Fundamentals of Science & Technology - Quick Guide

Science & Technology - Introduction

The evolution of science is like a boon to the world, as human beings come to know a lot about the world they are living in including the activities they indulge into. Furthermore, the development of technology along with the advancement in Science helps to bring in a revolution in various fields such as medicine, agriculture, education, information and technology, and many more.

Evolution of Science

In the present world, if we think of any sort of development, then the presence of science and technology cannot be ignored.

What is Science?

Science fundamentally is the systematic study of the structure and behavior of the natural and physical world through observations and experiments.

Study of science evolved with the civilization of human beings.

What is Technology?

Technology (which is basically derived from the Greek word ‘technologia’) is an art, skill or ability, which is used to create and develop products and acquire knowledge.

Scientists used their knowledge to develop technology and then used technology to develop Science; so, because of this reason science and technology are an integrated term in today’s world.

Consider the following points to understand the relationship between Science and Technology −

  • Contribution of Science to Technology
  • Contribution of Technology to Science

Let us discuss these points in brief.

Contribution of Science to Technology

Let us now understand how Science has contributed to Technology −

Science as a direct source of new technological ideas

For example, innovation and development medical instruments; nuclear technology, radar system, etc.

Contribution of Science

Science as a source of engineering

Most of the technical knowledge used in the designing and development of tools and techniques is actually an outcome of ‘engineering science’.

Engineering Science

Science has also helped in the development of human skills. This is one of the fundamental contributions of Science.

Contribution of Technology to Science

Consider the following points to understand the contribution of Technology to Science −

Technology as a source of scientific challenges

The development in the field of technology paves way for research and development in the field of Science. For example, space science is one of them. Technological development likewise indirectly stimulates basic research in the field of science.

Instrumentation and measurement techniques

Development of advanced instruments facilitated scientists to measure the distance between sun and earth, the intensity of sun’s rays, the revolution of celestial bodies, internal problems of human beings, life of a bridge, etc.

Role of Science & Technology in Today’s Life

In today’s world, the role of science and technology is indispensable. We need Science and Technology in every sphere of our life like to treat diseases such as cancer or even to book a cab or train/flight ticket.

In fact, without technology (integrated with science), we cannot imagine our life per se.

Integrated with Science

One of the most important aspects of Science and Technology is that it has solution to the difficult of the difficult problems, the problems which have the potential to become major bottlenecks to the overall growth of the country. Some of these problems could be −

  • Health aspects
  • Standard of education
  • Availability of healthy food and safe drinking water
  • Infrastructure

On the other hand, once mitigating solutions are found for these problems, then the second major issue is the under-development in the field of scientific research and technology that directly affects the development of the country’s economy, infrastructure, higher education, and a few other fields listed below −

  • Development of nuclear technology
  • Defense technology
  • Development of satellites
  • Biotechnology
  • Meteorological science
  • Space technology
  • Nanotechnology
  • Wireless communication, etc.

All these technologies, in turn, provide favorable conditions for the country’s growth and increase healthy competition nationally and also internationally.

In today’s world, more often, we get to read or listen that developed countries, developing countries, underdeveloped countries, or even third-world countries, all these designate the level of development of Science and Technology in other countries, they have the influence on.

Government has also created an exclusive department to emphasize on the development of Science and Technology and a separate budget is also allocated for the same.

Nature of Science & Technology

Let us now discuss the nature of Science and Technology. There are normally two types of knowledge required for the overall development of a country −

Technical Knowledge

It can be defined in the simplest term as – ‘know-how’. It includes ranges of basic skills such as advancement in agriculture, development of chemical industries, medical technology, software engineering, etc.

Understanding of the attributes or elements

It means, knowledge and understanding of the intelligence of workers, quality of products, value of a firm, effectiveness of market, etc.

Developing vs Developed

The uncompetitiveness of any of the attributes or elements leads to knowledge gap and information deficiency, which is directly related to the under-development of the respective country.

Likewise, Science and Technology is directly related to the overall development of the country. As a matter of fact, Science and Technology facilitates healthy competition between the different attributes and elements and acts like a platform for a better life.

Therefore, in order to alleviate the basic problems of food and supply, safe drinking water, health problems, education, infrastructure, etc., the emphasis and gradual development of Science and Technology is essential.

Role of Science & Technology In India

Over a period of time, India has progressively and perceptibly paved way for development in the field of Science and Technology.

The 21st century in India is apparently marked as the beginning towards an advancement in terms of technology and enrichment of knowledge base in the fields of Science.

At present, India holds a strong position in terms of advanced technology. India also serves as a knowledge warehouse with the existence of its many institutions catering to Science and Technology which come with qualified and trained manpower.

Advanced Technology

Areas of Development

Let us now discuss the different areas which undergo development with the advancement in Science and Technology −

  • Higher education

  • Scientific research and development

  • Technological development

  • Advancement of agricultural system

  • Development of space science and technology

  • Development of medical science and technology

  • Development of infrastructure

  • Information and communication technology

  • Development of various fields of engineering (including software, chemical, mechanical, civil, electrical, electronic, etc.)

Likewise, India has strong scientific and technological base that spreads across the country in the form of academic institutions, research and development laboratories, advanced medical center (with research facilities), experimental centers, and different advanced industries.

Areas of Development

Because of the development in all spheres of Science and technology, today, India is unquestionably a leading developing country in the world.

Science & Technology and Industry in India

Over the recent past, Science and Technology has made tremendous contribution towards the settlement of industries in India.

Starting from the micro level to the macro level, research and development in the field of technology has created an ideal niche for the overall growth of the economic condition of the country. The perceptible examples are the development of Atomic Energy, Space Science, dozens of successful satellite systems, advanced medical technologies, etc.

After the independence, it was not possible for India to depend on other countries for various aspects of development; therefore, the development of indigenous technology was indispensable for the overall development of a country.

Thankfully, today, Indian technologies and companies are as competent as in other developed countries. India is also a lead in various fields, and is a tough competitor for other countries.

If we discuss about the skilled human resources, many Indians are at top-notch positions in leading companies.

Indian industries started flourishing post 1990, i.e., the landmark era. Globalization, liberalization, and privatization, facilitated this growth. The industries catering to Information & Technology, Atomic Energy, Automotive, Biotechnology, Nanotechnology, Pharmaceutical, Petroleum, etc. have increased at global level.

On the other hand, the Government of India has also made sizable investment in the field of research and development to encourage the advancement of Indian economy.

For consistent and efficient growth, various initiatives have been taken by establishing the following organizations −

  • Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) center
  • Department of Science and Technology (DST)
  • All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMA)
  • Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences (ARIES)
  • Central Drug Research Institute
  • Centre for the Study of Developing Societies
  • Central Electronics Engineering Research Institute
  • Central Food Technological Research Institute
  • Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute (CGCRI)
  • Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering
  • Central Institute of Brackish Water Aquaculture
  • Central Soil Salinity Research Institute
  • Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology (IIEST)
  • Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR)
  • Institute of Economic Growth
  • Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology (IGIB)
  • National Institute of Electronics & Information Technology (NIELIT)
  • National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research
  • National Institute of Oceanography (NIO)

Likewise, there are dozens of other such scientific research centers, which have been set up for the overall economic growth of the country.

Science & Technology and Society in India

The growth, peace, and security of a society is directly related to the development of the technology; as Science and Technology in a way influences the development as well as security of the society.

Science & Technology and Society in India

Consider the following points to understand how the security of a society is directly related to the development of the technology −

  • CCTV Camera at various locations (especially at public places) is one of the best examples of keeping crime under surveillance and it also provides a sense of security to the people.

  • Because of the advancement in technology, today, there is a reduce in communication gap; people have the information of where their near and dear ones are and are just a phone call away at times of need.

  • The job of the police has become easier, as police can trace criminals easily.

  • Besides, because of the advancement of technology, today, most of the villages in India have electricity, road, and can avail for essential facilities.

  • People, who are residing in even very remote part of the country, have the benefit of entertaining themselves and upgrading their knowledge through the different programmes broadcast on television (with dozens of channels).

  • Telecommunications network towers have been set up at the remotest of the remote regions too.

Development of The Country

Therefore, Science and Technology is like a boon for the overall scientific and economic development of the country.

India: Development of Science & Technology

For the organized growth and development of Science and Technology in India, different specialized research and development agencies and organization are being set up.

Every organization specializes in a particular field to develop an advanced type of knowledge-based technology; for example, atomic industry is accountable to develop nuclear technology to fulfil the growing demands of energy.

Council of Scientific & Industrial Research (or CSIR) is a premier national Research & Development organization. CSIR is also accountable for the human resource development in the field of Science and Technology.

Council of Scientific & Industrial Research


During the seventh five-year plan (in 1986), the Council for Advancement of People’s Action and Rural Technology (CAPART) was established.

CAPART has been assigned with the task to catalyze and co-ordinate the emerging partnership between the Government and the voluntary organizations for sustainable development of rural areas.

Primarily, there were two organizations namely Council for Advancement of Rural Technology - CART and People’s Action for Development India - PADI; so, CAPART is a merger of these two organizations.

At present, CAPART is an autonomous body and is largely accountable for the rural development in India.

CAPART supports and promotes the voluntary organizations in planning and implementing the sustainable development projects especially in rural areas. The organizations also provides a platform for women, the physically challenged and disadvantaged groups to participate and promote the development.

Department of Science & Technology

The Department of Science & Technology (DST) plays a pivotal role in the promotion of science and technology in India.

DST has a huge responsibility; such as, at one end, it promotes high end research & development of cutting edge technologies; on the other hand, it provides technical skill sets and basic technologies to the common people.

Celebration National Science Day

Science & Technology Facts

Let us now discuss a few facts in the field of Science and technology.

  • At present, India is one of the most fascinating destinations for technology transactions in the world and it is ranked among the top five.

  • At present, about 27 satellites (out of which 11 facilitate the communication network to the country) are active and in operations.

  • Furthermore, India is ranked among the top ten nations in terms of the number of scientific publications.

  • As per the report of the National Association of Software and Services Companies (NASSCOM), the analytics industry of India is expected to touch about USD 16 billion by 2015 from the current USD 2 billion.

  • Very recently, with 1,000 MW capacity, the Kudankulam Nuclear Power Project Unit 1 (KKNPP 1) was set up.

  • The KKNPP I is located in Tirunelveli, Tamil Nadu.

  • To add to the existing project, with the same capacity (i.e. 1,000 MW), the Kudankulam Nuclear Power Project Unit 2 is under commissioning.

  • The DRDO, i.e., the Defense Research and Development Organization has tied up with Snecma, a French engine maker to develop the Gas Turbine and Research Establishment (GTRE); the GTRE will improve the performance of the Kaveri engines.

  • Kaveri engines are being used in ‘Teja’ the indigenous developed Light Combat Aircraft (LCA).

  • The Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) has successfully completed its mission of developing India’s independent navigation system by launching the Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS – 1G).

  • IRNSS – 1G is the seventh navigation satellite and it will reduce the country’s dependency on US Global Positioning System.

  • India recently has become an Associate Member State of the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN); the motive is to increase the collaboration between India and CERN’s scientific and technological efforts and also promote the participation of Indian physicists, software engineers, and electronics hardware in global experiments.

  • The DHR (i.e. Department of Health Research), Ministry of Health and Family Welfare planned to set up a three-tier national network of Viral Research and Diagnostic Laboratories (VRDLs).

  • Under the project VRDLs, 160 VRDLs will be set up with the capacity to handle about 30 to 35 viruses of public health importance.

The Department of Biotechnology, Ministry of Science and Technology of the Government of India has now become the second country outside of Europe to have joined the European Molecular Biology Organization (EMBO).

Science & Technology Policy in India

The growth and development of Science and Technology in India is not a decade or a century old activity. There is evidence which shows that it is no less than an ancient saga; the growth and development is evident through the town planning, drainage system, road planning, etc. of the Indus Valley Civilization.

Likewise, throughout from the very ancient period to the medieval or to the modern, the planning and policy of Science and Technology are the major areas of emphasis.

However, after the independence, the five-year planning scheme commenced and over a period of time, Science and Technology accordingly became a major area of emphasis.

Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, the first prime minister of India was the torchbearer who initiated by laying more emphasis on education and further led the foundation of Science and Technology.

Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru

Likewise, the first policy relating to Science and Technology was first introduced in 1958.

Over the recent past, India declared the decade 2010-2020 as the “Decade of Innovation.”

The Various Policies in The Field of Science and Technology

Let us now discuss the various policies implemented in the field of Science and Technology.

Scientific Policy Resolution of 1958

  • It was the first science policy that largely emphasized on basic research in almost every field of science.

  • The policy also put emphasis on developing and making available the basic infrastructure for the development of scientific research.

The Technology Policy Statement of 1983

  • The policy of 1983 was the second policy that largely focused on the achievement of technological competence and self-reliance.

The Science and Technology Policy of 2003

  • This policy brought the benefits of Science and Technology to the forefront and also focused on the investment required for research and development.

  • Further, it comes with integrated programs for the socio-economic sectors with the national research and development system to address the national problems and at the same time create a national innovation system.

Science Technology & Innovation Policy 2013

  • By 2013, Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) became the major drivers of national development.

  • This policy ensures faster, sustainable, and inclusive development of the people

  • Further, the policy focuses on the large demographic dividend and the huge talent pool to define the role in achieving the national goals.

  • The paradigm set by the policy of 2013 is “Science technology and innovation for the people.”

  • The key features of Policy 2013 are (source: Science, Technology and Innovation Policy 2013, Government of India, Ministry of Science and technology, New Delhi) −

    • Promoting the spread of scientific temper amongst all sections of society.

    • Enhancing skill for applications of science among the young from all social strata.

    • Making careers in Science, research and innovation attractive enough for talented and bright minds.

    • Establishing world class infrastructure for R&D for gaining global leadership in some select frontier areas of science.

    • Positioning India among the top five global scientific powers by 2020.

    • Linking contributions of science, research and innovation system with the inclusive economic growth agenda and combining priorities of excellence and relevance.

    • Creating an environment for enhanced Private Sector Participation in R&D

    • Enabling conversion of R&D outputs into societal and commercial applications by replicating hitherto successful models as well as establishing of new PPP structures.

    • Seeding S&T-based high-risk innovations through new mechanisms.

    • Fostering resource-optimized, cost-effective innovations across size and technology domains.

    • Triggering changes in the mindset and value systems to recognize, respect and reward performances which create wealth from S&T derived knowledge.

    • Creating a robust national innovation system.

Key Points of 12th Five-Year Plan (2012-17)

  • Besides the policies discussed above, the 12th Five-Year Plan (2012-17) focuses on the following points (of science and technology) −

    • Creation and development of national facilities in the field of R&D

    • Emphasis on partnership growth of Science and Technology

    • Large scale investment into mega science project aimed at the creation of the research and development infrastructure in India as well as abroad (under partnership)


National Council for Science & Technology Communication (NCSTC) emphasizes on the following key points −

  • Promote scientific thinking.

  • Promote and spread the significance of Science and Technology to masses nationally through different medium such as TV, digital media, print media, and people to people.

  • Emphasise on training in Science and Technology Communication.

  • Development and dissemination of Science and Technology software.

  • Focus on National Children’s Science Congress.

Likewise, through different plans and progressive policies, Science and Technology is being further developing in India.

Information Technology

21st century has come to be known as the era of Information Technology; it is the key driver of economic growth of not only a nation, but rather the whole world.

The growth and progress of every sector of the country today depends on the level of Information Technology.

Information Technology

Furthermore, technology is not important only at the work place, but also in our everyday life; whether it is working with the microwave oven which is a cooking appliance or a super computer, an appliance is based on information technology, technology helps everywhere.

From hi-tech industry to an education system, Information Technology footprints can be seen everywhere.

Likewise, Information Technology is one of the essential features for the overall development of a country.

Meaning of Information Technology

The technology, which is exclusively designed to store, process, and transmit information, is known as Information Technology.

The following diagram illustrates the basic features and applications of Information Technology −

Information Technology Features

Though the diagram given above is not inclusive, as it does not include every aspect and application of information technology, but it comprehensively covers the major aspects.

Important Features of Information Technology

Following are the major features as well as advantages of Information Technology −

  • The development of Information Technology has made education system simpler, easier, and widespread. Now, people of remote areas can also use technology for their children’s education and also avail the benefits of adult education.

  • Diffusion of e-governance on a large scale.

  • Participation of public in governance and policy making.

  • Fast economic development.

  • Development of remote areas.

  • Technology helps the police in nabbing the criminals.

  • The judiciary and other administrative services can also take the help of technology to make work easier and faster.

  • Highly beneficial for the common people, as they can access their rights and can take legal action against the person who violates his/her rights.

  • It increases the happiness and prosperity of not only an individual, but rather the society as a whole.

Besides, there are many other advantages too that can be availed in our everyday life only with the further development of information technology.

Demerits of Information Technology

Information Technology is like a boon on the society. However, it comes with its own disadvantages −

  • As discussed above, with the help of technology, police can arrest criminals and criminal activities; at the same time, technology has also opened the door for criminals as well to practice smart criminal activity.

  • There are chances that children can misuse technology and take a wrong path.

  • Some distorted and perverted minds use technology to demean or defame someone unethically and also illegally.

  • These are basically not demerits but rather the misuse of technology.

Information Technology Act, 2000

By understanding the growing demand and applications of Information Technology, the Government of India passed the bill of Information Technology in 2000, which came to be known as the Information Technology Act, 2000.

The major features of the Act are −

  • It facilitates e-governance and e-commerce by providing equal legal treatment to users.

  • It made provision to accept electronic records and digital signature.

  • It gave legal approval to electronic business transactions.

  • The Act instructs banks to maintain electronic record and facilitate electronic fund transfer.

It also sets up a Cyber Law Appellate Tribunal.

Elements: Information Technology

In of our previous chapters, we discussed the meaning, benefits, and applications of Information Technology; in this chapter, we will discuss, the major elements, i.e., basically the core concept of Information Technology.

Computer Technology

There are different subject matters those are being studied in the topic of information technology such as computer technology, electronics, IT industries, etc.

Areas Covered by Information Technology

Following are the essential topics of Information technology −

  • Electronics
  • Electronic Technology

Let us now discuss each area in brief.


The purpose of using the term ‘electronics’ is to enumerate all those devices that we use in our everyday life, such as, watches, TVs, stereo systems, and many more (as shown in the image given below).

Further, the electronic devices are used in the design, manufacture, sale, and repair of all faulty products.

Electronic Devices

Because of the advancement in the field of technology, these days, it is possible to develop very small devices, such as small computer, small stereo system, etc.

The branch of electronics that does research on the miniaturization of electronic devices is known as ‘microelectronics.’

Following are some of the significant electronic devices that play a major role in different electronic products −

Semiconductor device

Largely made up of silicon, semiconductor is used in almost every electronic device.

Electron tube

It is normally a gas-filled tube in which the current of electrons flows between electrodes. However, when the gases are removed from the tube, it acts as a vacuum tube.

Analog device

It is a device that can measure, record, reproduce, or broadcast continuous information. For, example, radio waves used in the AM radio.

Digital device

It is a device that works on the sequence of pulse-like signals. The signals are coded to characterize numbers; for example, digital watches, computers, etc.

Electronic Technology

Following are a few important electronic technologies −


The Golden-i device consists of various mobile wireless wearable headset computers; the device is operated by voice commands and head movements (as shown in the image given below).

Golden-i Device

DNA Robot

It is a device that possibly can treat deadly diseases including cancer. The technology is being researched and developed.


It is a technology that translates handwriting into plain text on the screen. There is a different handwriting recognition software that senses handwriting and transfers the written text on the screen in the same format.

Handwriting Recognition Software


LCD stands for ‘liquid crystal display.’ This technology has two layers of polarized glass through which the liquid crystals block as well pass light. It uses fluorescent light. E.g. LCD TVs and Monitor.


LED stands for ‘light emitting diodes.’ The LED technology uses light emitting diodes.


It is a technique that converts information or data into a code, in order to prevent unauthorized access.

Other Important Areas Covered by Information Technology

We will now discuss the other important areas covered by Information Technology −


It is the technology or process of communication over a distance by means of cable, telegraph, telephone, or broadcasting.

Fiber Optics

It is a technology that transmits signals on the principle of Total Internal Reflection (TIR) of light. The technology employs transmission of data in pulses of light form.

Integrated Service Digital Network (ISDN)

ISDN is a set of communication standards that simultaneously transmits voice, video, data, and other network services in digital form over the traditional circuits of the public switched telephone network.

Telephone Network


A computer is a programmable electronic device that manipulates and manages different sorts of data and information.

A computer can store, process, and retrieve the save data.

Blue-Gene Computer

It is one of the fastest supercomputers developed by the IBM Crop.

Cloud Computing

Cloud computing is a technique of using a network of remote servers hosted on the Internet with the purpose to store, manage, and process data.

The technique keeps data safe and makes your data available anytime and anywhere; in other words, you don’t need to carry your computer device to carry data you access your data on any computer with internet facility.

Cyber Crime & Cyber Security

The crime that involves and uses computer devices and Internet, is known as cybercrime.

Cybercrime can be committed against an individual or a group; it can also be committed against government and private organizations. It may be intended to harm someone’s reputation, physical harm, or even mental harm.


Cybercrime can cause direct harm or indirect harm to whoever the victim is.

However, the largest threat of cybercrime is on the financial security of an individual as well as the government.

Cybercrime causes loss of billions of USD every year.

Types of Cybercrime

Let us now discuss the major types of cybercrime −


It is an illegal practice by which a hacker breaches the computer’s security system of someone for personal interest.

Unwarranted mass-surveillance

Mass surveillance means surveillance of a substantial fraction of a group of people by the authority especially for the security purpose, but if someone does it for personal interest, it is considered as cybercrime.

Child pornography

It is one of the most heinous crimes that is brazenly practiced across the world. Children are sexually abused and videos are being made and uploaded on the Internet.

Child grooming

It is the practice of establishing an emotional connection with a child especially for the purpose of child-trafficking and child prostitution.

Copyright infringement

If someone infringes someone’s protected copyright without permission and publishes that with his own name, is known as copyright infringement.

Money laundering

Illegal possession of money by an individual or an organization is known as money laundering. It typically involves transfers of money through foreign banks and/or legitimate business. In other words, it is the practice of transforming illegitimately earned money into the legitimate financial system.


When a hacker hacks someone’s email server, or computer system and demands money to reinstate the system, it is known as cyber-extortion.


Normally, when someone hacks government’s security system or intimidates government or such a big organization to advance his political or social objectives by invading the security system through computer networks, it is known as cyber-terrorism.

Cyber Security

Cyber security is a potential activity by which information and other communication systems are protected from and/or defended against the unauthorized use or modification or exploitation or even theft.

Likewise, cyber security is a well-designed technique to protect computers, networks, different programs, personal data, etc., from unauthorized access.

Cyber Security

All sorts of data whether it is government, corporate, or personal need high security; however, some of the data, which belongs to the government defense system, banks, defense research and development organization, etc. are highly confidential and even small amount of negligence to these data may cause great damage to the whole nation. Therefore, such data need security at a very high level.

How to Secure Data?

Let us now discuss how to secure data. In order to make your security system strong, you need to pay attention to the following −

  • Security Architecture
  • Network Diagram
  • Security Assessment Procedure
  • Security Policies
  • Risk Management Policy
  • Backup and Restore Procedures
  • Disaster Recovery Plan
  • Risk Assessment Procedures

Once you have a complete blueprint of the points mentioned above, you can put better security system to your data and can also retrieve your data if something goes wrong.

E-Infrastructure in India

In today’s world, e-infrastructure is the key element for the development of a society.

E-infrastructure facilitates competent equipment and favorable resources and opportunities that are essentially needed to for the safety, security, and development of a society.


Further, e-infrastructure helps to integrate various technologies including different computer systems, internet broadband channels, computing power, data storage, data sharing, and many more.

To meet the growing challenges of globalization and also cope-up with the sustainable growth of information and communication technology, it is essentially required to integrate these systems by developing better e-infrastructure.


By understanding the growing demand and challenges, the Department of Information Technology formulated a ‘National Policy on Universal Electronic Accessibility’.

The policy was approved by the union cabinet in 2013.

The major strategies adopted in the implementation of the policy have been taken from the Press Information Bureau Government of India Cabinet October 3, 2013 −

  • Creating awareness on universal electronics accessibility and universal design.

  • Capacity building and infrastructure development.

  • Setting up of model electronics and ICTs centres for providing training and demonstration to special educators and physically as well as mentally challenged persons.

  • Conducting research and development, use of innovation, ideas, technology etc. whether indigenous or outsourced from abroad.

  • Developing programme and schemes with greater emphasis for differently abled women/children.

  • Developing procurement guidelines for electronics and ICTs for accessibility and assistive needs.


For the exclusive growth of E-infrastructure in India, the Government of India has formulated the policy on ‘Information Technology Investment Regions (ITIRs) in 2008.

As per the policy, ITIRs will be self-contained integrated township with the purpose to accelerated growth of Information Technology, Information Technology Enabled Service, and Electronic Hardware Manufacturing units.

Further, the policy has recommended to assign minimum area of 40 sq. km for ITIR. However, out of the total demarcated area, 40% should be reserved for the processing zone and the remaining area for the non-processing zone.

The processing zone will include −

  • Information Technology/Information Technology Enabled Services
  • Electronic Hardware Manufacturing Units
  • Logistics and other services and required infrastructure.

On the other hand, the non-processing area will include −

  • Residential area
  • Commercial area
  • Other social and institutional infrastructure

National Knowledge Network

In 2009, in order to create an infrastructure that can fulfil the future requirements, the concept of ‘National Knowledge Network’ (NKN) is conceptualized.

The concept of NKN is designed to Encourage, Enable, Enrich, and Empower the user community to test and implement the innovative ideas without any restrictions.

Further, the NKN will provide better −

  • Network design
  • Security requirements
  • Service requirements
  • Operational requirements

Dot Bharat

The concept of developing the domain and website in ‘Devnagri’ (native script) was launched in August 2014.

This script will cover the following Indian languages −

  • Hindi
  • Marathi
  • Boro
  • Dogri
  • Maithili
  • Sindhi
  • Gujarati

Gradually, other languages will also be covered.

Artificial Intelligence

Artificial Intelligence or simply AI is an experimental science being developed with the purpose to understand the nature of intelligent thought and subsequent action. It is presented by machines or software (computer).

In today’s context, largely, but of course not exclusively, Artificial Intelligence is related to Computer.

Therefore, study of AI also involves other disciplines including Psychology, Philosophy, Science, etc. (see the diagram given below) −

Artificial Intelligence

The conceptualization and progressive development of AI was started in 1940s; however, it was John McCarthy, a Stanford University researcher, who first coined this term.

John McCarthy is popular as the father of Artificial Intelligence.

Definition of Artificial Intelligence

Artificial Intelligence is a developmental science, and does not come with a complete definition; however, the definition given by Mr. McCarthy is still popular −

“An attempt will be made to find how to make machines use language, form abstractions and concepts, solve kinds of problems now reserved for humans, and improve themselves. We think that a significant advance can be made in one or more of these problems if a carefully selected group of scientists work on it together for a summer.”

Examples of AI

Following are a few examples of Artificial Intelligence in today’s world −

  • Voice recognition by a computer system
  • Image interpretation
  • Face recognition
  • Technology of biometrics
  • Driverless vehicles
  • Communication with machine, etc.

Applications of AI

In today’s technological world, AI is being applied in many different fields.

Application of AI Techniques in Network Intrusion Detection Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) protects computer and communication networks from intruders. Following are the major areas where Artificial Intelligence is applied −

  • Application of AI Techniques in Medical Field
  • Application of AI Techniques in Accounting Databases
  • Application of AI Techniques in the Computer Games
  • Application of AI Techniques in enhancing the human intelligence, etc.

Data Mining

Data mining is an interdisciplinary branch of computer science, which involves a complex computing process and technique to discover the patterns in huge data sets.

It is a computing process that involves various methods along with machine learning, statistics, and database systems. Data mining helps in managing large databases.


Robot is an electromechanical technology (machine), which is programmed in such a way that it can perform a series of works automatically.


A robot can perform a variety of tasks, as programmed through the computer.

Areas of AI

Following are the major areas wherein, artificial intelligence is used −

  • Understanding the language
  • Problem solving
  • Learning and adoptive system
  • Visual perception
  • Robots
  • Modeling
  • Games

Communication Technology

Communication is the exchange of information through different mediums.

It is an activity that started even before the civilization of human beings; however, over a period of time, as technology advanced, accordingly different modes of communications also developed including telecommunication and wireless communication.

Communication Technology Information

In today’s world, information and communication technology play an important role in almost every activity that we perform.

Types of Communication

Based on the advancement and mode of technology, telecommunication is categorized as −

  • Telecommunication
  • Wireless Communication

Let us now discuss each category −


Telecommunication is a technique of transmission of information from one location to another by electromagnetic means.

Different types of information can be transferred through a telecommunication system, such as voice, text, pictures, etc.

Modern Telecommunication System

The modern form of telecommunication involves computer technology and it is capable of transferring wide range of data including audio, video, textual, many other computer files.

Major components of modern telecommunication are −

  • Hardware − For example, computer system and modems.

  • Software − This controls the Computer programs.

  • Media − This is the communication outlet, wired or wireless.

  • Networking − This technology connects various computer systems.

  • Protocols − These rules govern information and communication transmission system.

Wireless Communication

Wireless communication is a technique of transmitting the information or power between two or more points, which are actually not connected with the physical wire/conductor.

The most common wireless technology uses ‘radio waves’. Microwave transmission is another technology.

Wireless Communication

The world’s first wireless telephone communication took place in 1880. This was experimented by Alexander Graham Bell and Charles Summer Tainter. Both of them together invented and patented the ‘photophone.’

Photophone was a sort of telephone, which conducted audio conversations wirelessly over modulated light beams, i.e., electromagnetic waves.

However, in the 21st century, the invention of cellular phones radically changed the concept of communication system and made available the wireless communication system even in the remote part of the country.


Modulation is one of the most significant processes through which characteristics of a carrier wave varies in accordance with an information signal.

In telecommunications, modulation is the process of transmitting a message signal inside another signal so that it can be physically transmitted. Likewise, modulation of a sine waveform transforms the narrow frequency range baseband message signal into the passband signal to pass through a filter.


Demodulation is the reverse process of modulation that change the signal and makes it understandable to the user.


A modulator is a device that performs the modulation process.


Demodulator is a device that performs reverse modulation process or inverse of modulation.


Modem is device that performs both the process i.e. modulation and demodulation.

Types of Modulation

Let us now see what the different types of modulation are −

Analog Modulation

The waves continuously vary here and transfer signals; for example, audio signal, television signal, etc.

Digital Modulation

It remains in the form of discrete pulse, i.e., ‘on’ or ‘off.’ In this technology, all forms of data are used through binary digit, i.e., series of ‘0’ and ‘1.’

Methods of Modulation

In this section, we will see the different methods of modulation −

Amplitude modulation (AM)

In this method, the strength or intensity of the signal carrier varies. This represents that the data is being added to the signal.

Types of Modulation

Frequency modulation (FM)

In this modulation, the frequency of the carrier waveform varies; this reflects the frequency of the data.

Phase modulation (PM) − It is somehow similar to FM, but not the same.

Phase Modulation

Space Science & Technology

In this chapter, we will discuss what is Space Science and how technology influences Space Science. We will focus more on the outer space, the outer space includes earth and all other planets, stars, galaxies, etc.

The outer space also contains low density of particles (largely a plasma of hydrogen and helium) and electromagnetic radiation, neutrinos, dust, cosmic rays, and magnetic fields.

Magnetic Fields

During the 20th century, human beings started the physical exploration of space with the help of high altitude balloon flights. Later, these balloon flights replaced by the advance technology, i.e., rocket, space shuttle, etc.

In 1961, the Russian scientist Yuri Gagarin attained a landmark achievement by sending an unmanned spacecraft to the outer space.

What is a Satellite?

Technically, satellite is an advanced technology (machine) launched into the space with the purpose to revolve around the earth and collected the targeted data.

Satellite has as such no specific shape; however, it has two essential parts −

  • Antenna − It sends and receives information.

  • Power source − It is either solar panel or battery that provides back up to the functionality of the satellite.


Types of Satellite

In this section, we will discuss the different types of Satellite. Depending upon the purpose, satellites can be categorized as follows −

Communication Satellite

It is designed largely for the purpose of communication. It contains the Transmitter and Responder; these instruments help in transmitting the data.

Earth Observation Satellite

This satellite helps in finding the earth’s resources, and also helps in disaster management, etc. So, it is basically a remote sensing satellite.

Navigation Satellite

Such satellite helps in navigation. So, it is basically a Global Positioning Satellite.

Weather Satellite

This satellite is exclusively designed for weather forecast. It has high resolution camera that takes picture of weather system and send.

Polar Sun-Synchronous Orbit

A Polar Sun-Synchronous Orbit, which is also known as a heliosynchronous orbit is a near polar orbit around the Earth where actually the satellite is placed.

The advantage of such orbital placement is that it has constant sunlight that ultimately helps in imaging, spying, and weather satellite.

The satellite in sun-synchronous orbit most likely ascends across the equator about twelve times a day; this happen each time at around 15:00 mean local time.

A polar sun-synchronous satellite is placed about an altitude of 600–800 km with periods in the 96-100-minute range. Such satellite remains inclined about 98.70. 90o represents a polar orbit and 0o represents an equatorial orbit.

Geosynchronous Orbits

A geosynchronous orbit has an orbital period, which matches the rotation rate of the Earth. One sidereal day is equal to 23 hours, 56 minutes, and 4 seconds.

Satellites in such orbit are typically launched in an eastward direction. To calculate the distance of a satellite in the geosynchronous orbit, the third law of Kepler is used.

Geostationary Orbit

Geostationary orbit is a specialized case of geosynchronous orbit. It is a circular geosynchronous orbit, which is inclined 0o to earth’s equatorial plane.

A satellite in a geostationary orbit always appears stationary, as it remains at the same point in the sky and observes the surface.


Astrobiology is the branch of Science that studies the origin, evolution, and diffusion of life in the Universe. This concept was first explained by the Greek philosopher Anaxagoras during the 5th century BC. Later, during the 19th century, Lord Kelvin scientifically explained this term.

All these scientists attempted to prove that the life in universe begins from microbes.


Cryogenics is the branch of natural science that studies various phenomena at very low temperatures. The literal meaning of cryogenics is – production of freezing cold.

Cryogenics has proven to be very useful for Superfluidity which is a highly beneficial property of liquid at cryogenic temperature, as it confronts the rules of surface tension and gravity.

Based on the principle of cryogenics, GSLV-D5 was successfully launched in January 2014. In GSLV-D5, cryogenic engine was used.


Biotechnology is that branch of science which gained popularity in the 1970s. This is a Science which through different biological processes exploits organisms, cells, or/and cellular components to develop new technology.

Biotechnology Processes

Biotechnology is proven to be very useful in the field of agriculture, medicine, industry, and environmental studies.

The Different Categories in Biotechnology

Let us now discuss the different categories in Bitechnology.

Red Biotechnology

This technology is used in the field of medicine to do research and develop new drugs. It makes use of stem cells to regenerate damaged human tissue.

Green Biotechnology

This technology is used in the field of agriculture to research and develop pest-resistant solutions. As part of Green Biotechnology, research activities are also done for disease-resistant animals.

White Biotechnology

This technology used in the field of industry to research and develop new chemicals or for the development of new fuels for vehicles.

Blue Biotechnology

This technology is used in the field of marine and aquatic environment to research and develop new techniques to control the proliferation of noxious water-borne organisms.

Deoxyribonucleic Acid

Deoxyribonucleic Acid or simply DNA is a micro element that specialized in carrying the genetic information in all cellular forms. As it is a natural polymer of nucleotide; therefore, it is known as polynucleotide.

Deoxyribonucleic Acid

Most of the DNA molecules consist of two biopolymer strands, which remain coiled around each other and form a double helix structure (as shown in the image given above). DNA is a storehouse of biological information.

In 1869, DNA was first isolated by Friedrich Miescher; however, the molecular structure was first identified by James Watson and Francis Crick in 1953.

Application of DNA Science in Technology

Let us now discuss the fields where the DNA Science can be applied −

Genetic Engineering

The technology is used in developing genetically modified organisms, frequently used in agriculture.

DNA Profiling

This is done by forensic scientists; they take blood sample, semen, skin, body hair, saliva, etc. to identify people based on their DNA. This comes as great help in cases such as where the criminals need to be identified or the biological parentage of a child needs to be identified.


It is a technique to store, data mine, search, and manipulate biological data. It is largely applied in Computer Science. For example, it is used in string searching algorithms, machine learning, etc.

DNA Nanotechnology

This technology is used in molecular recognition, i.e., learning the properties of DNA and other nucleic acids.


DNA technology greatly helps anthropologists to understand the evolutionary history of organisms.

Ribonucleic Acid

Ribonucleic Acid or simply RNA is a nucleic acid that helps in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes. Unlike DNA, RNA is found as a single-strand folded onto itself, rather than a paired double-strand (see the image given below – a comparative structure is shown).

Cellular organisms normally use messenger RNA, i.e., mRNA to convey genetic information.

Structure of DNA and RNA


Nanotechnology or simply ‘nanotech’ is the engineering of matter on an atomic, molecular, and supramolecular scale. The credit of propagation of the concept of nanotechnology goes to Richard Feynman, the Nobel Prize Winner.

Supramolecular Scale

In his lecture, There’s Plenty of Room at the Bottom, Richard Feynman described the feasibility of synthesis through the direct manipulation of atoms. Further, Richard Feynman has written that −

“I want to build a billion tiny factories, models of each other, which are manufacturing simultaneously. . . The principles of physics, as far as I can see, do not speak against the possibility of maneuvering things atom by atom. It is not an attempt to violate any laws; it is something, in principle, that can be done; but in practice, it has not been done because we are too big.”

However, in 1974, Norio Taniguchi first used the term ‘nanotechnology’. One nanometer, i.e., nm is equal to one billionth, or 10−9meter. Likewise, if we compare, then it is a typical carbon-carbon bond length, or the spacing between these atoms in a molecule, which is in the range 0.12–0.15 nm.

Application of Nanotechnology in Different Fields

Let us now discuss the application of Nanotechnology in different fields.

Nanotechnology is used in the following fields of Science −

  • Surface science
  • Organic chemistry
  • Molecular biology
  • Semiconductor physics
  • Microfabrication
  • Molecular engineering, etc.

Nanotechnology is also used for the following purposes −

  • Making sunscreen and cosmetics

  • Packaging of food products (Silver nanoparticles is used in food packaging)

  • In clothing

  • In disinfectants and household appliances, e.g. Silver Nano

  • In carbon nanotubes (for stain-resistant textiles)

  • In treatment of disease and prevention of health issues (Nano-medicine)

  • In various industries

  • In purification processes

  • In environmental cleaning up applications

  • In desalination of water

  • In water filtration

  • In wastewater treatment

  • In groundwater treatment

  • Also used in military goods, Nano-machining of Nano-wires, construction materials, etc.

Terms Used in Nanotechnology

In terms of applications, following are the major terms used in the Science of Nanotechnology −

  • Nano-medicine
  • Nano-biotechnology
  • Nanoart
  • Green nanotechnology
  • Industrial applications of nanotechnology
  • Energy applications of nanotechnology
  • Potential applications of carbon nanotubes

Ocean Technology

More than 70 percent of the Earth’s area is covered by water (water in Oceans) and it is a great source of energy – the next generations’ energy.

On the other hand, the resources on the land part is getting exhausted; therefore, the dependency towards oceanic resources is increased. So, in order to exploit the oceanic energy, advanced technology is being developed.

Oceanic Resources

Types of Oceanic Resources

Following are the major types of oceanic resources −

  • Placer Minerals − It includes gold, diamond, platinum, tin, etc.

  • Granular Sediments − It includes carbonate rich sand, quartz and shell.

  • Hydrothermal Minerals − It includes copper, zinc, lead, etc.

Besides these minerals, an ocean is a storehouse of many other resources such sea food, oceanic wave energy, tidal energy, etc. In order to harness these resources, advanced technology is required which is now being developed.

Energy Harnessing Technology

Following are the different energies in the oceans that require technology for harnessing −

Ocean Thermal Energy

  • With the help of technology, energy is created from the warm water of the ocean. This technology is known as Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion or simply OTEC.

  • In OTEC, the water temperature difference is used to run turbine generator that ultimately produces electricity.

  • Such energy generation technology is environmental friendly and at the same time fulfills the energy requirement.

Tidal Energy

  • The rise and fall of sea water is largely because of gravitational force of sun, moon and earth, is known as tide.

  • The difference between the low and high tide is known as tidal range.

  • Technology has been developed to convert the tidal power into electricity.

  • In India, a tidal power plant has been set up at the Gulf of Kutch region (Gujarat).

Wave Energy

Wave Energy

  • Oceanic waves carry a lot of energy with them.

  • Different technologies are being used to convert oceanic wave energy into electricity.

  • However, the oceanic wave energy cannot be converted in electric energy, as it does not have that potential, but between 400 and 600 latitudes, wave energy can be harnessed.

Current Energy

  • The consistent movement of oceanic water in a particular direction, is known as oceanic current.

  • The above map shows different types of oceanic current.

  • Not all but some oceanic current are pretty capable of producing electric energy. For example, the Gulf Stream along the east coast of the United States.

Ocean Current

Specific technologies help in taping energy from oceanic current.

Nuclear Technology

The energy released by the change in the nucleus of atoms is known as nuclear energy. The changes in the nucleus of atoms is normally caused by either nuclear fusion or nuclear fission. The technology that manipulates such changes in nucleus (nuclear reaction) of some specific elements and transform into energy is known as nuclear technology.

Nuclear Reaction

The energy released through the nuclear reaction is very high. For example, the fission of 1 kg of uranium-235 releases about 18.5 million kilowatt-hours heat.

Nuclear reactions naturally occur in chain reactions and hence keep releasing energy in continuity. In 1942, the Italian physicist Enrico Fermi first successfully produced the nuclear chain reaction.

What is Nuclear Fuel?

Nuclear fuel is the element that is used in nuclear power plants to produce heat to power the turbines.

Following are the major fuel elements −

  • Uranium dioxide
  • Plutonium
  • Uranium nitride
  • Uranium carbide
  • Pressurized water reactor
  • Boiling water reactors, etc.

Application of Nuclear Technology

Following are the areas where Nuclear Technology is applied −

  • Production of electric energy.

  • Nuclear technology is also used in different industries. For example, manufacturing of plastics and in the sterilization of disposable products.

  • Manufacturing of nuclear weapons for the defense forces of the country.

  • Medicinal use. For example, radiotherapy for the treatment of malignant tumors.

  • Frequently used in agricultural field to control pests, maximizing water resources, etc.

  • Used to reduce the environmental and health consequences of large-scale use of fossil fuels.

Advantages of Nuclear Energy Production

Following are the Advantages of Nuclear Energy Production −

  • Nuclear energy has the least impact on the environment, as it does not pollute air.

  • Nuclear plant does not require a very large area for setup.

  • Nuclear energy plant does not release greenhouse gases.

  • Once constructed and made it operative, its maintenance cost is much cheaper

Disadvantages of Nuclear Energy Production

Following are the Disadvantages of Nuclear Energy Production −

  • It is very expensive to set up a nuclear plant.

  • Different types of approvals are required including government’s approval.

  • Nuclear waste is very hazardous, as it remains radioactive for thousands of years.

  • Though it is rare, but nuclear accident is highly fatal. For example, the Chernobyl disaster (about 30 thousand people died).

Nuclear Power Around the World

Consider the following points to understand the position of Nuclear Energy around the world −

  • Nuclear energy is going to be the next super energy of the world because of its efficiency.

  • At present, not many, but about 31 countries are involved in developing nuclear energy.

  • There are about 440 nuclear reactors, which are producing energy for commercial purposes.

  • Nuclear energy provides about 14 percent of the world’s total electricity requirements.

  • The United States of America is the largest producer of nuclear energy, as it generates about one-third of world’s total and France is the second largest producer

  • In terms of percentage of share in total domestic electricity generation, France is the largest generator of nuclear energy.

  • In France, nuclear energy shares about 72 percent of the total domestic energy production.

Nuclear Energy in India

In this chapter, we will discuss Nuclear Energy in India.

Important Points About Nuclear Power in India

Consider the following points about Nuclear Power in India −

  • Nuclear power in India is the fourth-largest source of electricity after thermal, hydroelectric, and renewable sources (of electricity).

  • India has 22 nuclear reactors operating in 8 nuclear power plants.

  • The total installed capacity of nuclear power in India is 6780 MW. This produces 30,292.91 GWh of electricity.

  • 6 reactors are under construction, which are expected to produce an additional 4,300 MW electricity.

  • The nuclear power plant of Jaitapur (located in Maharashtra) is planned to start in collaboration with France. It is a 9900 MW project.

  • The nuclear power plant of Kudankulam (located in Tamil Nadu) is an Indo-Russian collaboration. It is a 2000 MW project.

  • The Apsara nuclear research reactor was India's first nuclear reactor inaugurated in 1957. This was set up with assistance from the UK.

  • India's domestic uranium reserves are limited; hence, India imports uranium from Russia.

  • Some other countries with which India has uranium supply agreements are Argentina, Mongolia, Kazakhstan, and Namibia.

  • Furthermore, in 2011, the Atomic Minerals Directorate for Exploration and Research (AMD) of India has discovered large deposits of uranium in Tummalapalle belt located in Bhima River basin in Karnataka.

  • In this region, about 44,000 tonnes of natural uranium has been discovered.

Nuclear Power Plants in Operation

The following table lists down the functional nuclear power plants −

Power Plant Location Total capacity (MW) Operator
Rawatbhata Rajasthan 1,180 NPCIL
Tarapur Maharashtra 1,400 NPCIL
Kudankulam Tamil Nadu 2,000 NPCIL
Kakrapar Gujarat 440 NPCIL
Kalpakkam Tamil Nadu 440 NPCIL
Narora Uttar Pradesh 440 NPCIL
Kaiga Karnataka 880 NPCIL

Nuclear Power Plants Under Construction

The following table lists down the nuclear power plants, which are under construction −

Power Plant Location Total capacity (MW) Operator
Rajasthan Unit 7 & 8 Rajasthan 1,400 NPCIL
Kakrapar Unit 3 & 4 Gujarat 1,400 NPCIL
Madras (Kalpakkam) Tamil Nadu 500 Bhavini
Kudankulam Tamil Nadu 2,000 NPCIL

Planned Nuclear Power Plants

The following table lists down the planned nuclear power plant projects −

Power station Location Total capacity (MW)
Jaitapur Maharashtra 9,900
Kovvada Andhra Pradesh 6,600
t.b.d. (Mithi Virdi (Viradi)) Gujarat 6,600
t.b.d. (Haripur) West Bengal 6,000
Gorakhpur Haryana 2,800
Bhimpur Madhya Pradesh 2,800
Mahi Banswara Rajasthan 2,800
Kaiga Karnataka 1,400
Chutka Madhya Pradesh 1,400
Madras Tamil Nadu 1,200
Tarapur Maharashtra 300

Nuclear Energy By Country

Globally, there are about 31 countries in which nuclear power plants are functional. However, a few countries, such as France, Slovakia, Ukraine, Belgium, and Hungary use nuclear energy as the main source for a majority of the country's electricity supply.

A group of countries including Australia, Austria, Denmark, Italy, Greece, Portugal, Ireland, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Malaysia, Malta, New Zealand, Norway, and Philippines have no nuclear power stations and they oppose such nuclear energy production.

The following table lists down the countries and the number of nuclear power plants in them −

Country Number of reactors Generated electricity (GWh) domestic generation share in %
Argentina 3 7677.36 5.60%
Armenia 1 2194.85 31.40%
Belgium 7 41430.45 51.70%
Brazil 2 14970.46 2.90%
Bulgaria 2 15083.45 35%
Canada 19 95650.19 15.60%
China Mainland 36 197829.04 3.60%
Czech Republic 6 22729.87 29.40%
Finland 4 22280.1 33.70%
France 58 386452.88 72.30%
Germany 8 80069.61 13.10%
Hungary 4 15183.01 51.30%
India 22 35006.83 3.40%
Iran 1 5923.97 2.10%
Japan 43 17537.14 2.20%
Republic of Korea 25 154306.65 30.30%
Netherlands 1 3749.81 3.40%
Mexico 2 10272.29 6.20%
Pakistan 4 5438.9 4.40%
Romania 2 10388.2 17.10%
Russia 37 184054.09 17.10%
Slovakia 4 13733.35 54.10%
Slovenia 1 5431.27 35.20%
South Africa 2 15209.47 6.60%
Spain 7 56102.44 21.40%
Sweden 10 60647.4 40.00%
Switzerland 5 20303.12 34.40%
Taiwan 6 30461.09 13.70%
Ukraine 15 76077.79 52.30%
United Kingdom 15 65148.98 20.40%
United States 100 804872.94 19.70%
World total 452 2,476 TWh 10.9%

India Nuclear Program

India’s first nuclear program started in 1967. On May 18, 1974, India conducted its first nuclear weapon test. The first fusion weapon test on May 13, 1998.

India has signed and ratified two treaties, i.e., Biological Weapons Convention and the Chemical Weapons Convention. India has also taken the membership of the Missile Technology Control Regime and is also a subscribing state to The Hague Code of Conduct.

Nuclear Weapon Test

Biological Warfare of India

Consider the following points relating to the Biological Warfare of India.

  • India is one of the ratifying members of the Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) and it also pledged to abide by its obligations.

  • India possesses the scientific and technological capability to create a biological weapon, but there is as such no plan to do so.

  • In one of the speeches, the former President Dr. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam emphasized that "India will not make biological weapons, as is cruel to human beings".

Chemical Warfare of India

Consider the following points relating to the chemical warfare of India −

  • India is capable enough to produce chemical weapons, but it chooses not to do so.

  • India has signed and ratified the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), stating that it does not intend to manufacture chemical weapons.

  • In 1997, India had stock of chemical weapons, i.e., about 1045 tonnes of Sulphur mustard, but by the end of 2006, India has destroyed more than 70 percent of its stocked chemical materials and also promised to destroy the remaining.

Nuclear-armed Ballistic Missiles

The following table lists down the major nuclear-armed ballistic missiles of India −

Name Type Maximum range (km) Status
Prithvi-I Short-range 150 Deployed
Prithvi-II Short-range 250 - 350
Prithvi-III Short-range 350 - 600
Agni-I Short to medium-range 700 - 1,250
Agni-II Medium-range 2,000 - 3,000
Agni-III Intermediate-range 3,500 - 5,000
Agni-IV Intermediate-range 4,000 Tested successfully
Agni-V Intermediate to Intercontinental-range 5,000 - 8,000
Agni-VI Submarine-launched with intercontinental-range (probable MIRV) 6,000 Under development
Agni-VI Intercontinental-range (probable MIRV) 8,000 - 12,000 Under development
Surya Submarine launched Intercontinentalrange MIRV 10,000 Yet to confirm
Surya Intercontinental-range Multiple independently targetable reentry vehicle (MIRV) 12,000 - 16,000

Sea-based Nuclear-Armed Ballistic Missiles

The following table lists down the major sea-based nuclear-armed ballistic missiles of India −

Name Type Maximum range (km) Status
Dhanush Short-range 350 Inducted
Sagarika (K-15) SLBM 700 Awaiting deployment on INS Arihant
K-4 SLBM 3,500 Tested

India Defence Technology

The responsibility of developing India’s defense technology is assigned to the DRDO, i.e., the Defence Research and Development Organization.

The Defence Research and Development Organization or DRDO was set up in 1958 and hence, it is the supreme body of researching, monitoring, regulating, and administering the India Defence Research and Development Program.

located in different cities

At present, DRDO is a network of more than 50 laboratories located in different cities of the country.

The DRDO specializes in the following fields −

  • Aeronautical Engineering
  • Electronics
  • Armaments
  • Engineering system
  • Combat vehicles
  • Missiles
  • Advanced computing and simulation
  • Life science
  • Special materials
  • Agriculture
  • Training, etc.

Missile Technology

The development of missile technology in India started in the 1960s. Consider the following point relating to Missile Technology −

  • The first successful testing of space-cum-missile technology was the Rohini-75, which was tested in 1967.

  • The research and development program of developing indigenous missiles was called the Integrated Guided Missile Development Program’.

Types of Military Missiles

Based on target and launching position, the military missiles are classified as −

  • Air-to-Air Missile − This missile is carried by an aircraft and targets the enemy’s aircraft.

  • Surface-to-Air − Such missiles are fired at enemy’s aircraft from the ground.

  • Air-to-Surface − These missiles are fired at the enemy country’s ships, tankers, vehicles, bunkers, or military men from the aircraft.

  • Surface-to-Surface − Such missiles are fired at enemy grounds from our grounds.

  • Underwater − Such missiles target enemy locations in the water.

Military Missiles

The Integrated Guided Missile Development Program

The idea of Integrated Guided Missile Development Program (IGMDP) was conceptualized by the former President and eminent scientist, Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam. The objective of this program was to enable India to attain self-sufficiency in the field of missile technology.

The missiles proposed under this program are −

  • Prithvi − It is a short-range surface-to-surface ballistic missile.

  • Trishul − It is a short-range surface-to-air missile.

  • Akash − It is a medium-range surface-to-air missile.

  • Nag − It is a third generation anti-tank missile.

Agni Series

Agni is a series of medium to intercontinental range ballistic missiles. Agni missiles are medium-to-long range, nuclear weapons capable surface to surface ballistic missile.

Agni missile

In the series of Agni missiles, the first (Agni-I) missile was developed under the Integrated Guided Missile Development Program in the 1980s and it was first tested in 1989.

The following table lists down the different Agni missiles with their features −

Name Type Range Status
Agni-I Medium-range ballistic missile 700 – 1,250 km Operational
Agni-II Medium-range ballistic missile 2,000 – 3,000 km Operational
Agni-III Intermediate-range ballistic missile 3,500 – 5,000 km Operational
Agni-IV Intermediate-range ballistic missile 3,000 – 4,000 km Operational
Agni-V Intercontinental ballistic missile 5,000 – 8,000 km Testing
Agni-VI Intercontinental ballistic missile 8,000 – 10,000 km Under development

Space Exploration - Timeline

The following table lists down the major space missions along with their timelines −

Mission Year Comment Country
WAC Corporal 1946 It was the first (US designed) rocket that reached the edge of space. USA
V-2 1946 The first pictures of the Earth were taken from an altitude of 105 km. USA
R-1 1951 First time dogs were sent to space. USSR
R-7 1957 First intercontinental Ballistic Missile (ICBM) developed. USSR
Sputnik 1 1957 First artificial satellite. USSR
Sputnik 2 1957 First animal (dog named Laika) sent to the orbit. USSR
Explorer 6 1959 First photograph of Earth taken from the orbit (by NASA). USA
Vostok I 1961 First manned flight carrying Yuri Gagarin USSR
OSO-1 1962 First orbital solar observatory (by NASA). USA
Vostok 6 1963 First woman in space (Valentina Tereshkova). USSR
Luna 10 1966 First artificial satellite around the Moon. USSR
Apollo 8 1968 First piloted orbital mission of Moon (by NASA). USA
Apollo 11 1969 First human on the Moon and first space launch from a celestial body (by NASA) - Commander Neil Armstrong and Pilot Buzz Aldrin. USA
Luna 16 1970 First automatic sample return from the Moon. USSR
Salyut 1 1971 First space station. USSR
Pioneer 10 1972 First human made object that had been sent on escape trajectory away from the Sun (by NASA). USA
Mariner 10 1974 First photograph of Venus from Space (by NASA). USA
Venera 13 1982 First Venus soil samples and sound recording of another world. USSR
STS-41-B 1984 First untethered spacewalk, Bruce McCandless II (by NASA). USA
Voyager 1 1990 First photograph of the whole Solar System (by NASA). USA
Mir 1995 First Record longest duration spaceflight (i.e. 437.7 days) set by Valeri Polyakov. Russia
HALCA 1997 First orbital radio observatory. Japan
NEAR Shoemaker 2000 First orbiting of an asteroid (433 Eros) – by NASA. USA
NEAR Shoemaker 2001 First landing on an asteroid (433 Eros) – by NASA. USA
Genesis 2004 First sample return beyond lunar orbit (solar wind)- by NASA. USA
Cassini Huygens 2005 First soft landing on Titan (Moon of Saturn).
Hayabusa 2005 First interplanetary escape without undercarriage cutoff. Japan
Stardust 2006 First sample return from comet (81P/Wild) – by NASA. USA
Kepler Mission 2009 First space telescope designated to search for Earth-like exoplanets – by NASA. USA
MESSENGER 2011 First orbit of Mercury – by NASA. USA
Voyager 1 2012 First manmade probe in interstellar space – by NASA. USA
Rosetta 2014 First man-made probe to make a planned and soft landing on a comet. European Space Agency
2015 Lettuce was the first food eaten that was grown in space. USA & Japan

Satellites Launched by India

The following table lists down the major satellites launched by India −

Mission Launching Vehicle Year Discipline
Aryabhatta Interkosmos-II 1975 Earth Sciences Space Physics
Bhaskara Sega-I Modified SS-5 1979 Astronomy, Communications, Engineering, Earth Sciences
Rohini RS-1 SLV-3-E2 1980 Earth Sciences
APPLE Ariane-1 (V-3) 1981 Communications
Bhaskara -II Modified SS-5 1981 Engineering Earth Sciences
INSAT-1A Delta 3910 PAM-D 1982 Communications
INSAT-1D Delta 4925 1990 Communications Earth Sciences
SROSS-C ASLV-D3 1992 Astronomy Earth Sciences Space Physics
IRS-P2 PSLV-D2 1994 Earth Sciences
IRS-1D PSLV-C1 1997 Earth Sciences
OceanSat-1 (IRS-P4) PSLV-C2 1999 Earth Sciences
INSAT-3B Ariane-5G 2000 Communications
GSAT-1 (GramSat-1) GSLV-D1 2001 Communications Engineering
TES PSLV-C3 2001 Earth Sciences
Kalpana-1 (MetSat-1) PSLV-C4 2002 Earth Sciences
GSAT-2 (GramSat-2) GSLV-D2 2003 Communications
ResourceSat-1 (IRS-P6) PSLV-C5 2003 Earth Sciences
GSAT-3 (EduSat) GSLV-F01 2004 Communications
CartoSat-1 PSLV-C6 2005 Earth Sciences
HamSat PSLV-C6 2005 Communications
SRE-1 PSLV-C7 2007 Engineering
IMS-1 (Indian MiniSatellite-1 or, (Third World Satellite) PSLV-C9 2008 Earth Sciences
Chandrayaan-1 PSLV-C11 2008 Planetary Sciences
RISAT-2 PSLV-C12 2009 Earth Sciences
AnuSat-1 PSLV-C12 2009 Communications
OceanSat-2 PSLV-C14 2009 Earth Sciences
StudSat (STUDent SATellite) PSLV-C15 2010 Earth Sciences
ResourceSat-2 PSLV-C16 2011 Earth Sciences Technology Applications
YouthSat (IMS-2) PSLV-C16 2011 Solar Physics Space Physics
GSAT-8 (GramSat-8, or INSAT-4G) Ariane-5 VA-202 2011 Communications
Megha-Tropiques PSLV-C18 2011 Earth Sciences
Jugnu PSLV-C18 2011 Earth Sciences Technology Applications
SRMSat PSLV-C18 2011 Earth Sciences Technology Applications
SARAL PSLV-C20 2013 Earth Sciences
IRNSS-1A PSLV-C22 2013 Navigation/Global Positioning
Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM) (Mangalyaan-1) PSLV-C25 2013 Planetary Science
IRNSS-1B PSLV-C24 2014 Navigation/Global Positioning
GSAT-16 Ariane-5 2014 Communications
Astrosat PSLV-C30 2015 Space Sciences
GSAT-15 Ariane 5 VA-227 2015 Communications
IRNSS-1E PSLV-C31 2016 Navigation/Global Positioning
SathyabamaSat PSLV-C34 2016 Technology Applications
Swayam-1 PSLV-C34 2016 Communications Technology Applications
Pratham PSLV-C35 2016 Technology Applications
INS-1A (ISRO Nano-Satellite 1A) PSLV-C37 2017 Technology Applications

Indian Space Research Organisations

The following table illustrates the major space research organizations of India −

Research Organization Location
Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre Thiruvananthapuram (Kerala)
Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre Thiruvananthapuram (Kerala) & Bengaluru (Karnataka)
Physical Research Laboratory Ahmedabad (Gujarat)
Semi-Conductor Laboratory Chandigarh
National Atmospheric Research Laboratory Tirupati (Andhra Pradesh)
Space Applications Centre Ahmedabad (Gujarat)
North-Eastern Space Applications Centre Shillong (Meghalaya)
Construction and Launching Center
ISRO Satellite Centre Bengaluru (Karnataka)
Laboratory for Electro-Optics Systems Bengaluru (Karnataka)
Satish Dhawan Space Centre Sriharikota (Andhra Pradesh)
Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station Thiruvananthapuram (Kerala)
Human Resource Development Center
Indian Institute of Remote Sensing (IIRS) Dehradun (Uttarakhand)
Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology (IIST) Thiruvananthapuram (Kerala)
Development and Educational Communication Unit Ahmedabad (Gujarat)
Tracking and Control Facilities Center
Indian Deep Space Network (IDSN) Bengaluru (Karnataka)
National Remote Sensing Centre Hyderabad (Telangana)
ISRO Telemetry, Tracking and Command Network Bengaluru (Karnataka)
Master Control Facility Bhopal (Madhya Pradesh) & Hassan (Karnataka)
Testing (Facility) Center
ISRO Propulsion Complex Mahendragiri (Tamil Nadu)
Other Centers
Balasore Rocket Launching Station (BRLS) Balasore (Odisha)
ISRO Inertial Systems Unit (IISU) Thiruvananthapuram (Kerala)
Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS) Byalalu (Karnataka)
Indian Space Science Data Center (ISSDC) Bengaluru (Karnataka)

Foreign Satellites Launched by India

The following table illustrates the major foreign satellites that launched by India −

Satellite Year Launching Vehicle Country
DLR-Tubsat 1999 PSLV-C2 Germany
Kitsat-3 1999 PSLV-C2 South Korea
BIRD 2001 PSLV-C3 Germany
PROBA 2001 PSLV –C3 Belgium
Lapan - TUBsat 2007 PSLV-C7 Indonesia
Pehuensat-1 2007 PSLV-C7 Argentina
AGILE 2007 PSLV-C8 Italy
TecSAR 2008 PSLV-C10 Israel
CAN-X2 2008 PSLV-C9 Canada
CUTE-1.7 2008 PSLV-C9 Japan
Delfi-C3 2008 PSLV-C9 Netherlands
AAUSAT-II 2008 PSLV-C9 Denmark
COMPASS-1 2008 PSLV-C9 Germany
SEEDS-2 2008 PSLV-C9 Japan
NLS-5 2008 PSLV-C9 Canada
Rubin-8 2008 PSLV-C9 Germany
UWE-2 2009 PSLV-C14 Germany
BeeSat-1 2009 PSLV-C14 Germany
ITUpSAT1 2009 PSLV-C14 Turkey
SwissCube-1 2009 PSLV-C14 Switzerland
ALSAT-2A 2010 PSLV-C15 Algeria
VESSELSAT-1 2011 PSLV-C18 Luxembourg
X-SAT 2011 PSLV-C16 Singapore
SPOT-6 2012 PSLV-C21 France
SAPPHIRE 2013 PSLV-C20 Canada
NEOSSAT 2013 PSLV-C20 Canada
STRAND-1 2013 PSLV-C20 United Kingdom
AISAT 2014 PSLV-C23 Germany
DMC3-1 2015 PSLV-C28 United Kingdom
LAPAN-A2 2015 PSLV-C30 Indonesia
Lemur-2-Peter 2015 PSLV-C30 United States
TeLEOS-1 2015 PSLV-C29 Singapore
Galassia 2015 PSLV-C29 Singapore
SkySat Gen2-1 2016 PSLV-C34 United States
12 Dove Satellites 2016 PSLV-C34 United States
Pathfinder-1 2016 PSLV-C35 United States
88 Flock-3p satellites 2017 PSLV-C37 United States
Al-Farabi-1 2017 PSLV-C37 Kazakhstan
PEASS 2017 PSLV-C37 Belgium
Pegasus(QB50 AT03) 2017 PSLV-C38 Austria
SUCHAI-1 2017 PSLV-C38 Chile
VZLUSAT-1 2017 PSLV-C38 Czech Republic
Aalto-1 2017 PSLV-C38 Finland
ROBUSTA-1B 2017 PSLV-C38 France
Max Valier 2017 PSLV-C38 Italy
Venta-1 2017 PSLV-C38 Latvia
LituanicaSAT-2 2017 PSLV-C38 Lithuania
skCUBE 2017 PSLV-C38 Slovakia
3 Diamond Satellites 2017 PSLV-C38 United Kingdom

Government Space Agencies

The following table lists down the major government space agencies of the world −

Country/Region Agency Abbreviation
United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA
Russia Russian Federal Space Agency RFSA
Russia Roscosmos State Corporation for Space Activities Roscosmos
Europe European Space Agency ESA
Japan Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency JAXA
France Centre national d'études spatiales (National Centre for Space Studies) CNES
Germany Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (German Aerospace Center) DLR
Italy Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (Italian Space Agency) ASI
China China National Space Administration CNSA
India Indian Space Research Organisation ISRO
Canada Canadian Space Agency CSA
United Kingdom UK Space Agency UKSA
South Korea Korea Aerospace Research Institute KARI
Algeria Algerian Space Agency ASA
Ukraine State Space Agency of Ukraine SSAU
Argentina Comisión Nacional de Actividades Espaciales CoNAE
Iran Iranian Space Agency and Iranian Space Research Center ISA and ISRC
Spain Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial INTA
Netherlands Netherlands Space Office NSO
Sweden Swedish National Space Board SNSB
Brazil Agência Espacial Brasileira (Brazilian Space Agency) AEB
Pakistan Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission SUPARCO
South Africa South African National Space Agency SANSA
Switzerland Swiss Space Office SSO
Mexico Agencia Espacial Mexicana (Mexican Space Agency) AEM
Belarus Belarus Space Agency BSA
Costa Rica Asociación Centroamericana de Aeronáutica yel Espacio (Central American Association for Aeronautics and Space) ACAE
International Asia-Pacific Regional Space Agency Forum APRSAF
Bahrain Bahrain’s National Space Science Agency NSSA
Venezuela Agencia Bolivariana para Actividades Espaciales (Bolivarian Agency for Space Activities) ABAE
Colombia Comisión Colombiana del Espacio (Colombian Space Commission) CCE
Singapore Centre for Remote Imaging, Sensing and Processing CRISP
Poland Polska Agencja Kosmiczna (Polish Space Agency) POLSA
United Nations United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs UNOOSA

Space agencies with human spaceflight capability

The following table lists down the different space agencies with human spaceflight capability −

Country/Region Agency Abbreviation
United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA
Russia Roscosmos State Corporation for Space Activities Roscosmos
China China National Space Administration CNSA


The following table illustrates the major research centers of the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) −

Laboratory Name Area of Research Location
Aerial Delivery Research & Development Establishment (ADRDE) Parachutes & Aerial Systems Agra
Vehicles Research & Development Establishment (VRDE) Wheeled Vehicles Ahmednagar
Naval Materials Research Laboratory (NMRL) Naval Materials Ambernath
Integrated Test Range (ITR) Missile Testing Balasore
Proof and Experimental Establishment (PXE) Armament Testing Balasore
Aeronautical Development Establishment (ADE) Aeronautics Bengaluru
Centre for Air Borne System (CABS) Air-Borne Systems Bengaluru
Centre for Artificial Intelligence & Robotics (CAIR) Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Bengaluru
Defence Avionics Research Establishment (DARE) Avionics Bengaluru
Defence Bio-engineering & Electromedical Laboratory (DEBEL) Bio-engineering Bengaluru
Gas Turbine Research Establishment (GTRE) Gas Turbine Bengaluru
Electronics & Radar Development Establishment (LRDE) Radars Bengaluru
Microwave Tube Research & Development Centre (MTRDC) Microwave Devices Bengaluru
Snow and Avalanche Study Establishment (SASE) Snow and Avalanche Chandigarh
Terminal Ballistics Research Laboratory (TBRL) Ballistics Chandigarh
Combat Vehicles Research & Development Establishment (CVRDE) Combat Vehicles Chennai
Defence Electronics Applications Laboratory (DEAL) Electronics & Communication Systems Dehradun
Instruments Research & Development Establishment (IRDE) Electronics & Optical Systems Dehradun
Centre for Fire, Explosives & Environment Safety (CFEES) Explosives Delhi
Defence Institute of Physiology & Allied Sciences (DIPAS) Physiology Delhi
Defence Institute of Psychological Research (DIPR) Psychological Research Delhi
Defence Terrain Research Laboratory (DTRL) Terrain Research Delhi
Institute of Nuclear Medicines & Allied Sciences (INMAS) Nuclear Medicine Delhi
Joint Cipher Bureau (JCB) Cipher Systems Delhi
Laser Science & Technology Centre (LASTEC) Laser Technology Delhi
Scientific Analysis Group (SAG) Cryptology Delhi
Solid State Physics Laboratory (SSPL) Solid- State/ Semiconductor Materials Delhi
Defence Research & Development Establishment (DRDE) Chemical & Biological Warfare Gwalior
Defence Institute of Bio-Energy Research (DIBER) Bio-Energy Haldwani
Advanced Numerical Research & Analysis Group (ANURAG) Computational System Hyderabad
Advanced Systems Laboratory (ASL) Missiles & Strategic Systems Hyderabad
Centre for High Energy Systems and Sciences (CHESS) High Energy Weapons Hyderabad
Defence Electronics Research Laboratory (DLRL) Electronic Warfare Hyderabad
Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory (DMRL) Metallurgy Hyderabad
Defence Research & Development Laboratory (DRDL) Missile & Strategic Systems Hyderabad
Research Centre Imarat (RCI) Missile & Strategic Systems Hyderabad
Defence Laboratory (DL) Camouflaging and Isotopes Jodhpur
Defence Materials & Stores Research & Development Establishment (DMSRDE) Textiles, Polymers & Composites Kanpur
Naval Physical & Oceanographic Laboratory (NPOL) Sonar Systems Kochi
Defence Institute of High Altitude Research (DIHAR) High Altitude Agroanimal Research Leh
Defence Food Research Laboratory (DFRL) Food Research Mysore
Armaments Research & Development Establishment (ARDE) Armaments Pune
High Energy Materials Research Laboratory (HEMRL) High Energy Materials Pune
Research & Development Establishment (Engrs) (R&DE[E]) Engineering Systems & Weapon Platforms Pune
Defence Research Laboratory (DRL) Health & Hygiene Tezpur
Naval Science & Technological Laboratory (NSTL) Underwater Weapons Visakhapatnam