Here are some popular boards that can be programmed using Arduino IDE −
This board is used primarily for IoT applications
It has WiFi and BlueTooth capabilities
To make this compatible with Arduino IDE, the following JSON has to be added to File → Preferences → Additional Boards Manager URLs −
Next, you need to go to Tools → Boards Manager, search for ESP8266 and install this board.
This is an upgrade over ESP8266
It comes with two cores (supporting dual core operation) and in general has superior specs over ESP32
There are various variants of this board, some like the TTGO Board even having OLED, LoRa and SD Card support pre-built.
In order to program this with Arduino IDE, the following JSON has to be added to File → Preferences → Additional Boards Manager URLs.
Next, you need to go to Tools → Boards Manager, search for ESP32 and install this board
Teensy series of boards are very popular with hobbyists and are very helpful in prototyping
Teensy 3.5 comes with inbuilt SD Card holder integrated, making it very useful for several applications
In order to program your Teensy boards with Arduino, you need to download the Teensyduino Add-on. Follow the instructions here.
This is a shorter version of the mighty STM32 series of microcontrollers.
It specifically appeals to the tinkering audience, and therefore, it is no surprise that Arduino IDE support was provided for this board
In order to use this board with the Arduino IDE, you can go to Boards Manager and search for STM32. Select the one containing STM32 F103Cxxx and click install.
Additional instructions can be found here.
Note that you will need to initially upload bootloader to the STM32 Blue Pill in order to be able to program it. You can find the instructions here.