Biology - Minerals


  • Mineral is a chemical element essentially required as nutrient for the proper functioning of the body and healthy life.

  • Minerals cannot be made by living organisms, rather it occurs in the Earth naturally.

  • Most of the minerals that required for the proper function of a human life come from green plants, animals, and from drinking water.

  • Calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, and magnesium are the five major minerals in the human body.

  • Minerals are present in the blood of a healthy human being at certain mass.

Major Minerals

  • The following table illustrates the list of major minerals along with their salient features −

Minerals Deficiency disease Sources
Potassium Hypokalemia Sweet potato, potato, tomato, lentils, banana, carrot, orange, etc.
Chlorine Hypochloremia Table salt
Sodium Hyponatremia Table salt, sea vegetable, milk, etc.
Calcium Hypocalcaemia Eggs, canned fish, dairy products, nuts, etc.
Phosphorus Hypophosphatemia Red meat, fish, bread, dairy products, rice, oats, etc.
Magnesium Hypomagnesemia Legumes, nuts, seeds, spinach, peanut butter, etc.
Iron Anaemia Meat, seafood, beans, nuts, etc.
Zinc Hair loss, diarrhea Red meat, nuts, dairy products, etc.
Manganese Osteoporosis Grains, nuts, leafy vegetables, legumes, seeds, tea, coffee
Copper Copper deficiency Seafood, oysters, nuts, seeds
Iodine Goitre Grains, eggs, iodized salt
Chromium Chromium deficiency Broccoli, grape juice, meat, etc.
Molybdenum Molybdenum deficiency Legumes, whole grains, nuts
Selenium Selenium deficiency Brazil nuts, meat, seafoods, grains, dairy products, etc.