Python Basic Operators


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Operators are the constructs which can manipulate the value of operands.

Consider the expression 4 + 5 = 9. Here, 4 and 5 are called operands and + is called operator.

Types of Operator

Python language supports the following types of operators.

  • Arithmetic Operators

  • Comparison (Relational) Operators

  • Assignment Operators

  • Logical Operators

  • Bitwise Operators

  • Membership Operators

  • Identity Operators

Let us have a look on all operators one by one.

Python Arithmetic Operators

Assume variable a holds 10 and variable b holds 20, then −

[ Show Example ]

Operator Description Example
+ Addition Adds values on either side of the operator. a + b = 30
- Subtraction Subtracts right hand operand from left hand operand. a – b = -10
* Multiplication Multiplies values on either side of the operator a * b = 200
/ Division Divides left hand operand by right hand operand b / a = 2
% Modulus Divides left hand operand by right hand operand and returns remainder b % a = 0
** Exponent Performs exponential (power) calculation on operators a**b =10 to the power 20
// Floor Division - The division of operands where the result is the quotient in which the digits after the decimal point are removed. 9//2 = 4 and 9.0//2.0 = 4.0

Python Comparison Operators

These operators compare the values on either sides of them and decide the relation among them. They are also called Relational operators.

Assume variable a holds 10 and variable b holds 20, then −

[ Show Example ]

OperatorDescriptionExample
== If the values of two operands are equal, then the condition becomes true. (a == b) is not true.
!= If values of two operands are not equal, then condition becomes true.
<> If values of two operands are not equal, then condition becomes true. (a <> b) is true. This is similar to != operator.
> If the value of left operand is greater than the value of right operand, then condition becomes true. (a > b) is not true.
< If the value of left operand is less than the value of right operand, then condition becomes true. (a < b) is true.
>= If the value of left operand is greater than or equal to the value of right operand, then condition becomes true. (a >= b) is not true.
<= If the value of left operand is less than or equal to the value of right operand, then condition becomes true. (a <= b) is true.

Python Assignment Operators

Assume variable a holds 10 and variable b holds 20, then −

[ Show Example ]

Operator Description Example
= Assigns values from right side operands to left side operand c = a + b assigns value of a + b into c
+= Add AND It adds right operand to the left operand and assign the result to left operand c += a is equivalent to c = c + a
-= Subtract AND It subtracts right operand from the left operand and assign the result to left operand c -= a is equivalent to c = c - a
*= Multiply AND It multiplies right operand with the left operand and assign the result to left operand c *= a is equivalent to c = c * a
/= Divide AND It divides left operand with the right operand and assign the result to left operand c /= a is equivalent to c = c / ac /= a is equivalent to c = c / a
%= Modulus AND It takes modulus using two operands and assign the result to left operand c %= a is equivalent to c = c % a
**= Exponent AND Performs exponential (power) calculation on operators and assign value to the left operand c **= a is equivalent to c = c ** a
//= Floor Division It performs floor division on operators and assign value to the left operand c //= a is equivalent to c = c // a

Python Bitwise Operators

Bitwise operator works on bits and performs bit by bit operation. Assume if a = 60; and b = 13; Now in binary format they will be as follows −

a = 0011 1100

b = 0000 1101

-----------------

a&b = 0000 1100

a|b = 0011 1101

a^b = 0011 0001

~a  = 1100 0011

There are following Bitwise operators supported by Python language

[ Show Example ]

Operator Description Example
& Binary AND Operator copies a bit to the result if it exists in both operands (a & b) (means 0000 1100)
| Binary OR It copies a bit if it exists in either operand. (a | b) = 61 (means 0011 1101)
^ Binary XOR It copies the bit if it is set in one operand but not both. (a ^ b) = 49 (means 0011 0001)
~ Binary Ones Complement It is unary and has the effect of 'flipping' bits. (~a ) = -61 (means 1100 0011 in 2's complement form due to a signed binary number.
<< Binary Left Shift The left operands value is moved left by the number of bits specified by the right operand. a << = 240 (means 1111 0000)
>> Binary Right Shift The left operands value is moved right by the number of bits specified by the right operand. a >> = 15 (means 0000 1111)

Python Logical Operators

There are following logical operators supported by Python language. Assume variable a holds 10 and variable b holds 20 then

[ Show Example ]

Used to reverse the logical state of its operand.

Python Membership Operators

Python’s membership operators test for membership in a sequence, such as strings, lists, or tuples. There are two membership operators as explained below

[ Show Example ]

OperatorDescriptionExample
is Evaluates to true if the variables on either side of the operator point to the same object and false otherwise. x is y, here is results in 1 if id(x) equals id(y).
is not Evaluates to false if the variables on either side of the operator point to the same object and true otherwise. x is not y, here is not results in 1 if id(x) is not equal to id(y).

Python Identity Operators

Identity operators compare the memory locations of two objects. There are two Identity operators explained below:

[ Show Example ]

OperatorDescriptionExample
isEvaluates to true if the variables on either side of the operator point to the same object and false otherwise. x is y, here is results in 1 if id(x) equals id(y).
is notEvaluates to false if the variables on either side of the operator point to the same object and true otherwise. x is not y, here is not results in 1 if id(x) is not equal to id(y).

Python Operators Precedence

The following table lists all operators from highest precedence to lowest.

[ Show Example ]

OperatorDescription
** Exponentiation (raise to the power)
~ + - Ccomplement, unary plus and minus (method names for the last two are +@ and -@)
* / % // Multiply, divide, modulo and floor division
+ - Addition and subtraction
>> << Right and left bitwise shift
& Bitwise 'AND'td>
^ | Bitwise exclusive `OR' and regular `OR'
<= < > >= Comparison operators
<> == != Equality operators
= %= /= //= -= += *= **= Assignment operators
is is not Identity operators
in not in Membership operators
not or and Logical operators


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