Biology - The Roots


  • Root is the most essential part of a plant that grows down to the soil and water.

  • Root avoid the sunlight, as it grows down to soil and water, and absorbs mineral salt and water from the soil.

  • However, some typical roots are also aerial or aerating, that grow up above the ground or especially above the water.

  • Roots do not have leaves, buds, and nodes.

Functions of the Roots

  • The roots absorb mineral salts and water from the soil then supply them to other parts of the plants.

  • Roots provide foundation to plants and keep them static.

  • Some roots absorb foods for the contingency period; e.g. radish, carrot, etc.

Types of Roots

  • Primarily, roots are classified as −

    • Tap Root

    • Fibrous Root

    • Adventitious Root

    • Let’s discuss them in brief −

Tap Root

  • There is a main root (see the image given below) that grows faster and it has many branches. Usually, it occurs in dicotyledon plants.


Fibrous Roots

  • There is as such no primary root rather there are numerous roots of similar shape, thickness, and size.

Fibrous Root
  • It is typical feature of monocots (plant).

Adventitious Root

  • A typical root that grows from any part of a plant except the primary root part.

Adventitious Root
  • Adventitious root may be underground or may aerial.

Modified Taproots

  • The following table illustrates some typical examples of modified taproots −

Taproots Examples
Conical shape Carrot
Napiform Beet root
Fusiform Radish
Pneumatophores Sundari plants
Pneumatophores Sundari plants

Modified Adventitious Roots

  • The following table illustrates some typical examples of modified adventitious roots −

Adventitious Roots Examples
Aerial root Orcede
Parasitic root Kascutta
Moniliform root Grapes
Prop root Banyan tree
Stilt root Sugarcane, maize, etc.
  • Note − Tuber is a stem that grow horizontally under the soil and develop roots on their lower surfaces. Major function of this swollen stem is to store food and nutrients. E.g. potato, onion, etc.