Nobel Prize in Biology


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Introduction

Gerty Cori

  • Cori, a Czech-American biochemist, was the first woman to be awarded the Prize in Physiology or Medicine.

  • She received the prize in 1947.

  • She was the third woman and first American woman who won a Nobel Prize in science.

Gerty Theresa Cori
  • She received the award for her work namely “the mechanism by which glycogen—a derivative of glucose—is broken down in muscle tissue into lactic acid and then resynthesized in the body and stored as a source of energy (known as the Cori cycle).”

  • The following table illustrates some of the eminent Nobel Prize winners −

Name Country/Year Work
Emil Adolf von Behring Germany (1901) Serum therapy
Sir Ronald Ross UK (1902) Worked on malaria
Ivan Petrovich Pavlov Russia (1904) Physiology of digestion
Albrecht Kossel Germany (1910) Cell Chemistry
Allvar Gullstrand Sweden (1911) Dioptrics of the eye
Alexis Carrel France (1912) Vascular suture and the transplantation of blood vessels and organs
Archibald Vivian Hill UK (1922) Production of heat in the muscle
Sir Frederick Grant Banting & John James Rickard Macleod Canada & UK (1923) Discovery of insulin
Karl Landsteiner Austria (1930) Discovery of human blood groups
Thomas Hunt Morgan US (1933) Role played by the chromosome in heredity
Carl Peter Henrik Dam Denmark (1943) Discovery of vitamin K
Sir Alexander Fleming UK (1945) Discovery of penicillin and its curative effect in various infectious diseases
Sir Ernst Boris Chain UK (1945)
Howard Walter Florey Austria (1945)
Carl Ferdinand Cori US (1947) Discovery of the course of the catalytic conversion of glycogen
Gerty Theresa Cori, née Radnitz
Max Theiler South Africa (1951) Yellow fever
Selman Abraham Waksman US (1952) Discovery of streptomycin, the first antibiotic effective against tuberculosis
Joshua Lederberg US (1958) Genetic recombination
Peyton Rous US (1966) Discovery of tumor-inducing viruses
Charles Brenton Huggins US (1966) Hormonal treatment of prostatic cancer
Har Gobind Khorana India & US (1968) Interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis
Marshall W. Nirenberg US (1968)
Robert W. Holley US (1968)
Albert Claude Belgium (1974) Structural and functional organization of the cell
Christian de Duve
George E. Palade Romania (1974)
Baruch S. Blumberg US (1976) Origin and dissemination of infectious diseases
D. Carleton Gajdusek
Michael S. Brown US (1985) Regulation of cholesterol metabolism
Joseph L. Goldstein
Sir Richard J. Roberts UK (1993) Discovery of split genes
Phillip A. Sharp US (1993)
Paul Lauterbur US (2003) Magnetic resonance imaging
Sir Peter Mansfield UK (2003)
Andrew Z. Fire US (2006) Discovery of RNA interference
Craig C. Mello
Harald zur Hausen Germany (2008) Human papilloma viruses causing cervical cancer
Françoise Barré-Sinoussi France (2008) Discovery of human immunodeficiency virus
Luc Montagnier
Sir Robert G. Edwards UK (2010) Development of in vitro fertilization
Tu Youyou China (2015) Discovery of a novel therapy against Malaria
Yoshinori Ohsumi Japan (2016) Mechanisms for autophagy


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