceIndex - Fetches the Source Index of the Table
ChildItemCount - Gets the number of ChildItems present in specified Row
RowCount - Gets the number of Rows in the Table
ColumnCount - Gets the number of Columns in the Table
GetcellData - Gets the Value of the Cell based on the column and Row Index
Browser("Tutorials Point").Sync ' WebTable Obj = Browser("Tutorials Point").Page("VBScript Decisions").WebTable("Statement") ' Fetch RowCount x = Obj.RowCount print x ' Fetch ColumnCount y = Obj.ColumnCount(1) print y ' Print the Cell Data of the Table For i = 1 To x Step 1 For j = 1 To y Step 1 z = Obj.GetCellData(i,j) print "Row ID : " & i & " Column ID : " & j & " Value : " & z Next Next 'Fetch the Child Item count of Type Link in a particular Cell z = Obj.ChildItemCount(2,1,"Link") print z
What are Virtual Objects?
Sometimes, application under test may contain standard window object but are NOT recognized by QTP. Under these circumstances objects can be defined as virtual object(VO) of type button, link etc so that user actions can be simulated on the virtual objects during execution.
Let us say we are automating a scenario in Microsoft Word. I activated MS word application and I click on any icon in the ribbon. For example, In the Insert Ribbon, User clicks on "Picture" button. A Button is recognized as WinObject hence importance of vitural objects is pronounced.
Window("Microsoft Word").WinObject("Ribbon").Click 145,45 Window("Microsoft Word").WinObject("Ribbon").WinObject("Picture...").Click 170,104
Creating a Virtual Object
Step 1 : In such scenarios, virtual Objects are created using Virtual Object Manager or New Virtual Object from "Tools" >>"Virtual Object" >> "New Virtual Object" and click "Next" Button
Step 2 : Map the Object against the Class Type and click "Next".
Step 3 : Click "Mark Object" Button, cross hair cursor would appear and mark the object that you would like to map and click "Next".
Step 4 : Selecting the parent of the Virtual object and click "Next".
Step 5 : Name the collection in which you would like to store the vitual object and click "Finish".
Virtual object Manager
Virtual object Manager manages the collections of Virtual objects. Testers can add or Delete the Virtual Objects from the Vitual object manager.
Navigation to Virtual object Manager : "Tools" >> "Virtual Object Manager" as shown below:
Using Virtual Objects
After creating the Virtual Objects the created object can be used as shown below:
Virtual Object Limitations
QTP doesn't support virtual objects for analog or low-level recording.
Checkpoints cannot be added on Virtual Objects.
Virtual Object are NOT controlled by Object Repository.
Though we map an object to a particular class (button or List), all the methods of the native objects are not supported by Virtual objects.
Object Spy cannot be used on Virtual Object.
The test execution will fail if the screen resolution changes as the co-ordinates change.
Application Window should be of same screen size so that Virtual objects are captured correctly.
As such QTP doesn't provide any built-in support to connect to database, however using VBScript testers will be able to connect and interact with databases using ADODB objects
ADODB has 4 properties or methods with which we will be able to work with the databases.
ADODB.Connection - Used to establish a connection to the Database
ADODB.Command - Used to execute a SQL command(Queries or Stored Procedures)
ADODB.Fields - Used to fetch a particular column from a record set after executing a query/stored proc
ADODB.Recordset - Used to fetch data from a database
How to connect to Database?
Databases can be connected using Connection strings. Each database differ the way we connect to the them, however the connection strings can be build with the help of http://www.connectionstrings.com/
Now Let us see how to connect to the database with the following parameters.
Database Type - MSSQL SERVER
Server Name - SQLEXPRESS
Database Name - Trial
User Id - sa
password - Password123
The Output of the Query is shown in the SQL Server Management Studio as follows:
Dim objConnection 'Set Adodb Connection Object Set objConnection = CreateObject("ADODB.Connection") Dim objRecordSet 'Create RecordSet Object Set objRecordSet = CreateObject("ADODB.Recordset") Dim DBQuery 'Query to be Executed DBQuery = "Select NAME from dbo.EMPLOYEE where AGE = 29" 'Connecting using SQL OLEDB Driver objConnection.Open "Provider=sqloledb.1;Server=.\SQLEXPRESS;User Id=sa;Password=Password123;Database=Trial" 'Execute the Query objRecordSet.Open DBQuery,objConnection 'Return the Result Set Value = objRecordSet.fields.item(0) msgbox Value ' Release the Resources objRecordSet.Close objConnection.Close Set objConnection = Nothing Set objRecordSet = Nothing
Upon Executing the above script the output is shown in the message box as shown below:
What is an XML?
XML is a markup language designed for how to store data that is in the form that both human and machine readable format. Using XML, data can also be easily exchanged between computer and database systems.
Sample XML and their key elements are represented below:
Const XMLDataFile = "C:\TestData.xml" Set xmlDoc = CreateObject("Microsoft.XMLDOM") xmlDoc.Async = False xmlDoc.Load(XMLDataFile) ' Getting the number of Nodes (books) Set nodes = xmlDoc.SelectNodes("/bookstore/book") Print "Total books: " & nodes.Length ' Displays 2 ' get all titles Set nodes = xmlDoc.SelectNodes("/Booklib/book/value/text()") ' get their values For i = 0 To (nodes.Length - 1) Title = nodes(i).NodeValue Print "Title is" & (i + 1) & ": " & Title Next
We can compare Two given xml's.
Dim xmlDoc1 Dim xmlDoc2 ' Load the XML Files Set xmlDoc1 = XMLUtil.CreateXMLFromFile ("C:\File1.xml") Set xmlDoc2 = XMLUtil.CreateXMLFromFile ("C:\File2.xml") 'Use the compare method of the XML to check if they are equivalent Comp = xmlDoc1.Compare (xmlDoc1, xmlDoc2) 'Returns 1 if the two files are the same If Comp = 1 Then Msgbox "XML Files are the Same" Else Msgbox "XML Files are Different" End if
QTP scripts can execute only if the objects are present in the Object Repository. If the descriptions of the Objects are created using Descriptive programming when testers want to perform an operation on an object that is not present in the object repository.
When objects in the application are very dynamic in nature.
When the Object Repository grows big which will result in poor Performance as the size of the Object Repository increases.
When the framework is built such that it has been decided not to use Object Repository at all.
When testers want to perform an action on the application at run-time without having the knowledge of object's unique properties.
There are two ways to script using Descriptive Programming technique. They are
Script is developed using description Objects that depends upon the properties used and their corresponding values. Then these descriptions are used to build the script.
'Creating a description object Set btncalc = Description.Create() 'Add descriptions and properties btncalc("type").value = "Button" btncalc("name").value = "calculate" btncalc("html tag").value = "INPUT" ' Use the same to script it Browser("Math Calc").Page("Num Calculator").WebButton(btncalc).Click
The description of the objects are developed using the properties and values as strings as shown below.
Browser("Math Calc").Page("Num Calculator").WebButton("html tag:=INPUT","type:=Button","name:=calculate").Click
QTP provides the ChildObjects method which enables us to create a collection of objects. The parent objects preceeds ChildObjects.
Dim oDesc Set oDesc = Description.Create oDesc("micclass").value = "Link" 'Find all the Links Set obj = Browser("Math Calc").Page("Math Calc").ChildObjects(oDesc) Dim i 'obj.Count value has the number of links in the page For i = 0 to obj.Count - 1 'get the name of all the links in the page x = obj(i).GetROProperty("innerhtml") print x Next
Descriptive programming is used to script based on ordinal identifiers which will enable QTP to act on those objects when two or more objects have same properties.
' Using Location Dim Obj Set Obj = Browser("title:=.*google.*").Page("micclass:=Page") Obj.WebEdit("name:=Test","location:=0").Set "ABC" Obj.WebEdit("name:=Test","location:=1").Set "123" ' Index Obj.WebEdit("name:=Test","index:=0").Set "1123" Obj.WebEdit("name:=Test","index:=1").Set "2222" ' Creation Time Browser("creationtime:=0").Sync Browser("creationtime:=1").Sync Browser("creationtime:=2").Sync
Automation Object Model:
QTP itself can be automated using the COM interface that is provided by Hp-QTP. Automation object model is a set of objects, methods, and properties that helps testers to control the configuration settings and execute the scripts using the QTP interface. The Key Configurations/actions that can be controlled are listed below but not limited to
Loads all the required add-ins for a test
Makes QTP visible while execution
Opens the Test using the specified location
Associates Function Libraries
Specifies the Common Object Sync Time out
Start and End Iteration
Enable/Disable Smart Identification
On Error Settings
Data Table Path
Recovery Scenario Settings
Log Tracking Settings
QTP 11.5x provides an exclusive documentation on Automation Object model that can be referred by navigating to "Start" >> "All Programs" >> "HP Software" >> "HP Unified Functional Testing" >> "Documentation" >> "Unified Functional Testing Automation Reference"
Generate AOM Script:
Tester Can generate AOM Script from QTP itself using "Generate Script" Option. Navigate to "Run" >> "Settings" >> "Properties" Tab >> "Generate Script" as shown below:
' A Sample Script to Demostrate AOM Dim App 'As Application Set App = CreateObject("QuickTest.Application") App.Launch App.Visible = True App.Test.Settings.Launchers("Web").Active = False App.Test.Settings.Launchers("Web").Browser = "IE" App.Test.Settings.Launchers("Web").Address = "http://easycalculation.com/" App.Test.Settings.Launchers("Web").CloseOnExit = True App.Test.Settings.Launchers("Windows Applications").Active = False App.Test.Settings.Launchers("Windows Applications").Applications.RemoveAll App.Test.Settings.Launchers("Windows Applications").RecordOnQTDescendants = True App.Test.Settings.Launchers("Windows Applications").RecordOnExplorerDescendants = False App.Test.Settings.Launchers("Windows Applications").RecordOnSpecifiedApplications = True App.Test.Settings.Run.IterationMode = "rngAll" App.Test.Settings.Run.StartIteration = 1 App.Test.Settings.Run.EndIteration = 1 App.Test.Settings.Run.ObjectSyncTimeOut = 20000 App.Test.Settings.Run.DisableSmartIdentification = False App.Test.Settings.Run.OnError = "Dialog" App.Test.Settings.Resources.DataTablePath = "
" App.Test.Settings.Resources.Libraries.RemoveAll App.Test.Settings.Web.BrowserNavigationTimeout = 60000 App.Test.Settings.Web.ActiveScreenAccess.UserName = "" App.Test.Settings.Web.ActiveScreenAccess.Password = "" App.Test.Settings.Recovery.Enabled = True App.Test.Settings.Recovery.SetActivationMode "OnError" App.Test.Settings.Recovery.Add "D:\GUITest2\recover_app_crash.qrs", "Recover_Application_Crash", 1 App.Test.Settings.Recovery.Item(1).Enabled = True '''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''' ' System Local Monitoring settings '''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''' App.Test.Settings.LocalSystemMonitor.Enable = false '''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''' ' Log Tracking settings '''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''' With App.Test.Settings.LogTracking .IncludeInResults = False .Port = 18081 .IP = "127.0.0.1" .MinTriggerLevel = "ERROR" .EnableAutoConfig = False .RecoverConfigAfterRun = False .ConfigFile = "" .MinConfigLevel = "WARN" End With
What is a Software Framework?
A Framework defines a set of guidelines/best practices that enforces a set of standards which makes it easy to use for the end users to work with. There are different types of automation frameworks and the most common ones are listed below:
Keyword driven testing is a type of functional automation testing framework which also known as table-driven testing or action word based testing.
In Keyword-driven testing we use a table format, usually a spreadsheet, to define keywords or action words for each function that we would like to execute.
It is best suited for novice or a non technical tester.
Enables writing tests in a more abstract manner using this approach.
Keyword driven testing allows automation to be started earlier in the SDLC even before a stable build is delivered for testing.
There is a high degree of reusability.
Initial investment in developing the keywords and its related functionalities might take longer.
It might act as a restriction to the technically abled testers.
Data Driven Framework
Data-driven testing is creation of test scripts where test data and/or output values are read from data files instead of using the same hard-coded values each time the test runs. This way testers can test how the application handles various inputs effectively. It can be any of the below data files.
Data Driven Testing can be best understood by the following diagram:
Data driven framework results in less amount of code.
Offers greater flexibility for maintaining and fixing the scripting issues.
Test Data can be developed
Each script needs to be different to understand different sets of data.
Hybrid Framework is a combination of Keyword driven and data Driven framework that can be best described using the following flow diagram.
Following are the parameters one should take into account while developing the framework. The affects factors are listed below
Framework Files Should Support Versioning Controlling Software such as SVN,CVS, MS Source Control
Framework should support executing the scripts in different environments viz- QA, SAT, DEV
Upon Object Changes, Scripts should execute with minimal changes.
Framework should configure itself and take care of prerequisite such as creating folders/databases.
Framework Should have Robust Reporting Structure so that issues in the script/application can be easily spotted
Framework Should have greater flexibility so that it should be easy to use
Framework Should follow coding standards so that files, functions and history of changes are maintained correctly.
Designing a Framework
Let us design a simple framework by taking a sample application. We will automate few scenarios of the application under test and write reusable functions.
Please click the below link to learn more about designing frameworks. - QTP - Designing Framework