- Design and Analysis of Algorithms
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- Basics of Algorithms
- DAA - Introduction
- DAA - Analysis of Algorithms
- DAA - Methodology of Analysis
- Asymptotic Notations & Apriori Analysis
- DAA - Space Complexities

- Design Strategies
- DAA - Divide & Conquer
- DAA - Max-Min Problem
- DAA - Merge Sort
- DAA - Binary Search
- Strassen’s Matrix Multiplication
- DAA - Greedy Method
- DAA - Fractional Knapsack
- DAA - Job Sequencing with Deadline
- DAA - Optimal Merge Pattern
- DAA - Dynamic Programming
- DAA - 0-1 Knapsack
- Longest Common Subsequence

- Graph Theory
- DAA - Spanning Tree
- DAA - Shortest Paths
- DAA - Multistage Graph
- Travelling Salesman Problem
- Optimal Cost Binary Search Trees

- Heap Algorithms
- DAA - Binary Heap
- DAA - Insert Method
- DAA - Heapify Method
- DAA - Extract Method

- Sorting Methods
- DAA - Bubble Sort
- DAA - Insertion Sort
- DAA - Selection Sort
- DAA - Quick Sort
- DAA - Radix Sort

- Complexity Theory
- Deterministic vs. Nondeterministic Computations
- DAA - Max Cliques
- DAA - Vertex Cover
- DAA - P and NP Class
- DAA - Cook’s Theorem
- NP Hard & NP-Complete Classes
- DAA - Hill Climbing Algorithm

- DAA Useful Resources
- DAA - Quick Guide
- DAA - Useful Resources
- DAA - Discussion

- Selected Reading
- UPSC IAS Exams Notes
- Developer's Best Practices
- Questions and Answers
- Effective Resume Writing
- HR Interview Questions
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To understand class **P** and **NP**, first we should know the computational model. Hence, in this chapter we will discuss two important computational models.

One of these models is deterministic one-tape Turing machine. This machine consists of a finite state control, a read-write head and a two-way tape with infinite sequence.

Following is the schematic diagram of a deterministic one-tape Turing machine.

A program for a deterministic Turing machine specifies the following information −

- A finite set of tape symbols (input symbols and a blank symbol)
- A finite set of states
- A transition function

In algorithmic analysis, if a problem is solvable in polynomial time by a deterministic one tape Turing machine, the problem belongs to P class.

To solve the computational problem, another model is the Non-deterministic Turing Machine (NDTM). The structure of NDTM is similar to DTM, however here we have one additional module known as the guessing module, which is associated with one write-only head.

Following is the schematic diagram.

If the problem is solvable in polynomial time by a non-deterministic Turing machine, the problem belongs to NP class.

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