Depth First Traversal in C


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We shall not see the implementation of Depth First Traversal (or Depth First Search) in C programming language. For our reference purpose, we shall follow our example and take this as our graph model −

Depth First Search

Implementation in C

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <stdbool.h>

#define MAX 5

struct Vertex {
   char label;
   bool visited;
};

//stack variables

int stack[MAX]; 
int top = -1; 

//graph variables

//array of vertices
struct Vertex* lstVertices[MAX];

//adjacency matrix
int adjMatrix[MAX][MAX];

//vertex count
int vertexCount = 0;

//stack functions

void push(int item) { 
   stack[++top] = item; 
} 

int pop() { 
   return stack[top--]; 
} 

int peek() {
   return stack[top];
}

bool isStackEmpty() {
   return top == -1;
}

//graph functions

//add vertex to the vertex list
void addVertex(char label) {
   struct Vertex* vertex = (struct Vertex*) malloc(sizeof(struct Vertex));
   vertex->label = label;  
   vertex->visited = false;     
   lstVertices[vertexCount++] = vertex;
}

//add edge to edge array
void addEdge(int start,int end) {
   adjMatrix[start][end] = 1;
   adjMatrix[end][start] = 1;
}

//display the vertex
void displayVertex(int vertexIndex) {
   printf("%c ",lstVertices[vertexIndex]->label);
}       

//get the adjacent unvisited vertex
int getAdjUnvisitedVertex(int vertexIndex) {
   int i;

   for(i = 0; i < vertexCount; i++) {
      if(adjMatrix[vertexIndex][i] == 1 && lstVertices[i]->visited == false) {
         return i;
      }
   }

   return -1;
}

void depthFirstSearch() {
   int i;

   //mark first node as visited
   lstVertices[0]->visited = true;

   //display the vertex
   displayVertex(0);   

   //push vertex index in stack
   push(0);

   while(!isStackEmpty()) {
      //get the unvisited vertex of vertex which is at top of the stack
      int unvisitedVertex = getAdjUnvisitedVertex(peek());

      //no adjacent vertex found
      if(unvisitedVertex == -1) {
         pop();
      } else {
         lstVertices[unvisitedVertex]->visited = true;
         displayVertex(unvisitedVertex);
         push(unvisitedVertex);
      }
   }

   //stack is empty, search is complete, reset the visited flag        
   for(i = 0;i < vertexCount;i++) {
      lstVertices[i]->visited = false;
   }        
}

int main() {
   int i, j;

   for(i = 0; i < MAX; i++)    // set adjacency {
      for(j = 0; j < MAX; j++) // matrix to 0
         adjMatrix[i][j] = 0;
   }

   addVertex('S');   // 0
   addVertex('A');   // 1
   addVertex('B');   // 2
   addVertex('C');   // 3
   addVertex('D');   // 4

   addEdge(0, 1);    // S - A
   addEdge(0, 2);    // S - B
   addEdge(0, 3);    // S - C
   addEdge(1, 4);    // A - D
   addEdge(2, 4);    // B - D
   addEdge(3, 4);    // C - D

   printf("Depth First Search: ")
   depthFirstSearch(); 

   return 0;   
}

If we compile and run the above program, it will produce the following result −

Output

Depth First Search: S A D B C

depth_first_traversal.htm

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