There are two ways to compile code using the Arduino IDE.
You can click the tick-mark button at the top-left. That will begin the compilation.
Alternatively, you can go to Sketch -> Verify/ Compile
The compilation progress will be shown at the bottom of the screen.
If you'd like to see Verbose print statements at the bottom when the compilation is in progress, you can go to File -> Preferences and click on the Show Verbose Output during Compilation checkbox −
Below that, you can also define the kind of compiler warnings you wish to receive. Click OK after you are done with the settings. Now, when you hit compile, you can see Verbose output as shown below −