Found 450 Articles for Electron

Loaded and Unloaded Voltage Dividers

Manish Kumar Saini
Updated on 12-Jun-2021 06:46:31
A voltage divider or potential divider is a series circuit that is used to provide more than one reduced voltages from a single source of voltage.Consider a circuit of voltage divider as shown below, in which two reduced voltages V1 and V2 are obtained from a single input voltage source of V volts. Since no load is connected to circuit, it is called unloaded voltage divider.Refer the circuit of unloaded voltage divider, $$\mathrm{Circuit\:Current, I= \frac{V}{R_{1}+{R_{2}}}=\frac{V}{R_{eq}}}\:\:\:… (1)$$        Where, Req=R1 + R2= Total resistance of voltage dividerTherefore, $$\mathrm{V_{1}=IR_{1}=\frac{V}{R_{eq}}×R_{1}=V\frac{R_{1}}{R_{eq}}}\:\:\:… (2)$$$$\mathrm{V_{2}=IR_{2}=\frac{V}{R_{eq}}×R_{2}=V\frac{R_{2}}{R_{eq}}}\:\:\:… (3)$$Hence, equation (2) and (3) shows that, the voltage drop ... Read More

Linear and Nonlinear Resistors

Manish Kumar Saini
Updated on 12-Jun-2021 06:43:22
A resistor is a circuit element that opposes the flow of electric current in the circuit by virtue of its property called resistance.According to I-V characteristic, the resistors may be classified in two categories viz.Linear ResistorNon-Linear ResistorOhm’s LawIf the physical conditions are constant, then the ratio of applied voltage across a conductor to the current through it remains constant and equal to the resistance of the conductor.$$\mathrm{R=\frac{V}{I}\:or\:V}=IR$$$$\mathrm{∴V\:∝\:I}$$Therefore, I-V characteristic is a straight line passing through the origin at all times.Linear ResistorA linear resistor is defined as a two terminal circuit element which satisfies Ohm’s law i.e. the voltage across the ... Read More

Inductors in AC Circuits

Manish Kumar Saini
Updated on 12-Jun-2021 06:39:32
Consider the circuit containing a pure inductive coil of inductance L Henry. When an alternating voltage V (RMS) is applied across the coil, an alternating current I (RMS) will flow through the circuit. Due to this alternating current, a back emf (e) is induced in the coil due to inductance of it. This back emf at every instant opposes the any change in current through the coil.Let the applied alternating voltage is$$\mathrm{u=V_{m}sin\:\omega t}\:\:\:… (1)$$The back emf (e) induced in the inductor coil is given by, $$\mathrm{e=L \frac{di}{dt}}\:\:\:… (2)$$Since, there is no ohmic drop, thus the applied voltage has to overcome ... Read More

Electric Power and Efficiency of Electric Device

Manish Kumar Saini
Updated on 30-Aug-2021 13:20:37
Power or Electric PowerThe rate at which work is done in an electric circuit is called as electric power. In other word, the work done per unit time is termed as electric power. It is denoted p or P.Formula and Unit of PowerWhen voltage is applied across a resistor, it causes current to flow through it. Therefore, work is being done in moving the electrons through the resistor in a unit time is called the electric power.Referring the above figure, $$\mathrm{V=\frac{work}{Q}}$$$$\mathrm{\Rightarrow work(W)=VQ=VIt}$$As, the power is defined as work done per unit time i.e.$$\mathrm{Power(P)=\frac{work\:done\:in\:electric\:circuit(W)}{Time(t)}=\frac{VIt}{t}}$$$$\mathrm{(∵V=IR\:or\:I=\frac{V}{R})}$$$$\mathrm{∴P=VI=I^2R=\frac{V^2}{R}}$$The above three formulae are equally valid for ... Read More

Difference between Diamagnetism, Paramagnetism, and Ferromagnetism

Manish Kumar Saini
Updated on 12-Jun-2021 06:23:09
In order to differentiate the diamagnetism, paramagnetism, and ferromagnetism, first we need to understand, the concept of magnetism and diamagnetism, paramagnetism and ferromagnetism individually.Concept of MagnetismElectrons exhibit two types of angular momenta − Orbital Angular Momenta and Spin Angular Momenta . The orbital angular momentum is a property of electrons when they are in atoms while the spin angular momentum is an intrinsic property of electrons. With these angular momenta, a magnetic moment is associated. That magnetic moment is a property which causes the electrons to experience a force, when they are placed in a magnetic field.The orbital magnetic moment ... Read More

Difference between Conductor, Semiconductor, and Insulator

Manish Kumar Saini
Updated on 12-Jun-2021 06:20:40
In order to differentiate the Conductor, Semiconductor and Insulator, first we have to understand their extent of forbidden band i.e. separation between their conduction and valance band. The main difference between the conductor, semiconductor and insulator is in their conductivity.ConductorA conductor is a type of material that allows the electric current to flow through it i.e. it possesses least resistance in the path of free electrons. In case of conductor, the valance and conduction bands overlap. Due to this overlapping, a small potential difference across a conductor causes the free electrons to constitute electric current.All the metals are conductors. The ... Read More

Characteristics of Network and Electric Circuit

Manish Kumar Saini
Updated on 12-Jun-2021 06:17:11
Electric NetworkAn electrical network is an interconnection of electrical components (like sources, resistors, inductors, capacitors, diodes, transistors etc.). An electrical network need not contain a closed path for the flow of electric current. Some examples of the network are shown in the figure given below.Characteristics of Electric NetworkAn electric network possesses the following characteristics −It is an interconnection of electrical components.Electric network need not provide a return path for the current.It may or may not contain active electrical components.It may be consist of, passive elements, active elements or both active and passive elements.Examples of electric network are − Resistive network, ... Read More

Capacitors in AC Circuits

Manish Kumar Saini
Updated on 10-Jun-2021 12:13:16
Consider the circuit consisting of a capacitor (C) only. When an alternating voltage is applied across the capacitor, the capacitor being charged in one direction and then in the other as the voltage reverses. Due to the application of alternating voltage across the capacitor the electrons move to and fro around the circuit, thus constituting alternating current.Let the equation of the applied alternating voltage is$$\mathrm{u= V_{m} sin(\omega t)}\:\:\:….. (1)$$As a result of the alternating voltage (v), alternating current will flow through the circuit (i). Let at any instant q is the charge on plates of the capacitor. Thus, $$\mathrm{q=C u ... Read More

Analog & Digital Multimeter

Manish Kumar Saini
Updated on 10-Jun-2021 12:10:07
MultimeterAs the name implies, a multimeter is device that can be used to measure multiple quantities, i.e., when a single device is used to measure multiple quantities, the device is called multimeter. On the basis of output representation, there are two types of multimeters −Analog multimeterDigital multimeterAnalog MultimeterAn analog multimeter is a permanent magnet moving coil (PMMC) meter type measuring instrument. It works on the principle of d’Arsonval galvanometer. The analog multimeter has an analog display that uses the deflection of a pointer on the scale to indicate the level of measurement being made. The pointer deflects from its initial ... Read More

Half Wave Rectifier

Manish Kumar Saini
Updated on 04-Jul-2022 06:53:52
Half Wave Rectifier is a diode circuit which is used to transform Alternating Voltage (AC Supply) to Direct Voltage (DC Supply). A single diode is used in the HWR circuit for the transformation of AC to DC.Half Wave Rectifier circuit allows the one – half cycle of the AC Supply waveform to pass and blocks the other half cycle.Half Wave Rectifier Circuit DiagramThe circuit of HWR consists of following three main components −A DiodeA TransformerA Load(may be a Resistance)Working of HWR CircuitPositive Half CycleThe AC high voltage is applied to the primary of step down transformer and the obtained secondary ... Read More