Elements: Information Technology

In of our previous chapters, we discussed the meaning, benefits, and applications of Information Technology; in this chapter, we will discuss, the major elements, i.e., basically the core concept of Information Technology.

Computer Technology

There are different subject matters those are being studied in the topic of information technology such as computer technology, electronics, IT industries, etc.

Areas Covered by Information Technology

Following are the essential topics of Information technology −

  • Electronics
  • Electronic Technology

Let us now discuss each area in brief.


The purpose of using the term ‘electronics’ is to enumerate all those devices that we use in our everyday life, such as, watches, TVs, stereo systems, and many more (as shown in the image given below).

Further, the electronic devices are used in the design, manufacture, sale, and repair of all faulty products.

Electronic Devices

Because of the advancement in the field of technology, these days, it is possible to develop very small devices, such as small computer, small stereo system, etc.

The branch of electronics that does research on the miniaturization of electronic devices is known as ‘microelectronics.’

Following are some of the significant electronic devices that play a major role in different electronic products −

Semiconductor device

Largely made up of silicon, semiconductor is used in almost every electronic device.

Electron tube

It is normally a gas-filled tube in which the current of electrons flows between electrodes. However, when the gases are removed from the tube, it acts as a vacuum tube.

Analog device

It is a device that can measure, record, reproduce, or broadcast continuous information. For, example, radio waves used in the AM radio.

Digital device

It is a device that works on the sequence of pulse-like signals. The signals are coded to characterize numbers; for example, digital watches, computers, etc.

Electronic Technology

Following are a few important electronic technologies −


The Golden-i device consists of various mobile wireless wearable headset computers; the device is operated by voice commands and head movements (as shown in the image given below).

Golden-i Device

DNA Robot

It is a device that possibly can treat deadly diseases including cancer. The technology is being researched and developed.


It is a technology that translates handwriting into plain text on the screen. There is a different handwriting recognition software that senses handwriting and transfers the written text on the screen in the same format.

Handwriting Recognition Software


LCD stands for ‘liquid crystal display.’ This technology has two layers of polarized glass through which the liquid crystals block as well pass light. It uses fluorescent light. E.g. LCD TVs and Monitor.


LED stands for ‘light emitting diodes.’ The LED technology uses light emitting diodes.


It is a technique that converts information or data into a code, in order to prevent unauthorized access.

Other Important Areas Covered by Information Technology

We will now discuss the other important areas covered by Information Technology −


It is the technology or process of communication over a distance by means of cable, telegraph, telephone, or broadcasting.

Fiber Optics

It is a technology that transmits signals on the principle of Total Internal Reflection (TIR) of light. The technology employs transmission of data in pulses of light form.

Integrated Service Digital Network (ISDN)

ISDN is a set of communication standards that simultaneously transmits voice, video, data, and other network services in digital form over the traditional circuits of the public switched telephone network.

Telephone Network


A computer is a programmable electronic device that manipulates and manages different sorts of data and information.

A computer can store, process, and retrieve the save data.

Blue-Gene Computer

It is one of the fastest supercomputers developed by the IBM Crop.

Cloud Computing

Cloud computing is a technique of using a network of remote servers hosted on the Internet with the purpose to store, manage, and process data.

The technique keeps data safe and makes your data available anytime and anywhere; in other words, you don’t need to carry your computer device to carry data you access your data on any computer with internet facility.