# Arduino - Operators

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An operator is a symbol that tells the compiler to perform specific mathematical or logical functions. C language is rich in built-in operators and provides the following types of operators −

- Arithmetic Operators
- Comparison Operators
- Boolean Operators
- Bitwise Operators
- Compound Operators

## Arithmetic Operators

Assume variable A holds 10 and variable B holds 20 then −

Operator name | Operator simple | Description | Example |
---|---|---|---|

assignment operator | = | Stores the value to the right of the equal sign in the variable to the left of the equal sign. | A = B |

addition | + | Adds two operands | A + B will give 30 |

subtraction | - | Subtracts second operand from the first | A - B will give -10 |

multiplication | * | Multiply both operands | A * B will give 200 |

division | / | Divide numerator by denominator | B / A will give 2 |

modulo | % | Modulus Operator and remainder of after an integer division | B % A will give 0 |

## Comparison Operators

Assume variable A holds 10 and variable B holds 20 then −

Operator name | Operator simple | Description | Example |
---|---|---|---|

equal to | == | Checks if the value of two operands is equal or not, if yes then condition becomes true. | (A == B) is not true |

not equal to | != | Checks if the value of two operands is equal or not, if values are not equal then condition becomes true. | (A != B) is true |

less than | < | Checks if the value of left operand is less than the value of right operand, if yes then condition becomes true. | (A < B) is true |

greater than | > | Checks if the value of left operand is greater than the value of right operand, if yes then condition becomes true. | (A > B) is not true |

less than or equal to | <= | Checks if the value of left operand is less than or equal to the value of right operand, if yes then condition becomes true. | (A <= B) is true |

greater than or equal to | >= | Checks if the value of left operand is greater than or equal to the value of right operand, if yes then condition becomes true. | (A >= B) is not true |

## Boolean Operators

Assume variable A holds 10 and variable B holds 20 then −

Operator name | Operator simple | Description | Example |
---|---|---|---|

and | && | Called Logical AND operator. If both the operands are non-zero then then condition becomes true. | (A && B) is true |

or | || | Called Logical OR Operator. If any of the two operands is non-zero then then condition becomes true. | (A || B) is true |

not | ! | Called Logical NOT Operator. Use to reverses the logical state of its operand. If a condition is true then Logical NOT operator will make false. | !(A && B) is false |

## Bitwise Operators

Assume variable A holds 60 and variable B holds 13 then −

Operator name | Operator simple | Description | Example |
---|---|---|---|

and | & | Binary AND Operator copies a bit to the result if it exists in both operands. | (A & B) will give 12 which is 0000 1100 |

or | | | Binary OR Operator copies a bit if it exists in either operand | (A | B) will give 61 which is 0011 1101 |

xor | ^ | Binary XOR Operator copies the bit if it is set in one operand but not both. | (A ^ B) will give 49 which is 0011 0001 |

not | ~ | Binary Ones Complement Operator is unary and has the effect of 'flipping' bits. | (~A ) will give -60 which is 1100 0011 |

shift left | << | Binary Left Shift Operator. The left operands value is moved left by the number of bits specified by the right operand. | A << 2 will give 240 which is 1111 0000 |

shift right | >> | Binary Right Shift Operator. The left operands value is moved right by the number of bits specified by the right operand. | A >> 2 will give 15 which is 0000 1111 |

## Compound Operators

Assume variable A holds 10 and variable B holds 20 then −

Operator name | Operator simple | Description | Example |
---|---|---|---|

increment | ++ | Increment operator, increases integer value by one | A++ will give 11 |

decrement | -- | Decrement operator, decreases integer value by one | A-- will give 9 |

compound addition | += | Add AND assignment operator. It adds right operand to the left operand and assign the result to left operand | B += A is equivalent to B = B+ A |

compound subtraction | -= | Subtract AND assignment operator. It subtracts right operand from the left operand and assign the result to left operand | B -= A is equivalent to B = B - A |

compound multiplication | *= | Multiply AND assignment operator. It multiplies right operand with the left operand and assign the result to left operand | B*= A is equivalent to B = B* A |

compound division | /= | Divide AND assignment operator. It divides left operand with the right operand and assign the result to left operand | B /= A is equivalent to B = B / A |

compound modulo | %= | Modulus AND assignment operator. It takes modulus using two operands and assign the result to left operand | B %= A is equivalent to B = B % A |

compound bitwise or | |= | bitwise inclusive OR and assignment operator | A |= 2 is same as A = A | 2 |

compound bitwise and | &= | Bitwise AND assignment operator | A &= 2 is same as A = A & 2 |

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